List of ecoregions (WWF)


List of ecoregions (WWF)

This is a list of ecoregions as compiled by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF). The WWF identifies terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecoregions.

The terrestrial scheme divides the Earth's land surface into 8 terrestrial ecozones, containing 867 smaller ecoregions. Each ecoregion is classified into one of 14 major habitat types, or biomes.

Freshwater ecoregions and marine ecoregions are also classified by geographic region and by habitat type.

The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme for marine ecoregions groups the individual ecoregions into 12 marine realms, which represent the broad latitudinal divisions of polar, temperate, and tropical seas, with subdivisions based on ocean basins. The marine realms are subdivided into 62 marine provinces, which include one or more of the 232 marine ecoregions. The WWF/Nature Conservancy scheme currently encompasses only coastal and continental shelf areas; ecoregions of the deep oceans have not yet been delineated.

Many consider this classification to be quite decisive, and some propose these as stable borders for bioregional democracy initiatives.

The WWF has also designated the Global 200, a list of priority ecoregions for conservation. Many of the Global 200's terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecoregions are composites of two or more individual ecoregions. For the list of Global 200 ecoregions, see Global 200.

Terrestrial

Afrotropic

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

* Albertine Rift montane forests (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda)
* Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon)
*Cameroonian Highlands forests (Cameroon, Nigeria)
*Central Congolian lowland forests (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
*Comoros forests (Comoros)
*Cross-Niger transition forests (Nigeria)
*Cross-Sanaga-Bioko coastal forests (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria)
*East African montane forests (Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania)
*Eastern Arc forests (Kenya, Tanzania)
*Eastern Congolian swamp forests (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
*Eastern Guinean forests (Benin, Ghana, Côte d'Ivoire, Togo)
*Ethiopian montane forests (Ethiopia)
*Granitic Seychelles forests (Seychelles)
*Guinean montane forests (Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone)
*Knysna-Amatole montane forests (South Africa)
*KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic (South Africa)
*Madagascar lowland forests (Madagascar)
*Madagascar subhumid forests (Madagascar)
*Maputaland coastal forest mosaic (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa)
*Mascarene forests (Mauritius, Réunion)
*Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea)
*Niger Delta swamp forests (Nigeria)
*Nigerian lowland forests (Benin, Nigeria)
*Northeastern Congolian lowland forests (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo)
*Northern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic (Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania)
*Northwestern Congolian lowland forests (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo)
*São Tomé and Príncipe moist lowland forests (São Tomé and Príncipe)
*Southern Zanzibar-Inhambane coastal forest mosaic (Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania)
*Western Congolian swamp forests (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo)
*Western Guinean lowland forests (Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone)

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

*Cape Verde Islands dry forests (Cape Verde)
*Madagascar dry deciduous forests (Madagascar)
*Zambezian Cryptosepalum dry forests (Zambia, Angola)

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

* Angolan Miombo woodlands (Angola)
* Angolan Mopane woodlands (Angola, Namibia)
* Ascension scrub and grasslands (Ascension Island)
* Central Zambezian Miombo woodlands (Angola, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia)
* East Sudanian savanna (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan, Uganda)
* Eastern Miombo woodlands (Mozambique, Tanzania)
* Guinean forest-savanna mosaic (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo)
* Itigi-Sumbu thicket (Tanzania, Zambia)
* Kalahari Acacia-Baikiaea woodlands (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe)
* Mandara Plateau mosaic (Cameroon, Nigeria)
*Northern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets (Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda)
*Northern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, Uganda)
*Sahelian Acacia savanna (Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan)
*Serengeti volcanic grasslands (Tanzania)
*Somali Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan)
*Southern Acacia-Commiphora bushlands and thickets (Kenya, Tanzania)
*Southern Africa bushveld (Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe)
*Southern Congolian forest-savanna mosaic (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo)
*Southern Miombo woodlands (Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe)
*Saint Helena scrub and woodlands (Saint Helena)
*Victoria Basin forest-savanna mosaic (Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda)
*West Sudanian savanna (Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal)
*Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo)
*Western Zambezian grasslands (Angola, Zambia)
*Zambezian and Mopane woodlands (Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe)
*Zambezian Baikiaea woodlands (Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe)

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

* Al Hajar Al Gharbi montane woodlands (Oman)
* Amsterdam and Saint-Paul Islands temperate grasslands (Amsterdam Island, Saint-Paul Island)
* Tristan da Cunha-Gough Islands shrub and grasslands (Tristan da Cunha, Gough Island)

Flooded grasslands and savannas

* East African halophytics (Kenya, Tanzania)
*Etosha Pan halophytics (Namibia)
*Inner Niger Delta flooded savanna (Mali)
*Lake Chad flooded savanna (Cameroon, Chad, Nigeria)
*Saharan flooded grasslands (Sudan)
*Zambezian coastal flooded savanna (Mozambique)
*Zambezian flooded grasslands (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Mozambique,Tanzania, Zambia)
*Zambezian halophytics (Botswana)

Montane grasslands and shrublands

*Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaic (Angola)
*Angolan scarp savanna and woodlands (Angola)
*Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlands (Lesotho, South Africa)
*Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests (Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland)
*East African montane moorlands (Kenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda)
*Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaic (Mozambique, Zimbabwe)
*Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlands (Ethiopia)
*Ethiopian montane moorlands (Ethiopia)
*Highveld grasslands (Lesotho, South Africa)
*Jos Plateau forest-grassland mosaic (Nigeria)
*Madagascar ericoid thickets (Madagascar)
*Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets (Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland)
*Ruwenzori-Virunga montane moorlands (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Uganda)
*South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaic (Malawi, Mozambique)
*Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaic (Malawi, Tanzania)

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

*Albany thickets (South Africa)
*Lowland fynbos and renosterveld (South Africa)
*Montane fynbos and renosterveld (South Africa)

Deserts and xeric shrublands

*Aldabra Island xeric scrub (Seychelles)
*Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen)
*East Saharan montane xeric woodlands (Chad, Sudan)
*Eritrean coastal desert (Djibouti, Eritrea)
*Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan)
*Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert (Oman, United Arab Emirates)
*Hobyo grasslands and shrublands (Somalia)
*Ile Europa and Bassas da India xeric scrub (Bassas da India, Europa)
*Kalahari xeric savanna Botswana, Namibia, South Africa)
*Kaokoveld desert (Angola, Namibia)
*Madagascar spiny thickets (Madagascar)
*Madagascar succulent woodlands (Madagascar)
*Masai xeric grasslands and shrublands (Ethiopia, Kenya)
*Nama Karoo (Namibia, South Africa)
*Namib desert (Namibia)
*Namibian savanna woodlands (Namibia)
*Red Sea coastal desert (Egypt, Sudan)
*Socotra Island xeric shrublands (Yemen)
*Somali montane xeric woodlands (Somalia)
*Southwestern Arabian foothills savanna (Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen)
*Southwestern Arabian montane woodlands (Saudi Arabia, Yemen)
*Succulent Karoo (South Africa)

Mangrove

* Central African mangroves (Angola, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Nigeria)
* East African mangroves (Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania)
* Guinean mangroves (Senegal, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire)
* Madagascar mangroves (Madagascar)
* Southern Africa mangroves (Mozambique, South Africa)

Antarctica

Tundra

*Marielandia Antarctic tundra (includes the Antarctic Peninsula)
*Maudlandia Antarctic desert (eastern Antarctica)
*Scotia Sea Islands tundra (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Shetland Islands, Bouvet Island)
*Southern Indian Ocean Islands tundra (Crozet Islands, Prince Edward Islands, Heard Island, Kerguelen Islands, McDonald Islands)


=Australasia=

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

*Admiralty Islands lowland rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*Banda Sea Islands moist deciduous forests (Indonesia)
*Biak-Numfoor rain forests (Indonesia)
*Buru rain forests (Indonesia)
*Central Range montane rain forests (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Halmahera rain forests (Indonesia)
*Huon Peninsula montane rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*Japen rain forests (Indonesia)
*Lord Howe Island subtropical forests (Australia)
*Louisiade Archipelago rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*New Britain-New Ireland lowland rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*New Britain-New Ireland montane rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*New Caledonia rain forests (New Caledonia)
*Norfolk Island subtropical forests (Australia)
*Northern New Guinea lowland rain and freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Northern New Guinea montane rain forests (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Queensland tropical rain forests (Australia)
*Seram rain forests (Indonesia)
*Solomon Islands rain forests (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands)
*Southeastern Papuan rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*Southern New Guinea freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Southern New Guinea lowland rain forests (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Sulawesi lowland rain forests (Indonesia)
*Sulawesi montane rain forests (Indonesia)
*Trobriand Islands rain forests (Papua New Guinea)
*Vanuatu rain forests (Solomon Islands, Vanuatu)
*Vogelkop montane rain forests (Indonesia)
*Vogelkop-Aru lowland rain forests (Indonesia)

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

* Lesser Sundas deciduous forests (Indonesia)
* New Caledonia dry forests (New Caledonia)
* Sumba deciduous forests (Indonesia)
* Timor and Wetar deciduous forests (Indonesia)

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

*Chatham Islands temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Eastern Australian temperate forests (Australia)
*Fiordland temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Nelson Coast temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Northland temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Northland temperate kauri forests (New Zealand)
*Rakiura Island temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Richmond temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Southeast Australia temperate forests (Australia)
*Southland temperate forests (New Zealand)
*Tasmanian Central Highland forests (Australia)
*Tasmanian temperate forests (Australia)
*Tasmanian temperate rain forests (Australia)
*Westland temperate forests (New Zealand)

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*Arnhem Land tropical savanna (Australia)
*Brigalow tropical savanna (Australia)
*Cape York tropical savanna (Australia)
*Carpentaria tropical savanna (Australia)
*Einasleigh upland savanna (Australia)
*Kimberly tropical savanna (Australia)
*Mitchell grass downs (Australia)
*Trans Fly savanna and grasslands (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Victoria Plains tropical savanna (Australia)

Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands

*Canterbury-Otago tussock grasslands (New Zealand)
*Eastern Australia mulga shrublands (Australia)
*Southeast Australia temperate savanna (Australia)

Montane grasslands and shrublands

*Australian Alps montane grasslands (Australia)
*Central Range sub-alpine grasslands (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
*Southland montane grasslands (New Zealand)

Tundra

*Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra (Australia, New Zealand)

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

*Coolgardie woodlands (Australia)
*Esperance mallee (Australia)
*Eyre and York mallee (Australia)
*Jarrah-Karri forest and shrublands (Australia)
*Kwongan heathlands (Australia)
*Mount Lofty woodlands (Australia)
*Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee (Australia)
*Naracoorte woodlands (Australia)
*Southwest Australia savanna (Australia)
*Southwest Australia woodlands (Australia)

Deserts and xeric shrublands

*Carnarvon xeric shrublands (Australia)
*Central Ranges xeric scrub (Australia)
*Gibson Desert (Australia)
*Great Sandy-Tanami Desert (Australia)
*Great Victoria Desert (Australia)
*Nullarbor Plain xeric shrublands (Australia)
*Pilbara shrublands (Australia)
*Simpson Desert (Australia)
*Tirari-Stuart stony desert (Australia)
*Western Australian mulga shrublands (Australia)

Mangrove

*New Guinea mangroves (Indonesia)

Indomalaya

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

*Andaman Islands rain forests (India)
*Borneo lowland rain forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
*Borneo montane rain forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
*Borneo peat swamp forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
*Brahmaputra Valley semi-evergreen forests (India)
*Cardamom Mountains rain forests (Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam)
*Chao Phraya freshwater swamp forests (Thailand)
*Chao Phraya lowland moist deciduous forests (Thailand)
*Chin Hills-Arakan Yoma montane forests (India, Myanmar)
*Christmas and Cocos Islands tropical forests (Australia)
*Eastern highlands moist deciduous forests (India)
*Eastern Java-Bali montane rain forests (Indonesia)
*Eastern Java-Bali rain forests (Indonesia)
*Greater Negros-Panay rain forests (Philippines)
*Hainan Island monsoon rain forests (China)
*Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests (Bhutan, India,Pakistan , Nepal)
*Irrawaddy freshwater swamp forests (Myanmar)
*Irrawaddy moist deciduous forests (Myanmar)
*Jian Nan subtropical evergreen forests (China)
*Kayah-Karen montane rain forests (Myanmar, Thailand)
*Lower Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests (Bangladesh, India)
*Luang Prabang montane rain forests (Laos)
*Luzon montane rain forests (Philippines)
*Luzon rain forests (Philippines)
*Malabar Coast moist forests (India)
*Maldives-Lakshadweep-Chagos Archipelago tropical moist forests (British Indian Ocean Territory, India, Maldives)
*Meghalaya subtropical forests (India)
*Mentawai Islands rain forests (Indonesia)
*Mindanao montane rain forests (Philippines)
*Mindanao-Eastern Visayas rain forests (Philippines)
*Mindoro rain forests (Philippines)
*Mizoram-Manipur-Kachin rain forests (Bangladesh, India, Myanmar)
*Myanmar coastal rain forests (Myanmar)
*Nansei Islands subtropical evergreen forests (Japan)
*Nicobar Islands rain forests (India)
*North Western Ghats moist deciduous forests (India)
*North Western Ghats montane rain forests (India)
*Northern Annamites rain forests (Laos, Vietnam)
*Northern Indochina subtropical forests (China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)
*Northern Khorat Plateau moist deciduous forests (Laos, Thailand)
*Northern Thailand-Laos moist deciduous forests (Laos, Thailand)
*Northern Triangle subtropical forests (Myanmar)
*Northern Vietnam lowland rain forests (Vietnam)
*Orissa semi-evergreen forests (India)
*Palawan rain forests (Philippines)
*Peninsular Malaysian montane rain forests (Malaysia, Thailand)
*Peninsular Malaysian peat swamp forests (Malaysia, Thailand)
*Peninsular Malaysian rain forests (Indonesia, Malaysia)
*Red River freshwater swamp forests (Vietnam)
*South China Sea Islands (disputed between China, Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam)
*South China-Vietnam subtropical evergreen forests (China, Vietnam)
*South Taiwan monsoon rain forests (Taiwan)
*South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests (India)
*South Western Ghats montane rain forests (India)
*Southern Annamites montane rain forests (Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam)
*Southwest Borneo freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia)
*Sri Lanka lowland rain forests (Sri Lanka)
*Sri Lanka montane rain forests (Sri Lanka)
*Sulu Archipelago rain forests (Philippines)
*Sumatran freshwater swamp forests (Indonesia)
*Sumatran lowland rain forests (Indonesia)
*Sumatran montane rain forests (Indonesia)
*Sumatran peat swamp forests (Indonesia)
*Sundaland heath forests (Indonesia)
*Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests (Bangladesh, India)
*Taiwan subtropical evergreen forests (Taiwan)
*Tenasserim-South Thailand semi-evergreen rain forests (Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)
*Tonle Sap freshwater swamp forests (Cambodia, Vietnam)
*Tonle Sap-Mekong peat swamp forests (Cambodia, Vietnam)
*Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests (India)
*Western Java montane rain forests (Indonesia)
*Western Java rain forests (Indonesia)

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

*Central Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests (India)
*Central Indochina dry forests (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam)
*Chota-Nagpur dry deciduous forests (India)
*East Deccan dry evergreen forests (India)
*Irrawaddy dry forests (Myanmar)
*Kathiarbar-Gir dry deciduous forests (India)
*Narmada Valley dry deciduous forests (India)
*Northern dry deciduous forests (India)
*South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests (India)
*Southeastern Indochina dry evergreen forests (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand)
*Southern Vietnam lowland dry forests (Vietnam)
*Sri Lanka dry-zone dry evergreen forests (Sri Lanka)

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

*Himalayan subtropical pine forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan)
*Luzon tropical pine forests (Philippines)
*Northeast India-Myanmar pine forests (India, Myanmar)
*Sumatran tropical pine forests (Indonesia)

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

*Eastern Himalayan broadleaf forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal)
*Northern Triangle temperate forests (Myanmar)
*Western Himalayan broadleaf forests (India, Nepal, Pakistan)

Temperate coniferous forests

*Eastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests (Bhutan, India, Nepal)
*Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests (India, Nepal, Pakistan)

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands (Bhutan, India, Nepal)

Flooded grasslands and savannas

*Rann of Kutch seasonal salt marsh (India, Pakistan)

Montane grasslands and shrublands

*Kinabalu montane alpine meadows (Indonesia)

Deserts and xeric shrublands

*Deccan thorn scrub forests (India)
*Indus Valley desert (India, Pakistan)
*Northwestern thorn scrub forests (India, Pakistan)
*Thar desert (India, Pakistan)

Mangrove

*Godavari-Krishna mangroves (India)
*Indochina mangroves (Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam)
*Indus River Delta-Arabian Sea mangroves (Pakistan)
*Myanmar coast mangroves (India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand)
*Sunda Shelf mangroves (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia)
*Sundarbans mangroves (Bangladesh, India)

Nearctic

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

*Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest (Mexico)

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

*Bermuda subtropical conifer forests (Bermuda)
*Sierra Madre Occidental pine-oak forests (Mexico, United States)
*Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests (Mexico, United States)

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

*Allegheny Highlands forests (United States)
*Appalachian mixed mesophytic forests (United States)
*Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests (United States)
*Central U.S. hardwood forests (United States)
*East Central Texas forests (United States)
*Eastern forest-boreal transition (Canada, United States)
*Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests (Canada, United States)
*Gulf of St. Lawrence lowland forests (Canada)
*Mississippi lowland forests (United States)
*New England-Acadian forests (Canada, United States)
*Northeastern coastal forests (United States)
*Ozark Mountain forests (United States)
*Southeastern mixed forests (United States)
*Southern Great Lakes forests (United States)
*Upper Midwest forest-savanna transition (United States)
*Western Great Lakes forests (Canada, United States)
*Willamette Valley forests (United States)

Temperate coniferous forests

*Alberta Mountain forests (Canada)
*Alberta-British Columbia foothills forests (Canada)
*Arizona Mountains forests (United States)
*Atlantic coastal pine barrens (United States)
*Blue Mountains forests (United States)
*British Columbia mainland coastal forests (Canada, United States)
*Cascade Mountains leeward forests (Canada, United States)
*Central and Southern Cascades forests (United States)
*Central British Columbia Mountain forests (Canada)
*Central Mexican Volcanoes forests (Mexico)
*Central Pacific coastal forests (Canada, United States)
*Colorado Rockies forests (United States)
*Eastern Cascades forests (Canada, United States)
*Fraser Plateau and Basin complex (Canada)
*Great Basin montane forests (United States)
*Klamath-Siskiyou forests (United States)
*Middle Atlantic coastal forests (United States)
*North Central Rockies forests (Canada, United States)
*Northern California coastal forests (United States)
*Northern Pacific coastal forests (Canada, United States)
*Northern transitional alpine forests (Canada)
*Okanogan dry forests (Canada, United States)
*Piney Woods forests (United States)
*Puget lowland forests (Canada, United States)
*Queen Charlotte Islands (Canada)
*Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests (Baja California, Mexico)
*Sierra Nevada forests (United States)
*South Central Rockies forests (United States)
*Southeastern conifer forests (United States)
*Wasatch and Uinta montane forests (United States)

Boreal forests/taiga

*Alaska Peninsula montane taiga (United States)
*Central Canadian Shield forests (Canada, United States)
*Cook Inlet taiga (United States)
*Copper Plateau taiga (United States)
*Eastern Canadian forests (Canada)
*Eastern Canadian Shield taiga (Canada)
*Interior Alaska-Yukon lowland taiga (Canada, United States)
*Mid-Continental Canadian forests (Canada)
*Midwestern Canadian Shield forests (Canada, United States)
*Muskwa-Slave Lake forests (Canada)
*Newfoundland Highland forests (Canada)
*Northern Canadian Shield taiga (Canada)
*Northern Cordillera forests (Canada)
*Northwest Territories taiga (Canada)
*South Avalon-Burin oceanic barrens (Canada)
*Southern Hudson Bay taiga (Canada)
*Yukon Interior dry forests (Canada)

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*Western Gulf coastal grasslands (Mexico, United States)

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*California Central Valley grasslands (United States)
*Canadian aspen forests and parklands (Canada, United States)
*Central and Southern mixed grasslands (United States)
*Central forest-grasslands transition (United States)
*Central tall grasslands (United States)
*Edwards Plateau savanna (United States)
*Flint Hills tall grasslands (United States)
*Montana valley and foothill grasslands (United States)
*Nebraska Sand Hills mixed grasslands (United States)
*Northern mixed grasslands (Canada, United States)
*Northern short grasslands (Canada, United States)
*Northern tall grasslands (Canada, United States)
*Palouse grasslands (United States)
*Texas blackland prairies (United States)
*Western short grasslands (Canada, United States)

Tundra

*Alaska-St. Elias Range tundra (Canada, United States)
*Aleutian Islands tundra (United States)
*Arctic coastal tundra (Canada, United States)
*Arctic foothills tundra (Canada, United States)
*Baffin coastal tundra (Canada)
*Beringia lowland tundra (United States)
*Beringia upland tundra (United States)
*Brooks-British Range tundra (Canada, United States)
*Davis Highlands tundra (Canada)
*High Arctic tundra (Canada)
*Interior Yukon-Alaska alpine tundra (Canada, United States)
*Kalaallit Nunaat high arctic tundra (Greenland)
*Kalaallit Nunaat low arctic tundra (Greenland)
*Low Arctic tundra (Canada)
*Middle Arctic tundra (Canada)
*Ogilvie-MacKenzie alpine tundra (Canada, United States)
*Pacific Coastal Mountain icefields and tundra (Canada, United States)
*Torngat Mountain tundra (Canada)

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

*California chaparral and woodlands (Mexico, United States)

Deserts and xeric shrublands

*Baja California desert (Mexico)
*Central Mexican matorral (Mexico)
*Chihuahuan desert (Mexico, United States)
*Colorado Plateau shrublands (United States)
*Great Basin shrub steppe (United States)
*Gulf of California xeric scrub (Mexico)
*Meseta Central matorral (Mexico)
*Mojave desert (United States)
*Snake-Columbia shrub steppe (United States)
*Sonoran desert (Mexico, United States)
*Tamaulipan matorral (Mexico)
*Tamaulipan mezquital (Mexico, United States)
*Wyoming Basin shrub steppe (United States)

Neotropic

* see also: List of Neotropic ecoregions by bioregion

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

*Araucaria moist forests (Argentina, Brazil)
*Atlantic Coast restingas (Brazil)
*Bahia coastal forests (Brazil)
*Bahia interior forests (Brazil)
*Bolivian Yungas (Bolivia, Peru)
*Caatinga enclaves moist forests (Brazil)
*Caqueta moist forests (Brazil, Colombia)
*Catatumbo moist forests (Venezuela)
*Cauca Valley montane forests (Colombia)
*Cayos Miskitos-San Andrés and Providencia moist forests (Colombia, Nicaragua)
*Central American Atlantic moist forests (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama)
*Central American montane forests (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua)
*Chiapas montane forests (Mexico)
*Chimalapas montane forests (Mexico)
*Chocó-Darién Moist Forests (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama)
*Cocos Island moist forests (Costa Rica)
*Cordillera La Costa montane forests (Venezuela)
*Cordillera Oriental montane forests (Colombia, Venezuela)
*Costa Rican seasonal moist forests (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)
*Cuban moist forests (Cuba)
*Eastern Cordillera real montane forests (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
*Eastern Panamanian montane forests (Colombia, Panama)
*Fernando de Noronha-Atol das Rocas moist forests (Brazil)
*Guayanan highlands forests (Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
*Guianan moist forests (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
*Gurupa varzea (Brazil)
*Hispaniolan moist forests (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
*Iquitos varzea (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
*Isthmian-Atlantic moist forests (Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama)
*Isthmian-Pacific moist forests (Costa Rica, Panama)
*Jamaican moist forests (Jamaica)
*Japurá-Solimoes-Negro moist forests (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)
*Juruá-Purus moist forests (Brazil)
*Leeward Islands moist forests (Antigua, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Nevis, Saint Kitts)
*Madeira-Tapajós moist forests (Bolivia, Brazil)
*Magdalena Valley montane forests (Colombia)
*Magdalena-Urabá moist forests (Colombia)
*Marajó varzea (Brazil)
*Maranhão Babaçu forests (Brazil)
*Mato Grosso tropical dry forests (Brazil)
*Monte Alegre varzea (Brazil)
*Napo Moist Forests (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
*Negro-Branco moist forests (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)
*Northeastern Brazil restingas (Brazil)
*Northwestern Andean montane forests (Colombia, Ecuador)
*Oaxacan montane forests (Mexico)
*Orinoco Delta swamp forests (Guyana, Venezuela)
*Pantanos de Centla (Mexico)
*Paramaribo swamp forests (Guyana, Suriname)
*Parañá-Paraíba interior forests (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay)
*Pernambuco coastal forests (Brazil)
*Pernambuco interior forests (Brazil)
*Peruvian Yungas (Peru)
*Petén-Veracruz moist forests (Mexico)
*Puerto Rican moist forests (Puerto Rico)
*Purus varzea (Brazil)
*Purus-Madeira moist forests (Brazil)
*Rio Negro campinarana (Brazil, Colombia)
*Santa Marta montane forests (Colombia)
*Serra do Mar coastal forests (Brazil)
*Sierra de los Tuxtlas (Mexico)
*Sierra Madre de Chiapas moist forest (El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico)
*Solimões-Japurá moist forest (Brazil, Colombia, Peru)
*South Florida rocklands (United States)
*Southern Andean Yungas (Argentina, Brazil)
*Southwest Amazon moist forests (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
*Talamancan montane forests (Costa Rica, Panama)
*Tapajós-Xingu moist forests (Brazil)
*Tepuis (Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
*Tocantins-Araguaia-Maranhão moist forests (Brazil)
*Trinidad and Tobago moist forests (Trinidad and Tobago)
*Trinidade-Martin Vaz Islands tropical forests (Brazil)
*Uatuma-Trombetas moist forests (Brazil, Guyana, Suriname)
*Ucayali moist forests (Peru)
*Venezuelan Andes montane forests (Colombia, Venezuela)
*Veracruz moist forest (Mexico)
*Veracruz montane forests (Mexico)
*Western Ecuador moist forests (Colombia, Ecuador)
*Windward Islands moist forests (Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
*Xingu-Tocantins-Araguaia moist forests (Brazil)
*Yucatán moist forests (Belize, Guatemala, Mexico)

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

*Apure-Villavicencio dry forests (Venezuela)
*Atlantic dry forests (Brazil)
*Bahamian dry forests (Bahamas)
*Bajío dry forests (Mexico)
*Balsas dry forests (Mexico)
*Bolivian montane dry forests (Bolivia)
*Cauca Valley dry forests (Colombia)
*Cayman Islands dry forests (Cayman Islands)
*Central American dry forests (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua)
*Chaco (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay)
*Chiapas Depression dry forests (Guatemala, Mexico)
*Chiquitano dry forests (Bolivia, Brazil)
*Cuban dry forests (Cuba)
*Ecuadorian dry forests (Ecuador)
*Hispaniolan dry forests (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
*Jalisco dry forests (Mexico)
*Jamaican dry forests (Jamaica)
*Lara-Falcón dry forests (Venezuela)
*Leeward Islands dry forests (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles)
*Magdalena Valley dry forests (Colombia)
*Maracaibo dry forests (Venezuela)
*Marañón dry forests (Peru)
*Panamanian dry forests (Panama)
*Patía Valley dry forests (Colombia)
*Puerto Rican dry forests (Puerto Rico)
*Revillagigedo Islands dry forests (Mexico)
*Sierra de la Laguna dry forests (Mexico)
*Sinaloan dry forests (Mexico)
*Sinu Valley dry forests (Colombia)
*Southern Pacific dry forests (Mexico)
*Trinidad and Tobago dry forests (Trinidad and Tobago)
*Tumbes-Piura dry forests (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
*Veracruz dry forests (Mexico)
*Windward Islands dry forests (Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
*Yucatán dry forests (Mexico)

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

*Bahamian pine forests (Bahamas)
*Belizian pine forests (Belize)
*Central American pine-oak forests (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua)
*Cuban pine forests (Cuba)
*Hispaniolan pine forests (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
*Miskito pine forests (Honduras, Nicaragua)
*Sierra de la Laguna pine-oak forests (Mexico)
*Sierra Madre de Oaxaca pine-oak forests (Mexico)
*Sierra Madre del Sur pine-oak forests (Mexico)
*Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt pine-oak forests (Mexico)

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

*Juan Fernandez Islands temperate forests (Chile)
*Magellanic subpolar forests (Argentina, Chile)
*San Felix-San Ambrosio Islands temperate forests (Desventuradas Islands) (Chile)
*Valdivian temperate rain forests (Argentina, Chile)

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*Arid Chaco (Argentina)
*Beni savanna (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
*Campos Rupestres montane savanna (Brazil)
*Cerrado (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)
*Clipperton Island shrub and grasslands (Clipperton Island is an overseas territory of France)
*Córdoba montane savanna (Argentina)
*Guyanan savanna (Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela)
*Humid Chaco (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay)
*Llanos (Colombia, Venezuela)
*Uruguayan savanna (Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay)

Temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*Argentine Espinal (Argentina)
*Argentine Monte (Argentina)
*Humid Pampa (Argentina)
*Patagonian grasslands (Argentina, Chile)
*Patagonian steppe (Argentina, Chile)
*Semi-arid Pampa (Argentina)

Flooded grasslands and savannas

*Central Mexican wetlands (Mexico)
*Cuban wetlands (Cuba)
*Enriquillo wetlands (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
*Everglades (United States)
*Guayaquil flooded grasslands (Ecuador)
*Orinoco wetlands (Venezuela)
*Pantanal (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)
*Paraná flooded savanna (Argentina)
*Southern Cone Mesopotamian savanna (Argentina)

Montane grasslands and shrublands

*Central Andean dry puna (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile)
*Central Andean puna (Argentina, Bolivia, Peru)
*Central Andean wet puna (Bolivia, Peru)
*Cordillera Central páramo (Ecuador, Peru)
*Cordillera de Merida páramo (Venezuela)
*Northern Andean páramo (Colombia, Ecuador)
*Santa Marta páramo (Colombia)
*Southern Andean steppe (Argentina, Chile)
*Zacatonal (Mexico)

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

*Chilean Matorral (Chile)

Deserts and xeric shrublands

*Araya and Paria xeric scrub (Venezuela)
*Aruba-Curaçao-Bonaire cactus scrub (Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao)
*Atacama desert (Chile, Peru)
*Caatinga (Brazil)
*Cayman Islands xeric scrub (Cayman Islands)
*Cuban cactus scrub (Cuba)
*Galápagos Islands xeric scrub (Ecuador)
*Guajira-Barranquilla xeric scrub (Colombia, Venezuela)
*La Costa xeric shrublands (Venezuela)
*Leeward Islands xeric scrub (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, British Virgin Islands, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin,Saint Barthelemy, Saba, US Virgin Islands)
*Malpelo Island xeric scrub (Colombia)
*Motagua Valley thornscrub (Guatemala)
*Paraguana xeric scrub (Venezuela)
*San Lucan xeric scrub (Mexico)
*Sechura desert (Peru)
*Tehuacán Valley matorral (Mexico)
*Windward Islands xeric scrub (Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)
*Saint Peter and Saint Paul rocks (Brazil)

Mangrove

*Alvarado mangroves (Mexico)
*Amapá mangroves (Brazil)
*Bahamian mangroves (Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands)
*Bahia mangroves (Brazil)
*Belizean Coast mangroves (Belize)
*Belizean Reef mangroves (Belize)
*Bocas del Toro-San Bastimentos Island-San Blas mangroves (Costa Rica, Panama)
*Coastal Venezuelan mangroves (Venezuela)
*Esmeraldes-Pacific Colombia mangroves (Colombia, Ecuador)
*Greater Antilles mangroves (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico)
*Guianan mangroves (French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)
*Gulf of Fonseca mangroves (El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua)
*Gulf of Guayaquil-Tumbes mangroves (Ecuador, Peru)
*Gulf of Panama mangroves (Panama)
*Ilha Grande mangroves (Brazil)
*Lesser Antilles mangroves (Lesser Antilles)
*Magdalena-Santa Marta mangroves (Colombia)
*Manabí mangroves (Ecuador)
*Maranhão mangroves (Brazil)
*Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves (Mexico)
*Mayan Corridor mangroves (Mexico)
*Mexican South Pacific Coast mangroves (Mexico)
*Moist Pacific Coast mangroves (Costa Rica, Panama)
*Mosquitia-Nicaraguan Caribbean Coast mangroves (Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua)
*Northern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves (El Salvador, Guatemala)
*Northern Honduras mangroves (Guatemala, Honduras)
*Pará mangroves (Brazil)
*Petenes mangroves (Mexico)
*Piura mangroves (Peru)
*Ría Lagartos mangroves (Mexico)
*Rio Negro-Rio San Sun mangroves (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)
*Rio Piranhas mangroves (Brazil)
*Rio São Francisco mangroves (Brazil)
*Southern Dry Pacific Coast mangroves (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)
*Tehuantepec-El Manchon mangroves (Mexico)
*Trinidad mangroves (Trinidad and Tobago)
*Usumacinta mangroves (Mexico)


=Oceania=

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

*Carolines tropical moist forests (Federated States of Micronesia)
*Central Polynesian tropical moist forests (Cook Islands, Johnston Atoll, Kiribati, Palmyra Atoll)
*Cook Islands tropical moist forests (Cook Islands)
*Eastern Micronesia tropical moist forests (Marshall Islands, Nauru, Kiribati, Wake Island)
*Fiji tropical moist forests (Fiji)
*Hawaii tropical moist forests (Hawaii)
*Kermadec Islands subtropical moist forests (New Zealand)
*Marquesas tropical moist forests (French Polynesia)
*Ogasawara subtropical moist forests (Japan)
*Palau tropical moist forests (Palau)
*Rapa Nui and Sala-y-Gomez subtropical broadleaf forests (Chile)
*Samoan tropical moist forests (American Samoa, Western Samoa)
*Society Islands tropical moist forests (French Polynesia)
*Tongan tropical moist forests (Tonga)
*Tuamotu tropical moist forests (French Polynesia)
*Tubuai tropical moist forests (French Polynesia)
*Western Polynesian tropical moist forests (Kiribati, Tokelau, Tuvalu)

Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests

*Fiji tropical dry forests (Fiji)
*Hawaii tropical dry forests (Hawaii)
*Marianas tropical dry forests (Guam, Northern Marianas)
*Yap tropical dry forests (Federated States of Micronesia)

Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

*Hawaii tropical high shrublands (Hawaii)
*Hawaii tropical low shrublands (Hawaii)
*Northwestern Hawaii scrub (Hawaii)

Palearctic

Tropical and subtropical coniferous forests

*Guizhou Plateau broadleaf and mixed forests (China)
*Yunnan Plateau subtropical evergreen forests (China)

Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests

*Appenine deciduous montane forests (Italy)
*Atlantic mixed forests (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Netherlands)
*Azores temperate mixed forests (Portugal)
*Balkan mixed forests (Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Turkey)
*Baltic mixed forests (Denmark, Germany, Poland, Sweden)
*Cantabrian mixed forests (Portugal, Spain, France)
*Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests (Azerbaijan, Iran)
*Caucasus mixed forests (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey)
*Celtic broadleaf forests (Ireland, United Kingdom)
*Central Anatolian deciduous forests (Turkey)
*Central China loess plateau mixed forests (China)
*Central European mixed forests (Austria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland)
*Central Korean deciduous forests (North Korea, South Korea)
*Changbai Mountains mixed forests (China, North Korea)
*Changjiang Plain evergreen forests (China)
*Crimean Submediterranean forest complex (Russia, Ukraine)
*Daba Mountains evergreen forests (China)
*Dinaric Mountains mixed forests (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia)
*East European forest steppe (Bulgaria, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine)
*Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests (Turkey)
*English Lowlands beech forests (United Kingdom)
*Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests (Georgia, Turkey)
*Hokkaido deciduous forests (Japan)
*Huang He Plain mixed forests (China)
*Madeira evergreen forests (Portugal)
*Manchurian mixed forests (China, North Korea, Russia, South Korea)
*Nihonkai evergreen forests (Japan)
*Nihonkai montane deciduous forests (Japan)
*North Atlantic moist mixed forests (Ireland, United Kingdom)
*Northeast China Plain deciduous forests (China)
*Pannonian mixed forests (Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine)
*Po Basin mixed forests (Italy)
*Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests (Andorra, France, Spain)
*Qin Ling Mountains deciduous forests (China)
*Rodope montane mixed forests (Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia)
*Sarmatic mixed forests (Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Russia, Sweden)
*Sichuan Basin evergreen broadleaf forests (China)
*South Sakhalin-Kurile mixed forests (Russia)
*Southern Korea evergreen forests (South Korea)
*Taiheiyo evergreen forests (Japan)
*Taiheiyo montane deciduous forests (Japan)
*Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe (China)
*Ussuri broadleaf and mixed forests (Russia)
*West Siberian broadleaf and mixed forests (Russia)
*Western European broadleaf forests (Austria, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Switzerland)
*Zagros Mountains forest steppe (Iran)

Temperate coniferous forests

*Alps conifer and mixed forests (France, Italy, Slovenia, Switzerland)
*Altai montane forest and forest steppe (China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia)
*Caledonian conifer forests (United Kingdom)
*Carpathian montane conifer forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Ukraine)
*Da Hinggan-Dzhagdy Mountains conifer forests (China, Russia)
*East Afghan montane conifer forests (Afghanistan, Pakistan)
*Elburz Range forest steppe (Iran)
*Helanshan montane conifer forests (China)
*Hengduan Mountains subalpine conifer forests (China)
*Hokkaido montane conifer forests (Japan)
*Honshu alpine conifer forests (Japan)
*Khangai Mountains conifer forests (Mongolia, Russia)
*Mediterranean conifer and mixed forests (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia)
*Northeastern Himalayan subalpine conifer forests (China, India, Bhutan)
*Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests (Armenia, Georgia, Turkey)
*Nujiang Langcang Gorge alpine conifer and mixed forests (China)
*Qilian Mountains conifer forests (China)
*Qionglai-Minshan conifer forests (China)
*Sayan montane conifer forests (Mongolia, Russia)
*Scandinavian coastal conifer forests (Norway)
*Tian Shan montane conifer forests (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)

Boreal forests/taiga

*East Siberian taiga (Russia)
*Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra (Iceland)
*Kamchatka-Kurile meadows and sparse forests (Russia)
*Kamchatka-Kurile taiga (Russia)
*Northeast Siberian taiga (Russia)
*Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga (Russia)
*Sakhalin Island taiga (Russia)
*Scandinavian and Russian taiga (Finland, Norway, Russia, Sweden)
*Trans-Baikal conifer forests (Mongolia, Russia)
*Urals montane tundra and taiga (Russia)
*West Siberian taiga (Russia)

Temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands

*Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)
*Altai steppe and semi-desert (Kazakhstan)
*Central Anatolian steppe (Turkey)
*Daurian forest steppe (China, Mongolia, Russia)
*Eastern Anatolian montane steppe (Armenia, Iran, Turkey)
*Emin Valley steppe (China, Kazakhstan)
*Faroe Islands boreal grasslands(Faroe Islands, part of Denmark)
*Gissaro-Alai open woodlands (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan)
*Kazakh forest steppe (Kazakhstan, Russia)
*Kazakh steppe (Kazakhstan, Russia)
*Kazakh upland (Kazakhstan)
*Middle East steppe (Iraq, Syria)
*Mongolian-Manchurian grassland (China, Mongolia, Russia)
*Pontic steppe (Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine)
*Sayan Intermontane steppe (Russia)
*Selenge-Orkhon forest steppe (Mongolia, Russia)
*South Siberian forest steppe (Russia)
*Tian Shan foothill arid steppe (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan)

Flooded grasslands and savannas

*Amur meadow steppe (China, Russia)
*Bohai Sea saline meadow (China)
*Nenjiang River grassland (China)
*Nile Delta flooded savanna (Egypt)
*Saharan halophytics (Algeria Egypt, Mauritania, Tunisia, Western Sahara)
*Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh (Iraq, Iran)
*Ussuri-Wusuli meadow and forest meadow (China, Russia)
*Yellow Sea saline meadow (China)

Montane grasslands and shrublands

*Altai alpine meadow and tundra (China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia)
*Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe (China)
*Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows (Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal)
*Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadow (Afghanistan)
*Hindu Kush alpine meadow (Afghanistan, Pakistan)
*Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe (Afghanistan, China, India, Pakistan)
*Khangai Mountains alpine meadow (Mongolia)
*Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe (Iran, Turkmenistan)
*Kuhrud-Kohbanan Mountains forest steppe (Iran)
*Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppe (Morocco)
*North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert (China)
*Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows (China, India, Pakistan)
*Ordos Plateau steppe (China)
*Pamir alpine desert and tundra (Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan)
*Qilian Mountains subalpine meadows (China)
*Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra (Mongolia, Russia)
*Southeast Tibet shrub and meadows (China)
*Sulaiman Range alpine meadows (Afghanistan, Pakistan)
*Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows (China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan)
*Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadows (China)
*Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows (India, Nepal)
*Yarlung Zambo arid steppe (China)

Tundra

*Arctic desert (Russia)
*Bering tundra (Russia)
*Cherskii-Kolyma mountain tundra (Russia)
*Chukchi Peninsula tundra (Russia)
*Kamchatka Mountain tundra and forest tundra (Russia)
*Kola Peninsula tundra (Norway, Russia)
*Northeast Siberian coastal tundra (Russia)
*Northwest Russian-Novaya Zemlya tundra (Russia)
*Novosibirsk Islands arctic desert (Russia)
*Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands (Finland, Norway, Sweden)
*Taimyr-Central Siberian tundra (Russia)
*Trans-Baikal Bald Mountain tundra (Russia)
*Wrangel Island arctic desert (Russia)
*Yamalagydanskaja tundra (Russia)

Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and shrub

*Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests (Greece, Macedonia, Turkey)
*Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests (Turkey)
*Canary Islands dry woodlands and forests (Spain)
*Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests (France)
*Crete Mediterranean forests (Greece)
*Cyprus Mediterranean forests (Cyprus)
*Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey)
*Iberian conifer forests (Portugal, Spain)
*Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests
*Illyrian deciduous forests (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, Slovenia)
*Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests (France, Italy)
*Mediterranean acacia-argania dry woodlands and succulent thickets (Morocco, Canary Islands (Spain))
*Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia)
*Mediterranean woodlands and forests (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia)
*Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests (France, Spain)
*Northwest Iberian montane forests (Portugal, Spain)
*Pindus Mountains mixed forests (Albania, Greece, Macedonia)
*South Appenine mixed montane forests (Italy)
*Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands (Spain)
*Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests (Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey)
*Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests (France, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain)
*Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests (France, Italy)

Deserts and xeric shrublands

*Afghan Mountains semi-desert (Afghanistan)
*Alashan Plateau semi-desert (China, Mongolia)
*Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands (Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen)
*Atlantic coastal desert (Mauritania, Western Sahara)
*Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran)
*Badkhiz-Karabil semi-desert (Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan)
*Baluchistan xeric woodlands (Afghanistan, Pakistan)
*Caspian lowland desert (Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan)
*Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands (Afghanistan)
*Central Asian northern desert (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan)
*Central Asian riparian woodlands (Kazakhstan)
*Central Asian southern desert (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan)
*Central Persian desert basins (Afghanistan, Iran)
*Eastern Gobi desert steppe (China, Mongolia)
*Gobi Lakes Valley desert steppe (Mongolia)
*Great Lakes Basin desert steppe (Mongolia, Russia)
*Junggar Basin semi-desert (China, Mongolia)
*Kazakh semi-desert (Kazakhstan)
*Kopet Dag semi-desert (Iran, Turkmenistan)
*Mesopotamian shrub desert (Iraq, Jordan, Syria)
*North Saharan steppe and woodlands (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco Tunisia, Western Sahara)
*Paropamisus xeric woodlands (Afghanistan)
*Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates)
*Qaidam Basin semi-desert (China)
*Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert (Iraq, Jordan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen)
*Rigestan-North Pakistan sandy desert (Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan)
*Sahara desert (Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan, Tunisia)
*South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert (Iran, Iraq, Pakistan)
*South Saharan steppe and woodlands (Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan)
*Taklimakan desert (China)
*Tibesti-Jebel Uweinat montane xeric woodlands (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan)
*West Saharan montane xeric woodlands (Algeria, Mali, Mauritania, Niger)

Freshwater

Afrotropic

North African

* Canary Islands
* Horn (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia)
* Permanent Maghreb (Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara)
* Temporary Maghreb (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Western Sahara)
* Red Sea Coastal (Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan)
* Socotra (Yemen)

Nilo-Sudan

* Ashanti (Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana)
* Bight Coastal (Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo)
* Bijagos (Guinea Bissau)
* Cape Verde
* Dry Sahel (Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Sudan, Western Sahara)
* Eburneo (Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Mali)
* Ethiopian Highlands (Ethiopia)
* Lake Chad Catchment (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Nigeria, Sudan)
* Niger
** Upper Niger (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali)
** Mount Nimba (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia)
** Fouta-Djalon (Guinea)
** Inner Niger Delta (Mali)
** Lower Niger-Benue (Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Nigeria)
** Niger Delta (Nigeria)
* Nile
** Lake Tana (Ethiopia)
** Upper Nile (Sudan, Uganda)
** Lower Nile (Egypt, Sudan)
** Nile Delta (Egypt)
* Northern Eastern Rift (Ethiopia)
* Senegal-Gambia Catchments (Gambia, Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal)
* Shebele-Juba Catchments (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia)
* Lake Turkana (Ethiopia, Kenya)
* Volta (Burkina Faso, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo)

Upper Guinea

* Northern Upper Guinea (Guinea, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone)
* Southern Upper Guinea (Côte d'Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia)

West Coast Equatorial

* Central West Coastal Equatorial (Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon)
* Northern West Coast Equatorial (Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria)
* Southern West Coast Equatorial (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Gabon)
* São Tomé, Principé, and Annobon (Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe)
* Western Equatorial Crater Lakes (Cameroon)

Congo

* Albertine Highlands (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Bangweulu-Mweru (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia)
* Cuvette Centrale (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Kasai (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Lower Congo (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo)
* Lower Congo Rapids (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo)
* Mai Ndombe (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Malebo Pool (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Sangha (Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo)
* Sudanic Congo (Oubangi) (Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo)
* Uele (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Upper Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Upper Congo Rapids (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Upper Luluaba (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Thysville Caves (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
* Tumba (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Great Lakes

* Lake Malawi (Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania)
* Lake Rukwa (Tanzania)
* Lake Tanganyika (Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia)
* Lakes Kivu, Edward, George, and Victoria (Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda)

Eastern and Coastal

* Southern Eastern Rift (Kenya, Tanzania)
* Kenyan Coastal Rivers (Kenya)
* Pangani (Kenya, Tanzania)
* Malagarasi-Moyowosi (Tanzania)
* Eastern Coastal Basins (Mozambique, Tanzania)
* Lakes Chilwa and Chiuta (Malawi, Mozambique)

Cuanza

* Cuanza (Angola)

Zambezi

* Etosha (Angola, Namibia)
* Kalahari (Botswana, Namibia, South Africa)
* Karstveld Sink Holes (Namibia)
* Namib Coastal (Angola, Namibia)
* Okavango Floodplains (Angola, Botswana, Namibia)
* Zambezian Lowveld (Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe)
* Zambezi
** Zambezian Headwaters (Angola, Zambia)
** Kafue (Zambia)
** Upper Zambezi Floodplains (Angola, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia)
** Mulanje (Malawi, Mozambique)
** Eastern Zimbabwe Highlands (Mozambique, Zimbabwe)
** Zamebzian (Plateau) Highveld (Zimbabwe)
** Middle Zambezi Luangwa (Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe)
** Lower Zambezi (Malawi, Mozambique)

Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands

* Comoros
* Madagascar Eastern Lowlands (Madagascar)
* Madagascar Eastern Highlands (Madagascar)
* Madagascar Northwestern Basins (Madagascar)
* Madagascar Southern Basins (Madagascar)
* Madagascar Western Basins (Madagascar)
* Mascarenes (Mauritius, Réunion)
* Coralline Seychelles (Seychelles)
* Granitic Seychelles (Seychelles)

outhern Temperate

* Amatole-Winterberg Highlands (South Africa)
* Cape Fold (South Africa)
* Drakensberg-Maloti Highlands (Lesotho, South Africa)
* Karoo (South Africa)
* Southern Kalahari (South Africa)
* Southern Temperate Highveld (South Africa, Swaziland)
* Western Orange (Botswana, South Africa

Australasia and Pacific

Montane freshwaters

* Lake Poso (Indonesia)
* Matano-Southern Malili Lakes (Indonesia)
* New Guinea Central Mountains (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)

Temperate coastal rivers

* Bass Strait drainages (Australia)
* New Zealand (Australia)
* Southern Tasmania (Australia)
* Southwestern Australia (Australia)

Temperate floodplain rivers and wetlands

* Murray-Darling (Australia)

Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers

* Arafura-Carpentaria (Australia)
* Bismarck Archipelago (Papua New Guinea)
* Eastern Coastal Australia (Australia)
* Kimberley Rivers and Streams (Australia)
* Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
* Malukku (Indonesia)
* New Caledonia (New Caledonia)
* New Guinea North Coast (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
* Papuan Peninsula (Papua New Guinea)
* Solomon Islands (Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands)
* Southwest New Guinea – Trans-Fly Lowland (Indonesia, Papua New Guinea)
* Sulawesi (Indonesia)
* Vogelkop-Bomberai (Indonesia)

Xeric freshwaters and endorheic basins

* Lake Eyre Basin
* Paleo
* Pilbara

Oceanic Islands

* Vanuatu
* Fiji
* Wallis-Futuna
* Samoas
* Society Islands
* Tubuai Islands
* Marquesas Islands
* Rapa Nui
* Hawaiian Islands
* East Caroline Islands
* West Caroline Islands

Indomalaya

Tropical and subtropical floodplain rivers and wetland complexes

* Chao Phraya (Thailand)
* Ganges Delta and Plain (Bangladesh, India)
* Kratie-Stung Treng – Middle Mekong and tributaries (Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam)
* Lower and Middle Indus (India, Pakistan)
* Lower and Middle Salween (Burma, Thailand)
* Lower Lan Cang - Upper Mekong and tributaries (China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam)
* Mae Khlong (Thailand)
* Narmada-Tapi (India)
* Northern Deccan Plateau (India)
* Sitang-Irawaddy (Myanmar)
* Song Hong (China, Laos, Vietnam)
* Southern Deccan Plateau (India)
* Xi Yang (China, Vietnam)

Montane freshwaters

* Borneo Highlands (Indonesia, Malaysia)
* Ganges Himalayan Foothills (India, Nepal)
* Inle Lake (Myanmar)
* Lake Lanao (Philippines)

Tropical and subtropical upland rivers

* Khorat Plateau (Mekong) (Thailand)
* Middle Brahmaputra (Bhutan, China, India)

Tropical and subtropical coastal rivers

* Aceh (Indonesia)
* Central & Eastern Java (Indonesia)
* Coastal Fujian-Zheijang (China)
* Eastern Borneo (Indonesia)
* Eastern Gulf of Thailand drainages (Thailand)
* Eastern Taiwan (Taiwan)
* Hainan (China)
* Indian Ocean Slope of Sumatra & Java (Indonesia)
* Kapuas (Indonesia, Malaysia)
* Lower Brahmaputra-Arakan Coast (Bangladesh, India)
* Malay Peninsula Eastern Slope (Malaysia, Thailand)
* Mindanao (Philippines)
* Northeastern Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia)
* Northern Annam (Vietnam)
* Northern Central Sumatra-Western Malaysia (Indonesia, Malaysia)
* Northern Philippine Islands (Philippines)
* Northwestern Borneo (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia)
* Palawan-Busuanga-Mindoro
* Southeastern Borneo (Indonesia)
* Southeastern Ghats (India)
* Southern Annam (Vietnam)
* Southern Central Sumatra (Indonesia)
* Southern Sumatra-Western Java (Indonesia)
* Sri Lanka Dry Zone (Sri Lanka)
* Sri Lanka Wet Zone (Sri Lanka)
* Western Ghats (India)
* Western Taiwan (Taiwan)

Large river deltas

* Indus River Delta (India, Pakistan)
* Mekong Delta (Cambodia, Vietnam)

Oceanic Islands

* Andaman Islands (India)
* Nicobar Islands (India)

Nearctic

Pacific bioregion

Coastal Complex

*North Pacific Coastal (Canada, United States)
*Columbia Glaciated (Canada, United States)
*Columbia Unglaciated (United States)
*Upper Snake (United States)
*Pacific Mid-Coastal (United States)
*Pacfic Central Valley (United States)
*South Pacific Coastal (United States)

Great Basin Complex

*Bonneville (United States)
*Lahontan (United States)
*Oregon Lakes (United States)
*Death Valley (United States)

Colorado Complex

* Colorado River (Mexico, United States)
* Vegas-Virgin (United States)
* Gila River (Mexico, United States)
* Colorado Delta (Mexico)
* Sonoran (Mexico)

Arctic-Atlantic Bioregion

Rio Grande Complex

* Upper Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) (Mexico, United States)
* Guzmán (Mexico, United States)
* Rio Conchos (Mexico)
* Pecos (United States)
* Mapimí (Mexico)
* Lower Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) (Mexico, United States)
* Rio Salado (Mexico)
* Cuatro Ciénegas (Mexico)
* Rio San Juan (Mexico)

Mississippi Complex

* Upper Mississippi River (ecoregion called "Mississippi River") - United States
* Lower Mississippi River (ecoregion called "Mississippi Embayment") (United States)
* Upper Missouri River (United States, Canada
* Middle Missouri River
* Central Prairie
* Ozark Highlands
* Ouachita Highlands
* Southern Plains
* East Texas Gulf
* West Texas Gulf
* Teays-Old Ohio
* Tennessee-Cumberland
* Mobile Bay
* Apalachicola
* Florida Gulf

Atlantic Complex

*Florida
*South Atlantic
*Chesapeake Bay
*North Atlantic

t. Lawrence Complex

* Superior
* Michigan-Huron
* Erie
* Ontario
* Lower St. Lawrence
* North Atlantic-Ungava

Hudson Bay Complex

* Canadian Rockies
* Upper Saskatchewan
* Lower Saskatchewan
* English-Winnipeg Lakes
* South Hudson
* East Hudson

Arctic Complex

* Yukon
* Lower Mackenzie
* Upper Mackenzie
* North Arctic
* East Arctic
* Arctic Islands

Neotropic

inaloan Coastal Complex

* Sinaloan Coastal (Mexico)

Lerma/Santiago Complex

* Santiago (Mexico)
* Chapala (Mexico)
* Lerma (Mexico)
* Rio Verde Headwaters (Mexico)
* Manantlan/Ameca (Mexico)

Rio Panuco Complex

* Rio Panuco (Mexico)

Balsas Complex

* Balsas (Mexico)

Pacific Central Complex

* Tehuantepec (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua)

Atlantic Central Complex

* Southern Veracruz (Mexico)
* Belizean Lowlands (Belize, Guatemala, Mexico)
* Central American Caribbean Lowlands (Honduras, Nicaragua)
* Talamancan Highlands (Costa Rica, Panama)
* Catemaco (Mexico)
* Coatzacoalcos (Mexico)
* Grijalva-Usumacinta (Guatemala, Mexico)
* Yucatan (Mexico)
* Guatemalan Highlands (Guatemala)
* Central American Karst Highlands (Belize, Guatemala)
* Honduran/Nicaraguan Highlands (Honduras, Nicaragua)
* Lake Nicaragua (Costa Rica, Nicaragua)

Isthmus Atlantic Complex

* Isthmus Atlantic (Panama)

Isthmus Pacific Complex

* Isthmus Pacific (Costa Rica, Panama)

Bahama Archipelago Complex

*Bahamas (Bahamas, Turks and Caicos Islands)

Western Insular Caribbean Complex

* Cuba (Cuba)
* Hispaniola (Dominican Republic, Haiti)
* Jamaica (Jamaica)
* Cayman Islands (Cayman Islands)
* Florida Keys (United States)

Eastern Insular Caribbean Complex

* Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands (British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands)
* Windward and Leeward Islands (Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Saba, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Sint Eustatius)

Choco Complex

* Choco (Colombia, Ecuador, Panama)

outh American Caribbean Complex

* Magdalena (Colombia)
* Momposina Depression-Rio Cesar (Colombia)
* Cienega Grande de Santa Marta (Colombia)
* Guajira Desert (Colombia, Venezuela)
* Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela)

High Andean Complex

* Paramos (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela)
* Peru High Andean Complex (Bolivia, Peru)
* Bolivian High Andean Complex (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile)
* Arid Puna (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)
* Subandean Pampas (Argentina, Bolivia)
* South Andean Yungas (Argentina, Bolivia)

Inter-Andean Dry Valleys Complex

* Inter-Andean Dry Valleys

North Andean Montane Complex

* North Andean Montane
* Humid Andean Yungas
* Chuquisaca and Tarija Yungas
* Salta and Tucuman Yungas
* Sierra de Cordoba

Puyango-Tumbes Complex

* Puyango-Tumbes (Ecuador, Peru)

Atacama/Sechura Complex

* Atacama/Sechura Deserts (Chile, Peru)

Pacific Coastal Desert Complex

* Pacific Coastal Deserts (Peru, Chile)

Lake Titicaca/Poopo Complex

* Lake Titicaca (Bolivia, Peru)
* Lake Poopo (Bolivia)

Galapagos Complex

* Galapagos (Ecuador)

Mediterranean Chile Complex

* North Mediterranean Chile (Chile)
* South Mediterranean Chile (Chile)

Juan Fernandez Islands Complex

* Juan Fernandez Islands (Chile)

outhern Chile Complex

* Valdivian (Chile)
* Chiloe Island (Chile)
* Chonos Archipelago (Chile)
* Magallanes/Ultima Esperanza (Argentina, Chile)

ubantarctic Complex

* Subantarctic (Falkland Islands)

Venezuelan Coast/Trinidad Complex

* Venezuelan Coast/Trinidad (Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela)

Llanos Complex

* Llanos (Colombia, Venezuela)

Guiana/Orinoco Complex

* Eastern Morichal (Venezuela)
* Orinoco Delta (Venezuela)
* Southern Orinoco (Venezuela)
* Guiana Watershed (Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela)

Amazon Complex

* Amazon Delta (Brazil)
* Amazon Main Channel (Brazil, Peru)
* Northern Amazon Shield Tributaries (Brazil)
* Rio Negro (Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela)
* Upper Amazon Piedmont (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
* Western Amazon Lowlands (Bolivia, Brazil, Peru)
* Central Brazilian Shield Tributaries (Bolivia, Brazil)
* Tocantins-Araguaia (Brazil)

Northeast Atlantic Complex

* Maranhao (Brazil)

Mata-Atlantica Complex

* Northeast Mata-Atlantica (Brazil)
* East Mata-Atlantica (Brazil)
* Southeast Mata-Atlantica (Brazil)

ão Francisco Complex

* Caatinga (Brazil)
* Cerrado (Brazil)

Upper Parana Complex

* Upper Parana (Brazil)

Beni Complex

* Beni (Bolivia)

Paraguay-Parana Complex

* Pantanal (Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay)
* Lower Parana (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay)

outhern Atlantic Complex

* Jacui Highlands (Brazil, Uruguay)
* Lagoa dos Patos Coastal Plain (Brazil, Uruguay)

Chaco Complex

* Chaco (Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay)

Pampas Complex

* Parana-Platense Basin (Argentina)
* Rio Salado and Arroyo Vallimanca Basin (Argentina)
* Northwest Pampas Basins (Argentina)
* Pampas Coastal Plains (Argentina)
* Southwest Pampas Basins (Argentina)

Patagonia Complex

* Rio Colorado (Argentina)
* Rio Limay-Neuquen-Rio Negro (Argentina)
* Meseta Somuncura (Argentina)
* Rio Chubut-Rio Chico (Argentina)
* Rio Deseado (Argentina)
* Rio Santa Cruz-Rio Chico (Argentina)
* Rio Coyle (Argentina)
* Rio Gallegos (Argentina)
* Tierra del Fuego-Rio Grande (Argentina, Chile)

Palearctic

large lakes

* Aral Sea Drainages
* Biwa Ko
* Caspian Marine
* Lake Baikal
* Lake Issyk Kul - Upper Chu
* Lake Onega - Lake Ladoga
* Volga Delta - Northern Caspian Drainages

large river deltas

* Nile Delta


=montane freshwaters=
* Chuya
* Er Hai
* Indus Himalayan Foothills
* Upper Huang He
* Upper Huang He Corridor
* Upper Indus
* Yaghistan
* Yunnan Lakes


=polar freshwaters=
*Anadyr
*Barents Sea Drainages
*East Chukotka
*Iceland - Jan Mayen
*Kolyma
*Lena
*Northern Baltic Drainages
*Norwegian Sea Drainages
*Ob
*Taimyr
*Yenisei

temperate coastal rivers

*Aegean Drainages
*Atlantic Northwest Africa
*Cantabric Coast - Languedoc
*Coastal Amur
*Crimea Peninsula
*Dalmatia
*Eastern Yellow Sea Drainages
*Gulf of Venice Drainages
*Hamgyong - Sanmaek
*Honshu - Shikoku - Kyushu
*Ionian Drainages
*Italian Peninsula & Islands
*Kamchatka & Northern Kurils
*Koryakia
*Kuban
*Mediterranean Northwest Africa
*Northern Anatolia
*Northern British Isles
*Northern Hormuz Drainages
*Okhotsk Coast
*Orontes
*Sakhalin, Hokkaido, & Sikhote - Alin Coast
*Southeast Adriatic Drainages
*Southeastern Korean Peninsula
*Southern Anatolia
*Southern Baltic Lowlands
*Thrace
*Vardar
*Western Anatolia
*Western Iberia
*Western Transcaucasia


=temperate floodplain rivers and wetlands=
*Central & Western Europe
*Dnieper - South Bug
*Dniester - Lower Danube
*Don
*Eastern Iberia
*Huang He Great Bend
*Kura - South Caspian Drainages
*Liao He
*Lower Amur
*Lower Huang He
*Lower Tigris & Euphrates
*Lower Yangtze
*Songhua Jiang
*Southern Iberia
*Upper Tigris & Euphrates
*Volga - Ural


=temperate upland rivers=
*Argun
*Lower & Middle Syr Darya
*Middle Amu Darya
*Middle Amur
*Middle Yangtze
*Northern Central Asian Highlands
*Qaidan
*Shilka (Amur)
*Upper Danube
*Upper Irtysh
*Upper Yangtze


=tropical and subtropical upland rivers=
*Upper Brahmaputra
*Upper Lancang (Mekong)
*Upper Salween


=xeric freshwaters and endorheic (closed) basins=
* Arabian Interior
* Balkash - Alakul
* Baluchistan
* Caspian Highlands
* Central Anatolia
* Coastal Levant
* Dry Sahel
*Dzungaria
*Esfahan
*Helmand - Sistan
*Inner Mongolia Endorheic Basins
*Irgyz -Turgai
*Jordan River
*Kavir & Lut Deserts
*Lake Van
*Lower Nile
*Namak
*Orumiyeh
*Sahara
*Sinai
*Tarim
*Tibetan Plateau Endorheic Drainages
*Turan Plain
*Upper Amu Darya
*Western Caspian Drainages
*Western Mongolia
*Western Red Sea Drainages

Marine

(by realm and province)

Arctic realm

(no provinces identified)
*North Greenland
*North and East Iceland
*East Greenland Shelf
*West Greenland Shelf
*Northern Grand Banks-Southern Labrador
*Northern Labrador
*Baffin Bay-Davis Strait
*Hudson Complex
*Lancaster Sound
*High Arctic Archipelago
*Beaufort-Admunsen-Viscount Melville-Queen Maud
*Beaufort Sea-continental coast and shelf
*Chukchi Sea
*Eastern Bering Sea
*East Siberian Sea
*Laptev Sea
*Kara Sea
*North and East Barents Sea
*White Sea

Temperate Northern Atlantic

Northern European Seas

*South and West Iceland
*Faroe Plateau
*Southern Norway
*Northern Norway and Finnmark
*Baltic Sea
*North Sea
*Celtic Seas

Lusitanian

*South European Atlantic Shelf
*Saharan Upwelling
*Azores Canaries Madeira

Mediterranean Sea

*Adriatic Sea
*Aegean Sea
*Levantine Sea
*Tunisian Plateau/Gulf of Sidra
*Ionian Sea
*Western Mediterranean
*Alboran Sea

Cold Temperate Northwest Atlantic

*Gulf or St. Lawrence-Eastern Scotian Shelf
*Southern Grand Banks-South Newfoundland
*Scotian Shelf
*Gulf of Maine-Bay of Fundy
*Virginian

Warm Temperate Northwest Atlantic

* Carolinian
* Northern Gulf of Mexico

Black Sea

* Black Sea

Temperate Northern Pacific

Cold Temperate Northwest Pacific

*Sea of Okhotsk
*Kamchatka Shelf and Coast
*Oyashio Current
*Northern Honshu
*Sea of Japan
*Yellow Sea

Warm Temperate Northwest Pacific

*Central Kuroshio Current
*East China Sea

Cold Temperate Northeast Pacific

*Aleutian Islands
*Gulf of Alaska
*North American Pacific Fjordland
*Puget Trough/Georgia Basin
*Oregon, Washington, Vancouver Coast and Shelf
*Northern California

Warm Temperate Northeast Pacific

* Southern California Bight
* Cortezian
* Magdalena Transition

Tropical Atlantic

Tropical Northwestern Atlantic

* Bermuda
* Bahamian
* Eastern Caribbean
* Greater Antilles
* Southern Caribbean
* Southwestern Caribbean
* Western Caribbean
* Southern Gulf of Mexico
* Floridian

North Brazil Shelf

* Guianian
* Amazonia

Tropical Southwestern Atlantic

* Sao Pedro and Sao Paulo Islands
* Fernando de Noronha and Atol das Rocas
* Northeastern Brazil
* Eastern Brazil
* Trindade and Martin Vaz Islands

t. Helena and Ascension Islands

* St. Helena and Ascension Islands

West African Transition

* Cape Verde
* Sahelian Upwelling

Gulf of Guinea

* Gulf of Guinea West
* Gulf of Guinea Upwelling
* Gulf of Guinea Central
* Gulf of Guinea Islands
* Gulf of Guinea South
* Angolan

Western Indo-Pacific

Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

* Northern and Central Red Sea
* Southern Red Sea
* Gulf of Aden

Somali/Arabian

*Arabian (Persian) Gulf
*Gulf of Oman
*Western Arabian Sea
*Central Somali Coast

Western Indian Ocean

*Northern Monsoon Current Coast
*East African Coral Coast
*Seychelles
*Cargados Carajos/Tromelin Island
*Mascarene Islands
*Southeast Madagascar
*Western and Northern Madagascar
*Bight of Sofala/Swamp Coast
*Delagoa

West and South Indian Shelf

* Western India
* South India and Sri Lanka

Central Indian Ocean Islands

* Maldives
*Chagos

Bay of Bengal

* Eastern India
* Northern Bay of Bengal

Andaman

* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Andaman Sea Coral Coast
* Western Sumatra

Central Indo-Pacific

South China Sea

* Gulf of Tonkin
* Southern China
* South China Sea Oceanic Islands

Sunda Shelf

* Gulf of Thailand
* Southern Vietnam
* Sunda Shelf/Java Sea
* Malacca Strait

Java Transitional

*Southern Java
*Cocos-Keeling/Christmas Island

outh Kuroshio

* South Kuroshio

Tropical Northwestern Pacific

* Ogasawara Islands
* Mariana Islands
* East Caroline Islands
* West Caroline Islands

Western Coral Triangle

* Palawan/North Borneo
* Eastern Philippines
* Sulawesi Sea/Makassar Strait
* Halmahera
* Papua
* Banda Sea
* Lesser Sunda
* Northeast Sulawesi

Eastern Coral Triangle

* Bismarck Sea
* Solomon Archipelago
* Solomon Sea
* Southeast Papua New Guinea

Sahul Shelf

* Gulf of Papua
* Arafura Sea
* Arnhem Coast to Gulf of Carpentaria
* Bonaparte Coast

Northeast Australian Shelf

* Torres Strait and Northern Great Barrier Reef
* Central and Southern Great Barrier Reef

Northwest Australian Shelf

* Exmouth to Broome
* Ningaloo

Tropical Southwestern Pacific

* Tonga Islands
* Fiji Islands
* Vanuatu
* New Caledonia
* Coral Sea

Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands

* Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands

Eastern Indo-Pacific

Hawaii

* Hawaii

Marshall, Gilbert, and Ellice Islands

* Marshall Islands
* Gilbert and Ellice Islands

Central Polynesia

* Line Islands
* Phoenix/Tokelau/Northern Cook Islands
* Samoa Islands

Southeast Polynesia

* Tuamotus
* Rapa-Pitcairn
* Southern Cook/Austral Islands
* Society Islands

Marquesas

* Marquesas

Easter Island

* Easter Island

Tropical Eastern Pacific

Tropical East Pacific

* Revillagigedos
* Clipperton
* Mexican Tropical Pacific
* Chiapas-Nicaragua
* Nicoya
* Cocos Islands
* Panama Bight
* Guayaquil

Galapagos

* Northern Galapagos Islands
* Eastern Galapagos Islands
* Western Galapagos Islands

Temperate South America

Warm Temperate Southeastern Pacific

* Central Peru
* Humboldtian
* Central Chile
* Araucanian

Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas

* Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas

Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic

* Southeastern Brazil
* Rio Grande
* Río de la Plata
* Uruguay-Buenos Aires Shelf

Magellanic

* North Patagonian Gulfs
* Patagonian Shelf
* Malvinas/Falklands
* Channels and Fjords of Southern Chile
* Chiloense

Tristan Gough

* Tristan Gough

Temperate Southern Africa

Benguela

* Namib
* Namaqua

Agulhas

* Agulhas Bank
* Natal

Amsterdam-St Paul

* Amsterdam-St Paul

Temperate Australasia

Northern New Zealand

* Kermadec Islands
* Northeastern New Zealand
* Three Kings-North Cape

outhern New Zealand

* Chatham Island
* Central New Zealand
* South New Zealand
* Snares Island

East Central Australian Shelf

*Tweed-Moreton
*Manning-Hawkesbury

Southeast Australian Shelf

* Cape Howe
* Bassian
* Western Bassian

Western Central Australian Shelf

* Shark Bay
* Houtman

Southern Ocean

Subantarctic Islands

* Maquarie Island
* Heard and Macdonald Islands
* Kerguelen Islands
* Crozet Islands
* Prince Edward Islands
* Bouvet Islands
* Peter the First Island

Scotia Sea

* South Sandwich Islands
* South Georgia
* South Orkney Islands
* South Shetland Islands
* Antarctic Peninsula

Continental High Antarctic

* East Antarctic Wilkes Land
* East Antarctic Enderby Land
* East Antarctic Dronning Maud Land
* Weddell Sea
* Admunsen/Bellingshausen Sea
* Ross Sea

Subantarctic New Zealand

* Bounty and Antipodes Islands
* Campbell Island
* Auckland Island

ee also

Biome

External links

* [http://www.eoearth.org/article/Ecoregion The Encyclopedia of Earth: List of ecoregions, with full articles on most of them]
* [http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial_na.html WWF List of Nearctic Ecoregions with links to the other ecozones]
* [http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/ecoregion_list/index.cfm List of ecoregions]
* [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoframe-map.htm North American Ecoregions by map at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu] ( [http://www.cas.vanderbilt.edu/bioimages/ecoframe-list.htm by list] )
* [http://www.feow.org/ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World]

References

* Olson, D., Dinerstein, E., Canevari, P., Davidson, I., Castro, G., Morisset, V., Abell, R., and Toledo, E.; eds. (1998). "Freshwater Biodiversity of Latin America and the Caribbean: A Conservation Assessment." Biodiversity Support Program, Washington DC.
* Ricketts, Taylor H., Eric Dinerstein, David M. Olson, Colby J. Loucks, et al. (1999). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: a Conservation Assessment". Island Press, Washington DC.
* Spalding, Mark D., Helen E. Fox, Gerald R. Allen, Nick Davidson "et al." "Marine Ecoregions of the World: A Bioregionalization of Coastal and Shelf Areas". "Bioscience" Vol. 57 No. 7, July/August 2007, pp. 573-583.
* Thieme, Michelle L. (2005). "Freshwater Ecoregions of Africa and Madagascar: A Conservation Assessment". Island Press, Washington DC.


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