Macroscincus


Macroscincus
Macroscincus
The extinct Cape Verde Giant Skink
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Family: Scincidae
Genus: Macroscincus

Macroscincus coctei, also called the Cape Verde Giant Skink, Lagarto, or Cocteau's Skink, is a reptile that was at one time known to inhabit the islands of Branco and Raso in the Cape Verde islands of the Atlantic Ocean, rendered deserts by human caused habitat destruction. No Macroscincus coctei has been observed since early in the 20th century. Causes cited for their decline include overhunting for food and use for 'skink oil' by natives of neighboring islands and prolonged drought. At one time, starving convicts were marooned in the Cape Verde archipelago and ate the extant population of Macroscincus coctei. An explorer, Leonardo Fea, brought back several specimens which are now housed in Italy. This constitutes the extant specimens of Macroscincus coctei - undelined. Subsequent explorers such as Sheliech, Andreone and Pather, have failed to find living Macroscincus. In the early 20th century, German herpetologists tried to captive-breed this species to no avail. One interesting aspect of this species is that it possessed a transparent lower eyelid—possibly to spot predators from below. Although, largely, herbivorous, Macroscinscus, whether out of necessity with deteriorating conditions or from opportunistic advantage, occasionally became more carnivorous as individuals would occasionally eat the young from nesting shore birds. German herpetologists have noted Macroscincus consuming birds in captivity in the early 20th century.

There appears from pickled specimens that this species had a 'belly button' slit indicating viviparism. However, there are reports that indicate this species also was an egg layer.

Macroscincus is considered unique among the Scincidae in having tooth crowns which are labiolingually compressed and multicuspate (Gervais, 1874; Greer 1976).

It has been found through mitochrondrial DNA sequences (Carranza, Arnold, et al. 2001 Biological Sciences) that Macroscincus coctei was most closely related to the Mabuya genus of the Scincidae and may have constituted a clade.

Macroscincus coctei had a SENI value of .13 (Schnirel, 2004 Polyphemos). As such, it was a low arboreal skink that was borderline enough to adapt to the semi-desert like conditions created when the Cape Verde Islands were denuded by man and his domesticated animals centuries ago.

References

  • Adler, G.H. Austin, C.C.; 1995. Dispersal and speciation of skinks among archipelagos in the tropical Pacific ocean. Evolutionary Ecology: pp 529–541.
  • Austin, C.C; 1995. Molecular and morphological evolution in south Pacific lizards. Herpetologica: pp.291–300.
  • Carrenza S; 2001. Parallel gigantism and complex Arnold EN, colonization patterns in the Cape Mateo JA, Verde scincid lizards: Mabuya and Lopez-Jurado LF, Macroscincus (Reptilia Scincidae) 2001 revealed by mitochrondrial DNA sequences. Proc Bilo.Sci Aug 7, 268 (1476), : 1595-1603.
  • Day, David; 1979. Vanished Species. Gallery Books, London,Great Britain: pp. 254–255.
  • Grzimek, Berhard 1975. Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia. 1975 Volume 6 Reptiles, Van Nostrand- Reinhold Company, New York, New York U.S.A.: pp.178–179 .
  • Hartdegen, Ruston W. 2003. The green tree skink. Reptiles 2003 Magazine, Volume 11 - -number 9, September, 2003, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.: pp. 42–50.
  • Honda, M. et al.; 1999. Evolution of Asian and African 1999 Lygosomine skinks of the Mabuya group (reptilia: Scincidae) a molecular perspective. Zoological Science, Volume 16, No. 6 pp. 857–1002, December, 1999.
  • Love, Bill; 2003. Mystery skink. Herpetological quiries, Reptiles Magazine Volume 11 Number 1 January, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A. p. 12
  • Pether, Jim; 2003. In search of Macroscincus coctei. Reptiles Magazine, Volume 11- Number 4, April, 2003, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.: pp.70–81.
  • Schnirel, Brian L.; 2004. SENI biometric analysis on the extinct Scincidae species: Macroscincus coctei. Polyphemos, Volume 1, Issue 2, May, Florence, South Carolina, U.S.A. pp. 12–22.
  • De Vosjoli, Phillippe; 1995. Account from the Daily journals of Phillippe Fast, Frank; 1995. de Vosjoli and Frank Fast. The Vivarium, Volume 6-Number 5, Escondido, California, U.S.A. pp 4–7, 12-17, 36-38,40-44.
  • De Vosjoli, Phillippe; 1995. Notes on three species of New Caledonian Fast, Frank; 1995. geckos of the Genus Rhactodactylus. The Vivarium, Volume 6-Number 6, Escondido, California, U.S.A. pp. 26–29, 53-54.
  • Walls, Jerry G.; 1994. Skinks: identification, care, and 1994 breeding. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey U.S.A.: pp.52–58.

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