Bishop Auckland

Infobox UK place
country = England
official_name= Bishop Auckland
population = 24,392 (2001)Citation
title = 2001 Census Profiles (Numbers) for Major Centres in County Durham
publisher = Durham County Council
url = http://www.durham.gov.uk/durhamcc/usp.nsf/Lookup/MC%20Catchment%20Summary%20Sheets/$file/MC+Catchment+Summary+Sheets.pdf
accessdate = 2008-08-29
]
shire_district= Wear Valley
region = North East England
shire_county = County Durham
constituency_westminster=Bishop Auckland
post_town= BISHOP AUCKLAND
postcode_district = DL14
postcode_area= DL
dial_code= 01388
os_grid_reference= NZ208294
latitude= 54.66
longitude= -1.68
london_distance= convert|227|mi|km|0|abbr=on SbE
static_

static_image_caption=Bishop Auckland Town Hall

Bishop Auckland is a market town in County Durham in North East England. It is located about convert|12|mi|km|0 northwest of Darlington and convert|12|mi|km|0 southwest of Durham City at the confluence of the River Wear with its tributary the River Gaunless. According to the 2001 census, Bishop Auckland has a population of 24,392.

Much of the town's early history surrounds the Bishops of Durham and the establishment of a hunting lodge, which later became the main residence of the Bishop of Durham. This link with the Bishops of Durham is reflected in the first part of the town's name.

During the Industrial Revolution, the town grew rapidly as coal mining took hold as an important industry. The subsequent decline of the coal mining industry in the late twentieth century has been blamed for a fall in the town's fortunes in other sectors. Today, the largest sector of employment in the town is manufacturing.

The town currently has a two tier local government, however, this is expected to be replaced by a single unitary authority on 2009-04-01. Bishop Auckland is located in the Bishop Auckland parliamentary constituency. The town has a town-twinning with the French town of Ivry-sur-Seine.

History

The first part of the name, "Bishop", refers to the town being the residence of the Bishop of Durham. However, the derivation of "Auckland" is less clear. One suggestion is that it is derived from "Alclit" or "Alcleat". This could be Celtic in origin referring to its position close to what is today known as the River Gaunless, or from it being extra land granted to the Bishop of Durham by King Canute in around 1020. A further suggestion is that "Oakland", has been used to refer to the presence of forests.

The earliest known reference to Bishop Auckland itself is in 1020 as a gift; King Canute gave it to the Bishop of Durham as a Bishop's borough. However, a village almost certainly existed on the town's present site long before this, with there being a church in South Church from as early as Saxon times. Furthermore, the Romans had a look-out post where Auckland Castle is sited today and a 10 acre (0.04 km²) fort at nearby Binchester.

Much of the town's earliest history surrounds its links with the Bishops of Durham. In 1083, monks were sent from Durham Cathedral to establish a collegiate church, and in around 1183 Bishop Pudsey established a manor house in the town.Hutchinson, p. 14] cite web|url=http://www.northeastengland.talktalk.net/BishopAuckland.htm|title=The North East England History Pages - Bishop Auckland and Surrounds|last=Simpson|first=David|accessdate=2007-09-01] Bishop Bek, who preferred the town as his main residence over Durham Castle due to its proximity to hunting grounds, later converted the manor house into a castle.

By 1801, the town had a population of 1861.Fordyce, p545.] At the end of the eighteenth century the town had no notable roads other than the Roman road and little trade beyond weaving. [Fordyce, p552.] Fordyce, p558] Although, coal mining existed, it was limited by the lack of an easy way to transport coal away from the area. [Hutchinson, p. 33] All this changed with the arrival railways in the early nineteenth century, which allowed large scale coal mining. [Whellan, p 276] The railways allowed coal to be mined, and then transported to the coast before being put onto ships to London and even abroad. [Whellan, p. 292]

By 1851 the population of the town had more than doubled to 5112. A great proportion of the population working in ironworks and collieries. By 1891, the population had doubled again. [Hutchinson, p. 56] In the second half of the nineteenth century there were typically around 60 collieries in the area open at any one time. [Hutchinson, p. 48] By the turn of the twentieth century 16,000 people were employed in the mining industry in the area. [ Hutchinson, p. 43]

The town also became an important centre for rail, with large amounts of minerals such as coal, limestone and ironstone mined in the surrounding area passing through the town on the way to the coast. [Hutchinson, p.44] In the neighbouring town of Shildon large numbers were employed in the railways, were a railway engine works were established. [Fordyce, p.567-569]

By the early years of the twentieth century coal mining started to go into decline as coal reserves started to become exhausted. By 1931 the population too had started to decline, as colliery employment had halved compared with ten years previously. [Hutchinson, p82-84] The second world war offered a temporary reprieve for the coal industry, however, after the war the decline continued. [Citation
title = Thematic Overview - Industrial
publisher = Durham County Council
url = http://www.durham.gov.uk/k2p/usp.nsf/pws/Keys+to+the+Past+-+Overviews+-+Industrial
accessdate = 2008-08-29
] The last deep colliery in the area closed in 1968, although the much more mechanised, and less labour intensive, surface level opencast mining did continue. [Hutchinson, p.104]

Equally, the railways that had also supported the area were also scaled back, ultimately culminating in the closure of Shildon's Wagon works in 1984 which resulted in the loss of thousands of jobs. [cite news
title = Railway works resurrected decades after closure blow
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2006-08-10
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2006/8/10/226520.html
accessdate = 2008-08-26
]

Governance

From 1894 to 1974, the town was governed by the Bishop Auckland Urban District council within the administrative county of Durham. [Citation
title = A vision of Bishop Auckland UD
publisher =A vision of Britain
url = http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/unit_page.jsp?u_id=10042847
accessdate = 2008-08-28
] The Urban District was scrapped under the Local Government Act 1972 and replaced by a two tier district and county council system. Under the system Bishop Auckland was governed by Wear Valley District Council at the district level and Durham County Council at the county level.

A third tier was added at the May 2007 local elections when a new town council was established. After the elections, the council elected Barbara Laurie as the town's first mayor. [cite news
title = New Town Council for Bishop Auckland
publisher = Wear Valley District Council
date =
url = http://www.wearvalley.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=11791
accessdate = 2008-08-26
]

Under proposals approved by the government on 2007-07-25, Durham County Council and Wear Valley District Council will be replaced on 2009-04-01 by a single unitary authority serving the whole of County Durham.cite news
title = Durham unitary authority approved
publisher = BBC News
date = 2007-07-25
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/wear/6915882.stm
accessdate = 2008-08-26
]

The town is a part of the Bishop Auckland parliamentary constituency, and is currently represented at Westminster by Helen Goodman MP (Labour). The town is in the North East England European Parliament constituency. [cite web |title=Bishop Auckland |work=The Guardian |url=http://politics.guardian.co.uk/hoc/constituency/0,,-726,00.html Retrieved on 8 September 2008.]

The town is located in the Wear and Tees division of the Durham Constabulary, and served by the County Durham and Darlington Fire and Rescue Service and North East Ambulance Service.

Bishop Auckland is twinned with the French town of Ivry-sur-Seine, whilst the wider Wear Valley district is twinned with Bad Oeynhausen in Germany.Citation
title =Town Twinning
publisher =Wear Valley District Council
url = http://www.wearvalley.gov.uk/index.cfm?articleid=3913
accessdate = 2008-08-29
]

Geography

Bishop Auckland is located at coord|54|39|36|N|1|40|48|W|type:city(24392)_region:GB-DUR (British national grid reference system: gbmapscaled|NZ208294|10|NZ208294) on the Durham coalfield at the confluence of the River Wear with its tributary the River Gaunless. The River Gaunless was given its name by Norsemen in whose tongue it means "useless". It is believed that this derives from the river's inability to power a mill, sustain fish or create fertile floodplains.cite web
last = Simpson
first = David
title = The North East England History Pages - Place Names
url = http://www.northeastengland.talktalk.net/Place%20Name%20Meanings%20A%20to%20D.htm
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] cite news
title = Echo Memories: Tides of change in the land of Canute
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2005-07-20
url = http://www.northeasthistory.co.uk/the_north_east/history/echomemories/darlington/305/200705.html
archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20070927173424/http://www.northeasthistory.co.uk/the_north_east/history/echomemories/darlington/305/200705.html
archivedate=2007-09-27
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] The town nestles in the rivers' valley about convert|100|m|ft above sea level. Besides this the town is all but is surrounded on all sides by hills ranging in height from around convert|150|m|ft above sea level to over convert|220|m|ft above sea level.

Bishop Auckland is located about convert|12|mi|km northwest of Darlington and convert|12|mi|km southwest of Durham City. The town is served by Bishop Auckland railway station, which marks the point where the Tees Valley Line becomes the Weardale Railway. The town is not served directly by any motorways.

Notable wards include Cockton Hill, Woodhouse Close, and Henknowle. Additionally, once neighbouring villages such as South Church, Tindale Crescent, St Helen Auckland, and West Auckland now more or less merge seamlessly into the town.

According to the 2001 census, Bishop Auckland has a population of 24,392, living in 10,336 dwellings. Of these dwellings, around 44% are terraced houses, 33% semi-detached houses, and 17% detached houses. As shown in the graph, the distribution of ages in Bishop Auckland was broadly in-line with that of County Durham and England and Wales, although there is a slightly smaller proportion of people between 20 and 24 years old.

Compared with the national average, the town's population performs poorly with regards to qualifications. At 31.9%, the proportion of the town's population with no qualifications is significantly higher than the national average of 23.2% and 29.1%. Similarly, only 13.8% have a degree level qualification (or higher) compared with the national average of 21.1%.

84.8% of the town's population identify themselves as Christian, compared with a national average of 71.7%. There are below averages numbers identifying themselves as belonging to other religion. The people of the town are also more likely to be religious than the national average with only 7.3% stating they had no religion compared with the national average of 14.8%.

At 1.5% of the population, the town has a below average population of foreign born individuals, compared with a national average of 8.9%.

Economy

(GVA) in County Durham across 3 industries at current basic prices from 1995 to 2004.
Legendlegend|#000000|TotalSource: [Citation
title =NUTS3 GVA (1995-2004) Data
publisher =Office for National Statistics
url =http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_economy/NUTS3_Tables_1-12.xls
accessdate = 2008-08-29
] ]

Traditionally the town's economy was based heavily on coal mining. However, with the decline of the Durham coalfield, manufacturing has been left as the largest sector of employment in the town, accounting for 24.6% of the town's employment.

The town also traditionally had a strong retail sector,cite news
title = £2.4 m 'people's plan' to revive economy of market town
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2000-08-09
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2000/8/9/194536.html
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] as one of the county's main population centre's shoppers were attracted from smaller settlements on the Durham coalfield for miles around. However, the affect of the decline in the coal mining industry has been felt in the retail sector. Together with competition from local shopping malls such as the MetroCentre in Gateshead, the decline in the mining industry has been blamed for a downturn in the fortunes of retailers, [cite news
title = Action plan aims to revive town fortunes
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2000-10-26
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2000/10/26/188625.html
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] with commentators lamenting the number of down market stores and charity shops in the town centre. [cite news
title = End of an era as charity shop pioneer pulls out
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2000-06-13
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2000/8/9/194536.html
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] In response, numerous initiatives to regenerate the town centre have been proposed including the launch of the Bishop Auckland Town Centre Forum, [Citation
title = Bishop Auckland Town Centre Forum
publisher = Enterprising Britain
accessdate = 2008-09-26
url = http://www.enterprisingbritain.org/winners/2007/bishop_auckland_town_centre_forum
] and the 2006 regeneration master plan drawn up by Red Box Group, which was sponsored by Wear Valley District Council and the regional development agency One NorthEast. [Citation
date = June 2006
title = Bishop Auckland Urban Renaissance Master Plan
publisher = Wear Valley District Council
accessdate = 2008-09-26
url = http://www.wearvalley.gov.uk/media/pdf/1/7/BA_Master_Plan_1.pdf
]

Notable employers in the town include Ebac, which is headquartered in the town and employs 350 people. [cite news
title = Ebac turns its eyes to Far East
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2006-11-16
url = http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/1024104.ebac_turns_its_eyes_to_far_east/
accessdate = 2008-08-26
]

The chart and table summarise unadjusted gross value added (GVA) in millions of pounds sterling for County Durham across three industries at current basic prices from 1995 to 2004.

Landmarks

The town has a number of Grade I listed buildings. The grounds of Auckland Castle alone contain seven such structures. Additionally Escomb Saxon Church, St Andrew's parish church, St Helen's church, [cite web |title=Church of St Helen |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=385687|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-31] West Auckland Manor House, [cite web |title=The Manor House |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=385672|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-31] the East Deanery [cite web |title=East Deanery |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=385725|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-31] and the 14th century Bishop Skirlaw bridge are all Grade I listed. Other notable buildings include the town hall, a Victorian railway viaduct and Binchester Roman fort.

Auckland Castle

Auckland Castle (often known locally as "The Bishop's palace"), has been the official residence of the Bishop of Durham since 1832. However, its history goes back much earlier, being established as a hunting lodge for the Prince Bishops of Durham.Citation
title = Castle History
publisher = Auckland Castle
url = http://www.auckland-castle.co.uk/castle-history.asp
accessdate = 2008-08-25
] The castle is surrounded by convert|800|acre|km2 of parkland, which was originally used by the Bishops for hunting and is today open to the public.Hutchinson, p. 20] The castle and its grounds contain seven Grade I listed structures.cite web |title=Auckland Castle |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385598|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25
cite web |title=Auckland Castle West Mural Wall |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385600|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25
cite web |title=Auckland Castle Gatehouse |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385599|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25
cite web |title=Auckland Castle Chapel of St Peter |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385601|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25
cite web |title=Auckland Castle Screen Wall |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385605|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25
cite web |title=Auckland Castle Deer Shelter |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385606|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25
cite web |title=Auckland Castle Lodge |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=385706|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25]

The castle's long dining room is home to 12 of the 13 17th century portraits of Jacob and his 12 sons painted by Francisco de Zurbarán, which were saved by Bishop Trevor in 1756. [cite news
title = London should keep its hands off the treasures of the north
publisher = The Guardian
date = 2005-10-07
url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/artanddesign/2005/oct/07/art.politicsandthearts
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] Trevor was unable to secure the 13th, Benjamin, so commissioned Arthur Pond to produce a copy, which hangs alongside the 12 other originals. [cite news
title = Bid to keep castle paintings in N-E
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2001-05-14
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2001/5/14/171061.html
accessdate = 2008-08-26
]

Auckland Castle also provides the setting for Lewis Carroll's story "A Legend of Scotland".

Binchester Roman Fort

The route of the Roman road Dere Street passes straight through the middle of the town on its way to the nearby Roman Fort at Binchester. Binchester Roman Fort, or "Vinovia" as it was known to the Romans, has the best preserved example of a Roman military bath house hypocaust in the country. Bishop Auckland's main shopping street, Newgate Street, together with Cockton Hill Road and Watling Road faithfully follow the route of Dere Street.Hutchinson, p. 11] Note that Watling Road should not be confused with the Roman road Watling Street, which is in the South of England.

Town Hall

The Town Hall is a "Gothic style" Victorian Building overlooking the town's market place and is Grade II* listed. [cite web |title= Bishop Auckland Town Hall|url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=385723|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-27] After being abandoned and then condemned for demolition in the 1980s,Hutchinson, p. 121–122] the town hall was fully restored in the early 1990s. It now houses the town's main public library, a theatre, an art gallery, tourist information centre and a café-bar.

Newton Cap viaduct

The town also has a Grade II listed Victorian railway viaduct crossing the River Wear.cite web |title= Newton Cap Railway Viaduct|url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?pid=1&id=460431|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-27] The viaduct provides views of the surrounding countryside below as well as Auckland Castle, the Bishop's Park and the Town Hall on approaching the town from the Viaduct. It was originally built in 1857Citation
title = Walking and Cycling Routes in Wear Valley
publisher = Wear Valley District Council
url = http://www.wearvalley.gov.uk/media/pdf/3/k/WalkingCycling07_1.pdf
accessdate = 2008-08-30
] to carry the Bishop Auckland to Durham City railway line across the River Wear and the Newton Cap Bank that leads down to the river. The railway closed in 1968 and the viaduct fell into a period of disuse and was at one point threatened with demolition. [cite news
title = Bridge leads to a rich vein of history
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2002-02-19
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2002/2/19/145400.html
accessdate = 2008-08-08
] However, in 1995 the viaduct was converted to take road traffic relieving the fourteenth century single lane, Grade I listed,cite web |title=Newton Cap Bridge |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=385732|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-25] Bishop Skirlaw bridge that sits in the valley below it.

Escomb Saxon church

The nearby village of Escomb is home to a complete Anglo-Saxon church. It is believed the church was built between the years 670 and 690.Citation
title = History of the Church
publisher = Escomb Saxon Church
url = http://www.escombsaxonchurch.com/History.htm
accessdate = 2008-08-30
] Much of the stone used to construct the church came from the nearby Roman fort at Binchester, with some stones having Roman markings on them. The church is a Grade I listed structure.cite web |title=The Saxon Church, Saxon Green, Escomb |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?pid=1&id=385740|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-27]

St Andrew's Church

St Andrew's church located in the adjoining village of South Church is a Grade I listed building.cite web |title=St Andrew's parish church |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?pid=1&id=385637|publisher=Images of England |accessdate=2008-08-27] The church was built by Augustine monks in the thirteenth century and acted as a collegiate church.Citation
title = Visit Wear Valley
publisher = Wear Valley District Council
url = http://www.wearvalley.gov.uk/media/pdf/t/j/VisitorGuide07_1.pdf
accessdate = 2008-08-30
] It is the largest church in County Durham. [Hutchinson, p. 70]

Transport

The town has links with the birth of the railways, with the original 1825 route of the Stockton and Darlington Railway passing through West Auckland and Timothy Hackworth, a well-known locomotive builder, built steam locomotives in the neighbouring town of Shildon. [Citation
contribution = Hackworth, Timothy (1786–1850)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Carpenter
first = George W.
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/37500
accessdate = 2008-01-26
]

Today, Bishop Auckland railway station still provides passenger services being located at the end of the Tees Valley Line. Although, the station is also at one end of the Weardale Railway, no services on this line currently come as far as Bishop Auckland. The town centre had a large railway goods yard until the 1972. Freight traffic ceased to use the line between completely in 1993 when Blue Circle cement stopped using the line to transport cement from its works in Eastgate.Hutchinson, p. 113]

The nearest airport to the town is Durham Tees Valley Airport at around convert|19|mi|km drive South-East of Bishop Auckland. The nearest motorway junction is Junction 60 of the A1(M), which is around convert|8|mi|km away.

The town, has a bus station with a number of bus-routes serving the town. Following the withdrawal of the Go-Ahead Group from the town on 2006-04-08, most of these services are provided by Arriva. [cite news
title = Go-Ahead will use green diesel
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2006-02-18
url = http://archive.thenorthernecho.co.uk/2006/2/18/218627.html
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] However, a number of smaller firms such as Weardale buses also serve the town.

Education

s (including Maths and English) at grade A*-C compared with national and LEA averages.cite news
title = League Tables: King James I Community Arts College
publisher = BBC News
date = 2007-01-11
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/06/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_4178.stm
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] cite news
title = League Tables: King James I Community Arts College
publisher = BBC News
date = 2008-01-10
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/07/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_4178.stm
accessdate = 2008-02-20
] cite news
title = League Tables: St John's Catholic School & Sixth Form Centre
publisher = BBC News
date = 2007-01-11
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/06/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_4681.stm
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] cite news
title = League Tables: St John's Catholic School & Sixth Form Centre
publisher = BBC News
date = 2008-01-10
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/07/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_4681.stm
accessdate = 2008-01-10
] [cite news
title = League Tables: Bishop Barrington School
publisher = BBC News
date = 2007-01-11
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/06/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_4162.stm
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] [cite news
title = League Tables: Bishop Barrington School
publisher = BBC News
date = 2008-01-10
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/07/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_4162.stm
accessdate = 2008-01-10
]
Legend] The town itself has three secondary schools - St John's RC Comprehensive School, The Bishop Barrington School and King James I Community College. The town also has a college, Bishop Auckland College serving the Further Education and Higher Education fields. Both Bishop Barrington and King James schools have long histories being founded in 1810 by Bishop Barrington and in 1604 on the orders of King James I respectively.cite book
last = Lewis
first = Samuel
title = A Topographical Dictionary of England
publisher = S. Lewis & co
date = 1831
pages = p. 108 - 112
url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&id=L88qAAAAMAAJ
]

As illustrated in the graph, in terms of GCSE results, only one of the town's secondary schools, St John's RC Comprehensive School, meets or exceeds either of the national average or Durham LEA average of the proportion of students achieving five or more GCSEs (including Maths and English) at grades A* to C. Although traditionally the town's Grammar school, King James I now trails in third place on this statistic. However, in the government's "contextual value added" statistic, which attempts to measure how much a school improves students, compared with how much other schools in the country improve students with similar circumstances, King James with 1038.3 points performs better than all of St John's (1008.5 points), Barrington (1018.3 points) and the LEA average of 1006.9 points.

At A-Level none of the towns sixth form centres reach the national average of 731.1 A-Level points per student and only St John's, with an average 709.4 points, beats the LEA average of 651.7 points. In comparison, Bishop Auckland College has an average A-Level score of 526.9 points [cite news
title = League Tables: Bishop Auckland College
publisher = BBC News
date = 2008-01-10
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/07/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/840_8002.stm
accessdate = 2008-01-10
] and King James an average points score of 502.5. The Bishop Barrington School no longer has its own sixth form, with the school being a feeder for Queen Elizabeth Sixth Form College in Darlington. The average A-Level points score at Queen Elizabeth being 878.9. [cite news
title = League Tables: Queen Elizabeth Sixth Form College
publisher = BBC News
date = 2008-01-10
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/education/07/school_tables/secondary_schools/html/841_8600.stm
accessdate = 2008-01-10
]

The needs of those with special educational needs are served by Evergreen Primary.

Schools in the town serving primary age education are detailed in the table below.

Healthcare

As is the case with the rest of the UK, the population of the town are served by the National Health Service (NHS). The town has its own NHS hospital, Bishop Auckland General Hospital. The current Bishop Auckland General Hospital has 286 beds and since opening in 2002 has become a centre specialising in routine surgery. [Citation
title = Bishop Auckland General Hospital
publisher = County Durham and Darlington NHS Foundation Trust
url = http://www.cddft.nhs.uk/Contact+Us/Hospital+Sites/BishopAucklandGeneralHospital.htm
accessdate = 2008-08-30
] The hospital also has a doctor led Accident and Emergency department. [Citation
title = Configuring Hospitals - Bishop Auckland Hospital
publisher = Department of Health
date = 2007-02-08
url = http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Healthcare/Secondarycare/Configuringhospitals/DH_4000641
accessdate = 2008-08-30
]

The new hospital was a PFI project and was announced by the Labour government in the summer of 1997. [cite news
title = Ministers have given the go-ahead to 14 hospital building schemes
publisher = The Times
date = 1997-07-04
] It replaced the old Bishop Auckland General Hospital which had been housed in the town's workhouse buildings [Citation
title = Hospital Records Database - Bishop Auckland General Hospital
publisher = The National Archives
url = http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/hospitalrecords/details.asp?id=313&page=6
accessdate = 2008-08-30
] and temporary huts constructed during world war II. [cite news
title = Deadline set for move to £67 m hospital
publisher = The Northern Echo
date = 2001-09-27
link =http://archive.darlingtonandstocktontimes.co.uk/2001/9/27/158836.html
accessdate = 2008-08-24
]

Other local hospitals include Darlington Memorial Hospital and University Hospital of North Durham, which has replaced Durham Dryburn and was announced on the same day as the new Bishop Auckland General.

ports

Bishop Auckland is famous for its amateur football team, Bishop Auckland AFC, which won the FA Amateur Cup 10 times in the Trophy's 80 year history, having appeared in the Final on 18 occasions.

Bishop Auckland Football Club also helped out Manchester United after the Munich Air Crash in 1958 by donating three of their players, Derek Lewin, Bob Hardisty and Warren Bradley. In return in 1996, Manchester United played a friendly against Bishop Auckland to help raise money when the club was threatened with bankruptcy after a member of a rival team sued over an injury. In 2007 Manchester United donated floodlights to Bishop Auckland Football Club, which the club hopes to use in their proposed new ground. [cite news
title = Champs light the way for minnows
publisher = BBC News
date = 2007-07-17
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/6902170.stm
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] [cite news
title = Amateurs help save the day after disaster
publisher = The Journal
date = 2008-02-06
url = http://www.journallive.co.uk/north-east-news/todays-news/2008/02/06/amateurs-help-save-the-day-after-disaster-61634-20439800/
accessdate = 2008-08-24
]

The adjacent village of West Auckland is notable for having been home to the first team to win the Football World Cup. Its team of local coal miners won the cup in the Easter of 1909 and again in 1911, defeating the mighty Juventus in the final.cite news
title = World Cup winners prepare to tackle new kids on block
publisher = The Independent
date = 2006-10-04
url = http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/news-and-comment/world-cup-winners-prepare-to-tackle-new-kids-on-block-418582.html
accessdate = 2007-08-09
] This story was portrayed in the 1982 television movie "The World Cup - A Captain's Tale" made by Tyne Tees Television and starring Denis Waterman. [Citation
contribution = The World Cup - A Captain's Tale
title = Film & TV Database
publisher =BFI
url =http://ftvdb.bfi.org.uk/sift/title/56067
accessdate = 2008-08-29
] The cup, the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy, itself was stolen from West Auckland Town F.C. in 1994 and a replica now resides in West Auckland working men's club.

Notable people

Stan Laurel of the comedy duo Laurel and Hardy lived in the town during his childhood attending the town's Grammar School, King James 1st.cite web
last =Laurie
first = Barbara
title = A Short History of Bishop Auckland
publisher = Bishop Auckland Town
url = http://www.bishopauckland.org/history1.asp?HistoryId=15
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] His parents owned the now demolished Eden Theatre, which was located at the junction of Newgate Street and South Church Road. [Citation
last =Land
first =John
title =Walk with Stan Laurel in Bishop Auckland
publisher =Bishop Auckland Town
url =http://www.bishopauckland.org/directory5.asp?businessId=423
accessdate =2008-08-29
] A Wetherspoons pub recently opened in the town named after Stan. [cite web|url=http://www.jdwetherspoon.co.uk/pubs/pub-details.php?PubNumber=5268|title=Bishop Auckland Pubs – The Stanley Jefferson – a J D Wetherspoon pub|accessdate = 2008-08-29| publisher = J D Wetherspoon]

One of the UK's most prolific serial killers, Mary Ann Cotton, lived in the nearby village of West Auckland. She was hanged at Durham Jail in 1873 for the murder of her stepson. However, it is believed that she could have been responsible for the deaths of at least 18 others. [Citation
contribution = Cotton , Mary Ann (1832–1873)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Gilliland
first = J
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/articleHL/56101
accessdate = 2008-08-29
]

Roland Boys Bradford, who during World War I was awarded the Victoria Cross for bravery on 1916-10-01, and became Brigadier General, on 1917-11-10 at the age of 25 making him the youngest General in the British Army, was born in the nearby village of Witton Park. [Citation
contribution = Bradford, Roland Boys (1892–1917)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Collins
first = Lesley
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/articleHL/75598
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] [Citation
title = DLI Medal Collection - Roland Boys Bradford
publisher = DLI Museum
url = http://www.durham.gov.uk/dli/DLI.nsf/DLINotes?readform&MODE=T&ID=10423&SURNAME=Bradford
accessdate = 2008-08-29
]

Politician, Sir Anthony Eden, who was Prime Minister of the UK between 1955 and 1957, was born in Bishop Auckland. [Citation
title =Sir Anthony Eden - PMs in History
publisher =10 Downing Street
url =http://www.number10.gov.uk/history-and-tour/prime-ministers-in-history/sir-anthony-eden
accessdate = 2008-08-30
] As was, Sir Peter Soulsby, the current MP for Leicester South, [Citation
title =Biography of Sir Peter Soulsby MP
publisher =Peter Soulsby
url =http://www.petersoulsby.org/peter-soulsby-bio.html
accessdate = 2008-08-29
] and Mansfield MP Alan Meale. [Citation
title = Alan Meale's CV
publisher = Alan Meale
url = http://www.alanmeale.co.uk/cv.html
accessdate = 2008-08-29
]

Jeremiah Dixon, Astronomer and Surveyor of the Mason-Dixon Line, [Citation
contribution = Dixon, Jeremiah (1733–1779)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Howse
first = Derek
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/articleHL/37360
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] footballer Charlie Wayman who played for Newcastle United, Middlesbrough FC, and Southampton FC, [cite news
title = Obituary - Charlie Wayman
publisher = The Guardian
date = 2006-02-07
url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2006/mar/07/guardianobituaries.football
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] Actor Christopher Hancock, who played Charlie Cotton in EastEnders, [cite news
title = Obituary - Christopher Hancock
publisher = The Independent
date = 2004-11-19
url = http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20041119/ai_n12818964
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] Middlesbrough F.C. goalkeeper Ross Turnbull, [cite news
title = Soccerbase: Ross Turnbull
publisher = The Racing Post
date =
url = http://www.soccerbase.com/players_details.sd?playerid=37002
accessdate = 2008-08-26
] Town planner Thomas Wilfred Sharp, [Citation
contribution = Sharp, Thomas Wilfred (1901–1978)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Stansfield
first = K. M
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/31673
accessdate = 2008-01-25
] architect William Atkinson, [Citation
contribution = Atkinson, William (1774/5–1839)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Riddell
first = Richard
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/860
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] scientific instrument maker John Bird, [Citation
contribution = Bird, John (1709–1776)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = McConnell
first = Anita
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/2448
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] botanist Robert Kaye Greville [Citation
contribution = Greville, Robert Kaye (1794–1866)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Foote
first = Yolanda
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/11519
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] and Craig Raine, the poet and critic [Citation
title = Craig Raine, Contemporary Writers
publisher = The British Council
url =http://www.contemporarywriters.com/authors/?p=auth212
accessdate = 2008-08-29
] were also all born in Bishop Auckland. Actor John Reed, was born and spent his childhood in the nearby village of Close House. [cite book
last = Reed
first = John
title = Nothing Whatever to Grumble At
publisher = Xlibris Corporation
date = 2006
pages = p2
isbn = 1425702554
]

In addition to Stan Laurel, the theologian and catholic priest Frederick William Faber, [Citation
contribution = Faber, Frederick William (1814–1863)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Gilley
first = Sheridan
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/9050
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] nineteenth century industrialist William George Armstrong, [Citation
contribution = Armstrong, William George
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Linsley
first = Stafford M.
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/669
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] linguist Harold Orton, [Citation
contribution = Orton, Harold (1898–1975)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Ellis
first = Stanley
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/69689
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] seventeenth century politician James Craggs the Elder [Citation
contribution = Craggs, James, the elder
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Handley
first = Stuart
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/6567
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] and astronomer Thomas Wright [Citation
contribution = Wright, Thomas (1711–1786)
year = 2004
title = Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
last = Knight
first = David
publisher = Oxford University Press
url = http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30060
accessdate = 2008-08-24
] were all educated at the town's grammar school.

See also

* Baron Foster of Bishop Auckland
* Baron Auckland

References

Bibliography

*cite book
last = Fordyce
first = William
title = The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham
publisher = A. Fullarton and Co.
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=kDdNAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover
date = 1857

* cite book
last = Whellan
first = William
title = History, Topography, and Directory of the County Palatine of Durham
publisher = William Whellan and Co.
url = http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vN4MAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover
date = 1856

*cite book
last = Hutchinson
first = Tom
title = The History of Bishop Auckland
publisher = The People's History
date = 2005
location = Seaham
isbn = 1-902527-59-3

External links

* [http://www.bishopauckland.org/ Bishop Auckland Website]
* [http://www.wearvalley.gov.uk/ Wear Valley District Council]
* [http://www.durham.gov.uk/ Durham County Council]


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