Omnidirectional antenna


Omnidirectional antenna
The radiation pattern of a simple omnidirectional antenna, a vertical half-wave dipole antenna. In this graph the antenna is at the center of the "donut". Radial distance from the center represents the power radiated in that direction. The power radiated is maximum in horizontal directions, dropping to zero directly above and below the antenna.

In radio communication, an omnidirectional antenna is an antenna which radiates radio wave power uniformly in all directions in one plane, with the radiated power decreasing with elevation angle above or below the plane, dropping to zero on the antenna's axis. This radiation pattern is often described as "doughnut shaped". Note that this is different from an isotropic antenna, which radiates equal power in all directions and has a "spherical" radiation pattern. Omnidirectional antennas oriented vertically are widely used for nondirectional antennas on the surface of the Earth because they radiate equally in all horizontal directions, while the power radiated drops off with elevation angle so little radio energy is aimed into the sky or down toward the earth and wasted. Omnidirectional antennas are widely used for radio broadcasting antennas, and in mobile devices that use radio such as cell phones, FM radios, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, cordless phones, GPS as well as for base stations that communicate with mobile radios, such as police and taxi dispatchers and aircraft communications.

Contents

Types

Common types of low-gain omnidirectional antennas are the whip antenna, "Rubber Ducky", ground plane antenna, vertically oriented dipole antenna, discone antenna, mast radiator, horizontal loop antenna (sometimes known colloquially as a 'circular aerial' because of the shape), and the halo antenna.

Higher-gain omnidirectional antennas can also be built. "Higher gain" in this case means that the antenna radiates less energy at higher and lower elevation angles and more in the horizontal directions. High-gain omnidirectional antennas are generally realized using collinear dipole arrays. These arrays consist of half-wavelength dipoles with a phase shifting method between each element that ensures the current in each dipole is in phase.[1] The Coaxial Colinear or COCO antenna uses transposed coaxial sections to produce in-phase half-wavelength radiators. A Franklin Array uses short U-shaped half-wavelength sections whose radiation cancels in the far-field to bring each half-wavelength dipole section into equal phase.

Types of higher gain omnidirectional antennas are the coaxial collinear (COCO) antenna[2] and Omnidirectional Microstrip Antenna (OMA).[3]

Some planar antennas (constructed from printed circuit board) are omnidirectional antennas.[4]

Vertical polarized VHF- UHF biconical antenna 170 – 1100 MHz with omni directional H-plane pattern

Analysis

Omnidirectional radiation patterns are produced by the simplest practical antennas, monopole and dipole antennas, consisting of one or two straight rod conductors on a common axis. Antenna gain (G) is defined as antenna efficiency (e) multiplied by antenna directivity (D) which is expressed mathematically as: G = eD. A useful relationship between omnidirectional radiation pattern directivity (D) in decibels and half-power beamwidth (HPBW) based on the assumption of a sin bθ / bθ pattern shape is:[5]

 D = 10\log_{10} {\left ({101.5\over {HPBW - 0.00272(HPBW)^2}}\right )} \;\; dB

See also

References

  1. ^ Johnson, R, Jasik, H, ed (1984). Antenna Engineering Handbook. McGraw Hill. pp. 27–14. 
  2. ^ Judasz, T., Balsley, B. (March 1989). "Improved Theoretical and Experimental Models for the Coaxial Colinear Antenna". IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 37 (3): 289–296. doi:10.1109/8.18724. 
  3. ^ Bancroft R (December 5, 2005). "Design Parameters of an Omnidirectional Planar Microstrip Antenna". Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 47 (5): 414–8. doi:10.1002/mop.21187. 
  4. ^ Yanaga; Kurashima; Arita; Kobayashi (2003?). "A Planar UWB Monopole Antenna Formed on a Printed Circuit Board" (PDF). http://www.fujitsu.com/downloads/MICRO/fcai/input/uwb_monopole_antenna.pdf. 
  5. ^ McDonald, Noel (April 1999). "Omnidirectional Pattern Directivity in the Presence of Minor Lobes: Revisited". IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 41 (2): 63–8. 

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  • omnidirectional antenna — įvairiakryptė antena statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. nondirectional antenna; nondirective antenna; omnidirectional antenna vok. Rundstrahlantenne, f; rundstrahlende Antenne, f; ungerichtete Antenne, f rus. всенаправленная антенна …   Automatikos terminų žodynas

  • omnidirectional antenna — įvairiakryptė antena statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. non directional antenna; nondirective antenna; omnidirectional antenna vok. rundstrahlende Antenne, f; ungerichtete Antenne, f rus. ненаправленная антенна, f pranc. antenne… …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

  • omnidirectional antenna — noun an antenna that sends or receives signals equally in all directions • Syn: ↑nondirectional antenna • Hypernyms: ↑antenna, ↑aerial, ↑transmitting aerial • Hyponyms: ↑radio antenna, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Omnidirectional — refers to the notion of existing in every direction. Omnidirectional devices include: Omnidirectional antenna, an antenna that radiates equally in all directions VHF omnidirectional range, a type of radio navigation system for aircraft… …   Wikipedia

  • Antenna — Contents 1 Science and engineering 1.1 Technology 1.2 Biology …   Wikipedia

  • omnidirectional — adjective Date: 1927 being in or involving all directions; especially receiving or sending radio waves equally well in all directions < omnidirectional antenna > …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Antenna diversity — Antenna diversity, also known as space diversity, is one in a superset of wireless diversity schemes that utilizes two or more antennas to improve the quality and reliability of a wireless link. Often, especially in urban and indoor environments …   Wikipedia

  • Antenna (radio) — Whip antenna on car …   Wikipedia

  • omnidirectional — adjective In every direction, especially of an antenna capable of transmitting or receiving signals in all directions, or of a microphone capable of detecting sound from all directions. An omnidirectional radio beacon. Ant: unidirectional …   Wiktionary

  • omnidirectional — /ɒmnidəˈrɛkʃənəl/ (say omneeduh rekshuhnuhl) adjective (of an antenna) transmitting and receiving signals equally well in any direction …   Australian English dictionary


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