Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center


Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center

Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) (zh-s|s=酒泉卫星发射中心, zh-t|t=酒泉衛星發射中心) is a People's Republic of China space vehicle launch facility (spaceport) in the Gobi desert, Ejina Banner (额济纳旗), Alashan League (阿拉善盟), Inner Mongolia, located about 1,600 km from Beijing. It is located at coord|40|57|28|N|100|17|30|E|.

History

It was founded in 1958, making it PRC's first of three spaceports. More Chinese launches have occurred at Jiuquan than anywhere else. As with all Chinese launch facilities it is remote and generally closed to foreigners. It is named as such since Jiuquan is the nearest urban centre, although Jiuquan is in the nearby province of Gansu.

The Satellite Launch Center is a part of Dongfeng space city (东风航天城),also known as "Base 20"(二十基地)or "Dongfeng base"(东风基地), which also includes PLAAF test flight facilities, a space museum and a martyr's cemetery(东风烈士陵园). [cite web|url=http://www.nmg.xinhuanet.com/nmgdcy/lvyou/2007-12/05/content_11855918.htm|title =航天科技游圣地——东风航天城|publisher= 新华网内蒙古频道|date=December 5, 2007|accessmonthday=May 7 |accessyear=2008]

JSLC is usually used to launch vehicles into lower and medium orbits with large orbital inclination angles, as well as testing medium to long-range missiles. Its facilities are state of the art and provide support to every phase of a satellite launch campaign. The site includes the Technical Center, the Launch Complex, the Launch Control Center, the Mission Command and Control Center and various other logistical support systems.

The center covers a massive 2800 km² and may have housing for as many as 20 000 people. The facilities and launch support equipment were likely modelled on Soviet counterparts and the Soviet Union, at least in the early 1960s, may have provided technical support to Jiuquan.

The launch center has been the focus of many of China's ventures into space, including their first satellite Dong Fang Hong 1 in 1970, and their first manned space mission "Shenzhou 5" on October 15, 2003.

Shenzhou 6, the second human spaceflight of China, launched on 12 October 2005 on a Long March rocket from JSLC.

Shenzhou 7 was launched on September 25, 2008 by a Long March 2F (CZ-2F) rocket which lifted off from JSLC. This is the third human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program. The mission, which included an extra-vehicular activity (EVA) carried out by crewmembers Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming, marked the commencement of the second phase of the Chinese government's Project 921.

Launch Pads

* Launch Area 2, 3 launch pads: CZ-1, CZ-2A, CZ-2C, CZ-2D, DF-3, DF-5, FB-1.

* Launch Area 3, 1 launch pad: DF-1, DF-2, R-2.

* Launch Area 2S, 1 launch pad: operational since 2003, CZ-2D launch vehicles.

* South Launch Site, 1 launch pad: CZ-2F launcher with nearby Vertical Assembly Facility.

ee also

*Space program of China
*Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center
*Xichang Satellite Launch Center
*Wenchang Satellite Launch Center

References

External links

* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=40.957734,100.291529&spn=.118229,.241030&t=k&hl=en Google Maps]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/world/china/jiuquan.htm http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/world/china/]


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