:"Voortrekkers can also refer to a youth organization, see:
Voortrekkers (youth organization)."
The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans and Dutch for "pioneers", literally "those who trek ahead") were emigrants during the 1830s and 1840s who left the
Cape Colony(British at the time, but founded by the Dutch) moving into the interior of what is now South Africa. The Great Trekconsisted of a number of mass movements under a number of different leaders including Louis Trichardt, Hendrik Potgieter, Sarel Cilliers, Pieter Uys, Gerrit Maritz, Pieter Retief, and Andries Pretorius.
The Voortrekkers mainly came from the farming community of the
Eastern Capealthough some (such as Piet Retief) originally came from the Western Capefarming community while others (such as Gerrit Maritz) were successful tradesmen in the frontier towns. Some of them were wealthy men though most were not as they were from the poorer communities of the frontier. It was recorded that the 33 Voortrekker families at the battle of Vegkoplost 100 horses, between 4000 and 7000 cattle, and between 40000 and 50000 sheep. (These figures appear greatly exaggerated). Other members of the trekking parties were of Trekboerstock who came from a life of semi-nomadic herding; yet others were employees, many of whom had been slaves only a few years earlier.
The reasons for the mass emigration from the
Cape Colonyhave been much discussed over the years. Afrikaner historiography has emphasized the hardships endured by the frontier farmers which have they blamed on British policies of pacifying the Xhosatribes. Other historians have emphasized the harshness of the life in the Eastern Cape (which suffered one of its regular periods of drought in the early 1830s) compared to the attractions of the fertile country of Natal, the Orange Free Stateand the Transvaal. Growing land shortages has also been cited as a contributing factor. The true reasons were obviously very complex and certainly consisted of both "push" factors (including the general dissatisfaction of life under British rule) and "pull" factors (including the desire for a better life in better country.)
The Voortrekkers were mainly of
Trekboer(migrating farmer) descent living in the eastern frontiers of the Cape. Hence, their ancestors had long established a semi-nomadic existence of trekking into expanding frontiers. A contingent of Voortrekkers migrated into Natal and negotiated a land treaty with the Zulu King Dingane. Upon reconsideration, Dingaan doublecrossed the Voortrekkers, killing their leader Piet Retiefalong with half of the Voortrekker settlers who had followed them to Natal. Other Voortrekkers migrated north to the Waterbergarea, where some of them settled and began ranchingoperations, which activities enhanced the pressure placed on indigenous wildlife by pre-existing tribesmen, whose Bantu predecessors initiated such grazing in the Waterberg region around 450 AD. These Voortrekkers arriving in the Waterberg area had believed they were in the Nile Riverarea of Egyptbased upon their understanding of the local topography. (Taylor, 2003)(Lumina, 2006) Andries Pretoriusfilled the leadership vacuum hoping to enter into negotiations for peace if Dingaan would restore the land he had granted to Retief. When Dingaan sent around twelve thousand Zulu warriors (impis) to attack the local contingent of Voortrekkers in response, the Voortrekkers defended themselves at a battle at Nacome River(called the Battle of Blood River) on 16 December 1838where the vastly outnumbered Voortrekker contingent defeated the Zulu impis (warriors). This date has hence been known as the " Day of the Vow" as the Voortrekkers made a vow to God that they would honor the date if He were to deliver them from what they viewed as almost insurmountable odds. The victory of the besieged Voortrekkers at Nacome River was considered a turning point. The Natalia Republicwas set up in 1839 but was annexed by Britain in 1843 whereupon most of the local Boers trekked north joining other Voortrekkers who had established themselves in the region.
Armed conflict, first with the Ndebele under
Mzilikazi, then against the Zulus under Dingane, went the Voortrekkers' way, mostly because of the technological superiority of their muzzle-loading rifles. This success led to the establishment of a number of small Boer republics, which slowly coalesced into the Orange Free Stateand the South African Republic. These two states would survive until their annexation in 1900 by Britain during the Second Boer War.
The Voortrekkers are commemorated by the
Voortrekker Monumentlocated on Monument Hill overlooking Pretoria, the erstwhile capital of the South African Republicand the current and historic administrative capital of the Republic of South Africa. Pretoria was named after the Voortrekker leader Andries Pretorius.
The Voortrekkers had a distinctive flag, used mainly by the Voortrekkers who followed Hendrik Potgieter, which is why it was also known as the Potgieter Flag. This flag was used as the flag of the Zoutpansberg Republic until this republic was incorporated into the Transvaal Republic also known as the South African Republic. A version of this flag was used at
Potchefstroom, one of the first independent Boer towns and republics established by local Voortrekkers.
Battle of Blood River
* William Taylor, Gerald Hinde and David Holt-Biddle, "The Waterberg", Struik Publishers, Capetown, South Africa (2003) ISBN 1-86872-822-6
* Lumina Tech, C.Michael Hogan, Mark L. Cooke and Helen Murray, "The Waterberg Biosphere", Lumina Technologies, May 22, 2006. [http://www.luminatechnologies.org/lumaw.html
* [http://www.southafrica-travel.net/north/a1pret04.htm The Voortrekker Monument.]
* [http://www.voortrekkermon.org.za/VTMEnglish/E01.01_history.htm History of the Voortrekker monument (in English)]
* [http://www.voortrekkermon.org.za/VTMAfrikaans/A01.01_geskiedenis.htm History of the Voortrekker monument (in Afrikaans)]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/istudio/03pretoria/research/THE_VOORTEKKER.htm Voortrekker Monument in Depth.]
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