Medellín

ÔĽŅ
Medellín
Medellín
‚ÄĒ  City  ‚ÄĒ
Municipio de Medellín
Downtown Medellín

Flag

Seal
Location of the city (urban in red) and municipality (dark gray) of Medellín in Antioquia Department.
Medellín is located in Colombia
Medellín
Location in Colombia
Coordinates: 6¬į14‚Ä≤9.33‚Ä≥N 75¬į34‚Ä≤30.49‚Ä≥WÔĽŅ / ÔĽŅ6.235925¬įN 75.5751361¬įWÔĽŅ / 6.235925; -75.5751361Coordinates: 6¬į14‚Ä≤9.33‚Ä≥N 75¬į34‚Ä≤30.49‚Ä≥WÔĽŅ / ÔĽŅ6.235925¬įN 75.5751361¬įWÔĽŅ / 6.235925; -75.5751361
Country ColombiaColombia
Department Antioquia
Founded November 2, 1675
Government
 - Mayor Alonso Salazar Jaramillo
Area
 - City 380 km2 (146.7 sq mi)
 - Metro 1,152 km2 (444.8 sq mi)
Elevation 1,495 m (4,905 ft)
Population (2005)
 - City 2.343.101 hab (ranked 2nd)
 - Density 6.925/km2 (17.9/sq mi)
 Metro 3.333.970 hab
HDI (2006) 0.808 ‚Äď high[1]
Website Government of Medellín official website

Medell√≠n (Spanish pronunciation: [me√įeňą Ěin]), officially the Municipio de Medell√≠n (Spanish) or Municipality of Medell√≠n, is the second largest city in Colombia. It is in the Aburr√° Valley, one of the more northerly of the Andes in South America. It has a population of 2.3 million.[2][3] With its surrounding area, the metropolitan area of Medell√≠n (Area Metropolitana de Medell√≠n), it is the second largest city in Colombia in terms of population and economy, with more than 3.3 million people, and ranks in population as the 91st of the world's largest urban agglomerations.

Medell√≠n was founded in 1616 by the Spaniard Francisco Herrera Y Campuzano as Poblado de San Lorenzo (Saint Lawrence Town) in present-day El Poblado. In 1675 the queen consort Mariana of Austria created the Villa de Nuestra Se√Īora de la Candelaria (Town of Our Lady at Candelaria).

In 1826 the city was named the capital of the Department of Antioquia by the National Congress of the young Republic of Greater Colombia, comprised by present day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama. In 1803 the University of Antioquia, one of the most prestigious in Colombia, was founded. After Colombia won its independence from Spain, Medell√≠n became the capital of the Federal State of Antioquia until 1888, with the proclamation of the Colombian Constitution of 1886. During the 19th century, Medell√≠n was a dynamic commercial center, first exporting gold, then producing and exporting coffee. After the Thousand Days War (1899 ‚ÄĒ 1902), Medell√≠n was the first Colombian city to take part in the Industrial Revolution with the opening of textile companies, and transport projects such as railways that allowed its export business to develop. In addition, its people founded several universities and vocational training institutions.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the city has regained industrial dynamism, with the construction of the Metro de Medellín railway, and liberalized development policies, improved security, and improved education. Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have lauded the city as a pioneer of a post-Washington consensus 'local development state' model of economic development.[4] The city is promoted internationally as a tourist destination. Is considered by the GaWC as a sufficient city to be global city.[5]

The Medellín Metropolitan Area produces 67% of the Department of Antioquia's GDP and 11% of the economy of Colombia.[6] Medellín is important to the region for its universities, academies, commerce, industry, science, health services, flower-growing, festivals and nightlife.

Contents

Etymology of the name Medellín

The original Spanish settlement had five names before the current one: Aburrá de los Yamesíes, San Lorenzo de Aburrá, San Lorenzo de Aná, Valle de San Bartolomé, and Villa de la Candelaria de Medellín.

The city is named after Medellín, Spain, which is near Badajoz in Extremadura. The Spanish Medellín was founded as Metellinum in 75 BC by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius.[7] Some of the Conquistadors, such as Gaspar de Rodas, the first governor of Antioquia, came from the region of Badajoz.

Count Pedro Portocarrero y Luna, President of the Council for the West Indies (Consejo de Indias), asked the Spanish monarchy to give the name of his town, Medell√≠n in Extremadura, to the new settlement in America. His request was accepted on November 22, 1674, when the Regent Mariana of Austria proclaimed the city's name to be Villa de Nuestra Se√Īora de Medell√≠n. Miguel Aguinaga y Mendiogoitia, Governor, made the name official on November 2, 1675. The Crown granted a coat of arms to the city on 24 June 1676.[7]

Symbols

The coat of arms, flag and anthem of the city, has the recognition of official symbols of the municipality of Medellín according to Decree No. 151 of February 20, 2002, and as emblems of the city are part of the corporate image of management municipal, and therefore are present in the acts, events and official media in which these should appear by its representative character.

Coat of Arms

The Medellín coat of arms is the oldest emblem of the city, has its origins in the granting of its use by King Charles II of Spain through the Real Decreto issued in Madrid on March 31 of 1678 whose document says:

Heraldic version Versions of the municipality bodies
Escudo de Medellin.svg Escudo Medellin.svg Escudo Medellín.svg
With the shape called modern French style Version currently used by the Mayor Version currently used by the Council
"...A blue field coat and in then a very thick and round torreón, all around him battlements and a coat of arms which has fifteen lace, seven blue and eight gold, and on its colonel that it touches and the homage of the tower each of the sides a torreoncillo, battlements likewise and among them placing a statue of Our Lady on a cloud with her son in her arms...".

However, a more refined and structured in heraldic language, though not official, would be:

"In Azure field, a round torreón of gold, masoned and rinsed of sable, loaded with a checkered escutcheon of 15 pieces, 7 azur and 8 gold (coat of arms of House of Portocarrero), stamped of ancient crown of gold, and overcome, between its two towers, a cloud bearing the image of Our Lady of Candelaria carrying the Child in his sinister arm, and a candle in his right hand, and lying rayint headwaters clouds of each county. "
First coat of arms of Medellín
Coat of Arms of Medellín in the year 1678.

The blazon has remained over time since it was granted, without further changes to the aesthetics, it is noteworthy that there are different stylistic versions between the Mayor and City Council also meets aesthetic no heraldic standards.

Flag

To strengthen the links with the region, the municipality adopted the flag of the Department of Antioquia, which was added to the coat of arms of the city, so that these could make difference. The flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal proportions, the white top and green bottom, and in the middle between two strips is located the coat. The white color symbolizes purity, integrity, obedience, firmness and eloquence. The green represents hope, abundance, freedom and faith.

Anthem

The anthem of the city of Medellín is Anthem of Antioquia, according to Decree No. 151 of February 20, 2002, Article 10, which says: "Anthem of Medellín. To unify the ideals of region adopted the Antiquia anthem, lyrics by Epifanio Mejía and music by Gonzalo Vidal, as Anthem of the Municipality of Medellín. It will be sung in all official functions where it is present the Mayor of Medellín. "

History

Amerindians

Archaeological evidence has revealed prehistoric human settlement in the Aburrá Valley from 10,500 years ago, first found by hunters and collectors. The Spaniard conquerors of the valley encountered the historic indigenous peoples such as the Aburrá, Yamesí, Pequé, Ebejico, Norisco, and Maní tribes, whose ancestors had lived in the valley since about the fifth century. The valley was named after the Aburrá people. They were farmers who raised maize, beans and cotton, wove and decorated textiles, sold salt, and were goldsmiths. Under Spanish rule, they lost their land and were subject to a feudal system of government. Many were sent to labor in the mines. New Eurasian infectious diseases carried by the Europeans, as well as the hard work and mistreatment, caused epidemics and such high rates of death that the indigenous tribes became extinct in the valley. People related to the Aburrá Valley tribes can be found in other regions of Antioquia State, such as Urabá and the western and southern regions.

Spanish discovery of the valley

Marshal Jorge Robledo.

In August 1541, Marshal Jorge Robledo was in the place known today as Heliconia when he saw in the distance what he thought was a valley. He sent Jerónimo Luis Tejelo to explore the territory, and during the night of August 23 Tejelo reached the plain of what is now Medellín. The Spaniards gave it the name of Valley of Saint Bartholomew, but this was soon changed for the native name Aburrá, which means the "Painters," due to the textile decorations of the natives.[8] However, the conquerors were not attracted much by the valley at the time, because of the lack of wealth and the hostile attitude of the local inhabitants.

In 1574 Gaspar de Rodas asked the Antioquia's Cabildo for four square miles of land to establish herds and a ranch in the valley. The Cabildo granted him three miles (5 km) of land.[8]

In 1616 the colonial visitor Francisco de Herrera y Campuzano founded a settlement with 80 Amerindians, naming it "Poblado de San Lorenzo," today "El Poblado Square". In 1646 a colonial law ordered the separation of Amerindians from mestizos and mulattos, so the colonial administration began the construction of a new town in An√°, today Berrio Square, where the church of Nuestra Se√Īora de la Candelaria de An√° ("Our Lady of Candelaria of An√°") was built. Three years later, the Spaniards started the construction of the Church of Our Lady of Candelaria, which was rebuilt at the end of the 18th century.[8]

Growth of the town

Iglesia Nuestra Se√Īora de La Candelaria (Church of Our Lady of Candelaria) in Parque Berr√≠o (Berr√≠o Square)

After 1574, with Gaspar de Rodas settled in the valley, population started to grow. According to the church records of the San Lorenzo Church, six couples married between 1646 and 1650, and 41 between 1671 and 1675.[8] Gold mines were developed northeast of Antioquia, and they needed a food supply from nearby agriculture. The Aburr√° Valley was in a strategic position between the gold mines and the first provincial capital of Antioquia, Santa Fe de Antioquia.[8]

The provincial capital, Santa Fe, started to lose importance and gradually became poor, as trade and prominent personalities of the region came to the Aburr√° Valley, where rich families started to buy land. Soon, the first settlers asked for the creation of a Cabildo (council) in the valley, thus getting a separate government from Santa Fe.[8] The Santa Fe government fought this, but Mariana of Austria signed the edict creating the Cabildo on November 22, 1674. The governor Miguel de Aguinaga proclaimed the royal edict on 2 November1675. The new city was given the title of Villa de Nuestra Se√Īora de la Candelaria.[8] {

During the Spanish colonial period

Map of Medellín as it was in 1791.

Before the creation of the town, the inhabitants were scattered throughout the valley, with only a few families concentrated at the confluence of the Aná (today called the Santa Elena) and the Medellín rivers; others lived in El Poblado San Lorenzo. After the royal edict, the settlers chose the Aná site as the heart of the future city, with the Candelaria Church at its center.

Their first buildings were simple, with thatched roofs. The houses of the most important people were two stories tall, and the church and the Cabildo were unimpressive. It was only during the 18th century that the church was improved. Only one story, the Cabildo was located at the western part of the plaza. It had a thatched roof until 1742, when tiles were put on. In 1682, traders and foreigners started the construction of the Veracruz Hermitage, which was consecrated as a church by the Bishop of Popay√°n in 1712.[8]

Iglesia de la Veracruz (church)

In 1675 the first census during colonial times was taken: there were 3,000 people and 280 families. Another census was not taken until the colonial Visitador (royal inspector) Antonio Mon y Velarde ordered one between 1786 and 1787: there were then 14,507 people and 241 families. In 1808, two years before Colombia won independence, the city had 15,347 people and 360 families.[8]

In 1803 the Royal College of the Franciscans was founded in the Central Plaza (today Berrío Square) with Departments of Grammar, Philosophy and Theology.[9] Soon after, the College moved to a new building in the small San Ignacio square. In 1821 it was renamed Colegio de Antioquia, and it became the University of Antioquia in 1901. The University also had the first vocational training school, the first cultural radio station in Latin America, and the first regional botanical garden. Today it is known for developments in medicine, including organ transplants.


Industrial revolution

Restored building of the Central Rail Station.

During the nineteenth century, the city grew to national importance because of its production of the commodities of gold and coffee. Construction of the regional railway (Ferrocarril de Antioquia) enabled it to export its products to markets more readily. The railway is no longer used.

In the first half of the twentieth century, the population of Medell√≠n increased sixfold, from 59,815 inhabitants in 1905 to 358,189 in 1951. The Thousand Days War (1899‚Äď1902) stopped the industrial development of the city, although the civil war did not affect the region directly. Under reforms by President Rafael Reyes after the conflict, the city continued its industrial development[8] and founded a Chamber of commerce. The Chamber developed a regional transport project that connected Medell√≠n to other Colombian regions and other nations.

Despite the importance of gold production in the early development of Medellín, the export of coffee contributed the most impetus in the 20th century for the city's growth. Trade grew to international dimensions as the main export of Colombia became coffee. The industrial and commercial dynamism of Medellín also created also a caste of traders and entrepreneurs, who founded the first nationwide industries in Colombia.[8] During the 1930s, the textile industry was developed by families whose fortunes came from colonial-era gold mines. Glass, beverage, and food industries also were founded during the 1930s, and contributed to making Medellín the top industrial region of Colombia. Many of these businesses are still in existence, either with their original names or new names.

The Coltejer Building (1968-1972), the tallest building in Medellín, has become a symbol of the city.

Trade in Medellín

Coltejer is one of the most important textile companies in Colombia. It was founded in Medellín by Alejandro Echavarría on 22 October 1907.[10]

The discovery of coal in Amagá, a few miles south of the Aburrá Valley, and the building of hydroelectric plants provided the new industries with energy, and this allowed the creation of many smaller companies. The Antioquia Railway (built in 1875) conquered the difficult geography of one of the most mountainous regions of South America, notably with the La Quiebra Tunnel, which connected the industrial center to the Magdalena River, the most major navigable river in Colombia. In 1932 Medellín also built its first airport, the Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport.[8]

The study by Charles H. Savage on industrial production in Antioquia between 1960 and 1972 showed how important Medellín industries became to Colombia and South America. He studied social change produced by the introduction of new technology. Savage looked at three factories in Antioquia: two potteries in Santuario and La Blanca, and a tailoring factory in Medellín. Savage studied the production of the Antioquian factories, and the relationship between the workers and their employers, an industrial efficiency which he called the "Culture of Work".[11] His conclusions were published by his colleague George F. Lombardi as Sons of the Machine] (1988).[12][13]

Savage died in 1973.

Art and literature during the first part of the 20th century

Faculty of Mines of the National University of Colombia, Medellín branch.

The University of Antioquia, the National University of Colombia with its Medellín branch, and the Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana have historically been the academic centers of the city and are responsible for the formation of an intellectual class in the region, with a nationwide and international scope.

Arts and literature have been an important social element in Medell√≠n. During the first part of the 20th century the city was part of the literary transition from romanticism to the modern art and literary movements of the new century. The writer Tom√°s Carrasquilla (1858‚Äď1940) focused on the people of his native Antioquia, accurately portraying their daily lives and customs. The writer and philosopher Fernando Gonz√°lez from Envigado (in the metropolitan area of Medell√≠n), the cartoonist Ricardo Rend√≥n and the poet Le√≥n de Greiff were some of the founders of Los Panidas, a Medell√≠n literary movement. Other featured poets and writers were Porfirio Barbajacob and Efe G√≥mez. In painting, the most famous were Eladio V√©lez and Pedro Nel G√≥mez. Carlos Vieco Ortiz was a popular musician. Medell√≠n became the headquarters of record labels like Sonolux, Ondina and Silver.[8]

Medell√≠n clubs, many of them dating to the end of the 19th century, also became a center for intellectual and industrialist movements, like the Club Union (founded in 1894) and Club Campestre (founded in 1924). In 1909 the Circo Espa√Īa was created and Teatro Bol√≠var, in 1919. The beautiful Teatro Jun√≠n was demolished to build the Coltejer Tower. Cine Colombia, the first movie distributor of the country, was founded in Medell√≠n in 1927.[8]

Medellín Master Plan

El Poblado, a wealthy southern district, is one of the most important urban and economic centers of Colombia.

During the 1950s, industrialists, traders and local government created the "Medellín Master Plan" (MMP) (Plan Piloto), a plan for the expansion of the city into the Aburrá Valley that would lead to the creation of the first metropolitan area in Colombia. Paul Lester Wiener and José Luis Sert were the architects who led the project. Among the main features of the MMP were the canalization of the Medellín River, the control of new settlements on valley slopes, the creation of an industrial zone in the Guayabal District, the planning of the city to be in harmony with the river, the construction of a city stadium, and an administrative center in La Alpujarra.[8]

However, Colombia had entered a new era of political instability with the murder of presidential candidate Jorge Eliecer Gaitán in Bogotá in 1948. Political violence spread in the rural areas of Colombia, and farmers fled to the cities. The population of Medellín grew quickly in the next few years. The Valley slopes became overpopulated with slums. In 1951 the city had 358,189 inhabitants, but 22 years later, in 1973, the population had tripled to 1,071,252.

This population explosion had several consequences for the MMP. The urban limits of the city grew to areas that were not contemplated in the MMP, so that Medell√≠n now reached the urban areas of other cities of the Aburr√° Valley, like Envigado, Bello and Itag√ľ√≠; the new Medell√≠n settlers were poor families without enough credit to buy their own homes, so several neighborhoods were built beyond the MMP; several old downtown buildings were demolished to construct tall towers, offices and avenues. The beautiful and traditional Junin Theatre along the Santa Elena was demolished to build the Coltejer Tower. The huge migration into Medell√≠n provided workers for the expansion of textile factories, being modernized at this period,[8] but it also created new problems for the city: higher unemployment, lack of services for poor areas, urban violence in several districts, and collapse of any transport system. It was the perfect setting for the development of the mafia that plagued the city in the following decades, while the MMP had to wait for better times.

Cultural life in the last decades

La Raza Monument, a work in bronze and concrete by Rodrigo Arenas Betancur, 124 feet tall. It is located in La Alpujarra Administrative Center.

During the 1950s, a new generation of writers and artists arose in Medellín, with work characterized by a more modern style. Many writers criticized local and national culture. Manuel Mejía Vallejo established a new narrative style without abandoning his regional origins. It was also the time of Nadaism, a literary movement founded by Gonzalo Arango and others. Openly anti-clerical, Nadaism criticised traditional institutions of society, and was considered philosophically nihilist. The painter Debora Arango entered the national arts culture with her works. Fernando Botero, who found the inspiration for his work in the daily life and drama of the city, is a notable 20th-century artist associated with Medellín. He donated most of his works to the Museum of Antioquia, and the grateful city dedicated Botero Square to him. In the 1970s the artist Rodrigo Arenas Betancur erected monumental sculptures not only in Medellín but also in many other regions of Colombia. His famous work, the Monument to the Race in La Alpujarra Administrative Center, was homage to the Paisa culture.

Many cultural centers enrich the city, such as the Pablo Tobón Uribe Theatre (1967), the Modern Art Museum (1978), and the Metropolitan Theatre (1987). In 2000 the traditional Museum of Antioquia had a second official opening, in which it featured many works of Fernando Botero. New universities also opened in the city: University of Medellín (1950) and EAFIT University (1960).

Research

The American Geographical Society is currently working on a project to assemble a complete virtual bibliography of Comuna 13, one of the many barrios of Medellín.[citation needed]

Medellín has the biggest research-dedicated building in Colombia called University Research Building (Spanish: Sede de Investigación Universitaria -SIU-)[14] a facility that concentrates the top research groups of the University of Antioquia[15] (Spanish: Universidad de Antioquia).

Today

Biblioteca Espa√Īa (Spain Library), a huge modern piece of concrete architecture built at the top of one of the peaks of Medell√≠n

The position of Medellín as the second industrial city in Colombia, after Bogotá, has been a main factor in overcoming its crisis of the 1980s and 1990s. The Metro de Medellín, a massive urban transport service, became the pride of the city, and so far the only sign of the Medellín Master Plan of the 1950s. The construction of the Plaza Mayor of Medellín, an international center for congresses and expositions, was designed to show the globalized economy of Colombia to the world. Medellín is today a modern city with a population of three million.

The former[dubious ] violence also served the purpose of demolishing the high social barriers that were the basis of many social evils. Social exclusion has eased due to the development of transport infrastructure; the Metro, a new system of public buses is being planned with the so-called "Metroplus" and a network of ski-lifts in the poorest barrio communities called the "MetroCable".[4] Today's Medellín includes spaces for art, poetry, drama, the construction of public libraries, the foundation of new ecological parks, and the inclusion of people of the city in its development.[16]

The city administration has pursued policies that have been lauded by researchers at the Overseas Development Institute as helping pioneer a post-Washington consensus 'local development state' model of economic development, see here.[4]

Geography and climate

View of Medellín at night

Medell√≠n has an area of 382 km2 (147 sq mi). It has 16 comunas (districts), 5 corregimientos (townships), and 271 barrios. The metropolitan area of Medell√≠n lies within the Aburr√° valley at an elevation of 1,500 meters (about 4921 feet) and is bisected by the Medell√≠n River (also called Porce), which flows northward. North of the valley are the towns of Bello, Copacabana, Girardota and Barbosa. To the south of the valley lie Itag√ľ√≠, Envigado, Sabaneta, La Estrella and Caldas.

Medell√≠n features a tropical monsoon climate, albeit a noticeably cooler version of this climate. Because Medell√≠n is located at 5,000 ft (1,500 m) above sea level, its climate is not as hot as other cities located at the same latitude near the equator. Because of its altitude above sea level and privileged location in the Andes Range, Medell√≠n's weather at times is more characteristic of a Humid subtropical climate than that of a Tropical climate. The city's average annual temperature is 22 ¬įC (72 ¬įF), and because of its proximity to the equator, its temperature is constant year round, with minimal temperature variations. Temperatures range from 15 to 30 ¬įC (59 to 86 ¬įF). Because of the pleasant springlike climate all year, Medell√≠n is known as 'La Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera' or 'City of the Eternal Spring'. However, as the city is located in a valley and many of its districts are on slopes, temperatures can be slightly cooler on the surrounding mountains.

Climate data for Medellín
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high ¬įC (¬įF) 32
(89)
33
(91)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(90)
32
(90)
32
(90)
33
(91)
33
(91)
32
(89)
32
(89)
33
(91)
33
(91)
Average high ¬įC (¬įF) 27
(80)
27
(81)
27
(81)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
28
(82)
27
(81)
27
(81)
27
(80)
27
(80)
{{{year high C}}}
(82)
Average low ¬įC (¬įF) 17
(62)
16
(61)
16
(61)
16
(60)
16
(60)
16
(60)
16
(60)
16
(61)
16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(62)
17
(62)
{{{year low C}}}
(61)
Record low ¬įC (¬įF) 11
(52)
11
(51)
10
(50)
11
(52)
11
(52)
10
(50)
10
(50)
11
(52)
10
(50)
11
(52)
10
(50)
11
(51)
10
(50)
Precipitation mm (inches) 55
(2.17)
77
(3.03)
114
(4.49)
179
(7.05)
191
(7.52)
153
(6.02)
108
(4.25)
154
(6.06)
178
(7.01)
218
(8.58)
150
(5.91)
79
(3.11)
1,656
(65.2)
Source: [17]

Administrative divisions

Comunas of Medellín
Corregimientos (townships, rural areas) of Medellín

Medellín is a city governed by a republican democratic system as stated in the Colombian Constitution of 1991, with decentralized government. Administration is shared by the Mayor of Medellín and the Municipal Council, both elected by popular vote.

The municipality is made up of official departments (secretar√≠as) including departments for social mobility, urban culture, social development, education, evaluation and control, government, resources, public works, administrative services, environment, women, and transportation. There are also many departments with a certain autonomy: the Olaya Herrera Airport, the Public Library (Biblioteca P√ļblica Piloto), the College of Antioquia (Colegio Mayor), the Urban Development Enterprise (EDU), the Public Service Enterprise (EEPPM), the Sport and Recreation Institute (INDER), the General Enterprises of Medell√≠n (EEVVM), the Medell√≠n Bus stations, the General Hospital of Medell√≠n, the health service enterprise "Metrosalud", the Metropolitan Institute of Technology (ITM), the Metro de Medell√≠n, the Department for the Administration of the Medell√≠n parks (Metroparques) and Metroseguridad.

The city belongs to the Medellín Metropolitan Area, which is made up of ten municipalities. Medellín is divided into six zones and these are subdivided into 16 comunas (communes). The barrios and urban institutional areas make up the communes. More than 249 barrios and five townships are part of the municipality of Medellín.

Zones

  • South-eastern Zone: El Poblado communes.
  • South-western Zone: Guayabal and Bel√©n communes.
  • West Central Zone: Laureles, La Am√©rica and San Javier communes.
  • East Central Zone: La Candelaria, Villa Hermosa and Buenos Aires communes.
  • North-western Zone: Castilla, Doce de Octubre and Robledo communes.
  • North-eastern Zone: Aranjuez, Manrique, Popular and Santa Cruz communes.
  • Corregimientos (townships): San Sebasti√°n de Palmitas, San Crist√≥bal, Altavista, San Antonio de Prado and Santa Elena.
Panorama

Law and government

Politics and law in Colombia are centralized; that is, most laws are agreed on and passed in the capital city of Bogotá. The government of the City of Medellín is divided into executive and legislative branches. The Mayor of the City (Alcalde) is publicly elected for a term of four years (just like the President and the Governor of any other Department in Colombia).

Local Development State

Low tax rates mean Medellín's city administration's social and economic development policies have been funded by the city's ownership of the main energy supplier, Empresas Publicas de Medellín (EPM); 30% of its profits go directly to the city's administrative budget.[4] In addition to infrastructure projects, the city administration has developed a program of cash grants called 'the Medellín Solidaria' programme that are very similar to Brazil's highly successful Bolsa Familia and also the city runs the Cultura E programme.[4] According to the city administration Medellín Solidaria represents an improvement on Colombia's national programme, 'Familias en Accion' (Families in Action).[4] The city administration is further responsible for coordinating more than 100 other social programmes.[4] Under the Cultura E programme, the city administration has established a network of 14 publicly-funded business support centres known as CEDEZO, Centros de Desarrollo Empresarial Zonal).[4] The CEDEZOs are found in the poorest areas of Medellín and support the poor in developing business by providing free-of-charge business support services and technical advice.[4] Also, as part of Cultura E, there is Banco de las Opportunidades that provides microloans (up to $2,500 at a cheap interest rates 0.91% monthly).[4] This has helped create more equal opportunities for all and overcome the barriers to entry to business for poor entrepreneurs with good ideas, but lacking capital, skills and connections.[4] It has also helped develop the local economy with new micro-enterprises.[4] However, several mayoral candidates for the October 2011 elections have argued the Banco de las Opportunidades's interest rates are too high, loan maturity is too short and it should have grace periods.[4] They therefore suggest a new small and medium-sized enterprise (SME) development bank to complement the Banco de las Opportunidades.

Crime

Medell√≠n was once known as the most violent city in the world,[18][19] a result of an urban war set off by the drug cartels at the end of the 1980s. As the home of the Medell√≠n Cartel funded by Pablo Escobar, the city was victim of the terror caused by the war between the organization headed by Escobar, and competing organizations such as "El Cartel del Valle". However, after the death of Escobar, crime rates in the city began to decrease. Throughout the rest of the 1990s crime rates remained relatively high, although gradually declining from the worst years. In October 2002, President √Ālvaro Uribe ordered the military to carry out "Operation Orion," whose objective was to disband the urban militias of the FARC and the AUC.[20] Between 2003 and 2006 the demobilization of the remaining urban militias of the AUC was completed, with more than 3,000 armed men giving up their weapons.[21] Nonetheless after the disbanding of the main paramilitary groups, many members of such organizations have been known to have reorganized into criminal bands known commonly as Aguilas Negras. These groups have gained notoriety in Medell√≠n for calling upon curfews for the underage population, and have been known to distribute fliers announcing the social cleansing of prostitutes, drug addicts, and alcoholics.[22] The extradition of paramilitary leader Don Berna appears to have sparked a crime wave with a sharp increase in killings.[23] There were 33% more murders in 2008 than 2007, with an increase from 654 to 871 violent deaths.[24] This increased further by over 200% in 2009 to 2,899 violent deaths, or about 110 deaths per 100,000 people, 2.5 times the average homicide rate in Colombia and 20 times the average homicide rate in the United States for that same year. An average of 9 people were killed every day in 2009.[25][26] There is a significant disparity in crime rates by neighborhoods, with virtually no homicides in El Poblado to areas with open gunfights in the outskirts. Generally, crime rates increase the further the neighborhood is from the center.[27]

Economy

Headquarters of Argos Company, the first cement industrial group of Colombia.[28]

The present-day economy of Medell√≠n is one of the largest in Colombia and is led by a powerful group of people from the private sector known as the Grupo Empresarial Antioque√Īo (Antioquian Enterprises Group). It was formerly known as the Sindicato Antioque√Īo (Antioquian Union), but after being mistaken abroad for a labor union, which hampered its international growth for many years, a new formal name was chosen. It is represented by David Bojanini, head of Suramericana de Seguros (an insurance conglomerate); Carlos Piedrahita of the Compa√Ī√≠a Nacional de Chocolates (food industry); Jos√© Alberto Velez of Cementos Argos (a multinational cement company); and Jorge Londo√Īo, head of Bancolombia, NYSE (cib), (Colombia's largest bank). This group has an aggregate market capitalization of approximately US $17 billion dollars, and employs more than 80,000 Colombians.[29]

This group also participates in other sectors of the city industry and is an active trader in the Colombian stock exchange. Medellín serves as headquarters for many national and multinational companies.

The main economic products are steel, textiles, confections, food and beverage, agriculture (from its rural area), public services, chemical products and pharmaceuticals, refined oil, and flowers. Fashion is a major part of the economy and culture of the city. Medellín is known as the Milan of Latin America and hosts Latin America's biggest fashion show, Colombiamoda.

Tourism has strongly developed in Medellín in recent years.[citation needed]

Aerolínea de Antioquia has its headquarters on the grounds of Enrique Olaya Herrera Airport in Medellín.[30] When it existed, the airline West Caribbean Airways had its headquarters on the grounds of Olaya Herrera Airport.[31] ACES Colombia was headquartered in the city.[32]

Gross domestic product

Edificio Inteligente (The "Intelligent Tower")

According to Proexport Colombia, the gross domestic product (GDP) can be studied in two areas: Medellín as the Metropolitan Area of Medellín and Medellín itself. As a Metro Area, it contributes 67% of the total GDP of the Department of Antioquia. The city of Medellín alone contributes 55% of the GDP of the department. Antioquia itself is the second greatest economic region of Colombia. By 2005, Antioquia's GDP was more than USD 14,700,000,000 and it is the top exporting state in Colombia.[33] The Aburrá Valley is the top economy in the state and its GDP was USD 7,800 million.[6]

The Medellín Metropolitan Area produces 67% of the Department of Antioquia's GDP and 11% of the economy of Colombia.[6] Medellín is the second economic region in Colombia, after Bogotá, in 2005.

The 2005 Report of the Economic Colombian Review of Proexport and the International Cooperation Agency of Medellín concluded that Medellín was at the same level of GDP contribution to the national economy as cities like Panama in Panama, and San José de Costa Rica.

Medellín Cluster

The Center, and the background the northeastern Medellín.

Medellín created the first Colombian business cluster. The city is the top exporting region of the country, with 1,750 export businesses based in Medellín.[33] The Cluster was created with the support of the Chamber of Commerce of Medellín and the City Administration for an actual total of 21,000 companies that share 40% of total exports, 25% of the regional GDP, and 40% of Metro Area employment.[33] The main economic activities of the Medellín Cluster (MC) are in electricity generation, textile, fashion design, construction, tourism and business.[34] One current goal of the Medellín Cluster is to include health services, an important sector in the local economy.

Tourism and recreation

International Centre of Conventions and Exhibitions "Plaza Mayor", Alpujarra sector.

The tourism in Medellín is mainly focused on business tourism, conferences and conventions and medical tourism. The city boasts the International Centre Conventions and Exhibitions "Plaza Mayor" which is the epicenter of large events and business. The hotel infrastructure is focused primarily to executive market, offering all the necessities required for this segment, some include rooms almost all types of events. There are plenty of Hotels in all areas, you can see here a list of them. In the field of medical tourism, Medellín has become an important place due to the medical level, the most common treatments are cosmetic surgery, refractive surgery, transplants and treatments related to heart problems and cancer.

One of the most visited sites is the Arví Ecotourism Park, which has an area of about 20,000 hectares, covers virtually the entire territory of the village of Santa Elena, and runs between the towns of Bello, Copacabana, and Envigado. In its trails, lakes, forests and streams, it can practice various sports and activities like trekking, kayaking, biking, camping, fishing, swimming, sailing rowing, horseback riding, bike tours and picnics. Its supervisory position over Medellín allows it to offer natural landscapes overlooking over the entire city.

The city is surrounded from above by seven Foster hills, who offer a variety of services, as well as serving as natural viewpoints of the big city, are considered suitable sites for the healthy leisure, recreation, enjoyment, research, sport, culture, education and ecotourism. This set consists of El Volador, La Asomadera, Nutibara, Pan de Az√ļcar, El Salvador, El Picacho and Santo Domingo. In these natural public spaces can find a varied offer including viewpoints, pre-Hispanic roads, religious icons, culture and Antioquian traditions, bird watching (ornithology), the most complete herbal living of Aburr√° Valley and the remains of early settlers native of Medell√≠n, among other attractions.

Christmas Lighting (2004) on the Medellín River.

Most people in Medellín professes the Catholic religion, which is reflected in its temples and religious activities, that are worth seeing and appreciating. The Holy week is celebrated with devotion and the December dates it living in family and the city is covered with thousands of fairy lights, creating the famous Christmas lights, which can be seen mainly in the Avenue la Playa and the Medellín River.

Among the most representative churches are the Metropolitan Cathedral, of Eclectic style prevailing the Romanesque; is 45 meters of high and 5,000 m2 (53,819.55 sq ft) of area, built entirely in baked brick, aspect which is the largest cathedral in the world in such material. There is also the Basilica of Nuestra Se√Īora de la Candelaria, which was the official cathedral until 1931, the Church of la Veracruz, the oldest of Medell√≠n, the Church of San Ignacio, Baroque on the outside and Colonial on inside, the Church of San Jos√© (Medell√≠n)Church of San Jos√© (center), the Church of San Antonio, which has one of the biggest domes in Colombia, all of these temples have a great religious art and are located in the center of the city, which facilitates their journeys. It also highlights the Church of San Jos√© del Poblado, located in the Parque del Poblado where it founded the first settlement of the Aburr√° Valley in 1616.

Other churches of equal value are: C. Nuestra Se√Īora del Sufragio, C. San Benito, C. San Juan de Dios, C. Sagrado Coraz√≥n de Jes√ļs, C. Nuestra Se√Īora del Perpetuo Socorro, C. del Se√Īor de las Misericordias, C. Jes√ļs Nazareno, C. Nuestra Se√Īora del Sagrado Coraz√≥n, among others.

Plaza Botero, in the background the Museum of Antioquia.

Another interesting activity for lovers of art is to walk the streets of Medellín, because in it, it goes through a veritable museum of outdoor sculptures.

By direction of the Municipal Government, between 1980 and 1990 all development or tall building to be built should include a sculpture of a famous artist. That is one reason why the Colombian city of Medellín is the largest number of sculptures per square kilometer and is the most traditional arts in the artistic cast.

Furthermore, in the city have made festivals and art exhibitions that have left valuable works. The center of Medellín has the largest number of sculptures, together with the Avenida el Poblado and Parque de las Esculturas in Cerro Nutibara.

Works of many prominent artists, both local and foreign, can be seen on the streets of the city, among many others, some artists that stand out are the masters Rodrigo Arenas Betancur and Fernando Botero.

Urban development

There are signs of heavy urban development within the city of Medellín, particularly with the construction of new skyscrapers. Medellín is currently outpacing all other major Colombian cities, including Bogotá, the nation's capital and economic center, in the construction and proposed development of new high-rises. As of April, 2010, there were 124 high-rises under construction in Medellín, including 42 being planned.[35]

Other projects that the city has planned are extensions of the cities metro system to nearby cities such as Sabaneta. Currently in construction the new project is set to open to the public soon.

Education

The Library of Private Pontifical Bolivarian University.

Medellín is also home to over 30 universities that serve mainly the Antioquia State, the "Eje Cafetero" (Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis) region and the Caribbean Coast. Among the most important are the public universities Universidad de Antioquia, Universidad Nacional and Politecnico Jaime Isaza Cadavid, and the private EAFIT University, Universidad de Medellín, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, Universidad Santo Tomas, Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje SENA and CES. There are also important technological centers such as the Metropolitan Institute of Technology (ITM).

The Library of Private EAFIT University.

During the last decade, the administration of the city has emphasized public education, building schools and libraries in poor quarters. Private schools and colleges have a long tradition in the city, many run by the Catholic Church, private organizations, and foreign institutions. Among of them are Gimnasio Internacional de Medellín, The Columbus School (the only SACS-approved school in the city), Theodoro Hertzl School, San Ignacio de Loyola School, Colegio Calasanz, Colegio Colombo Britanico, El Corazonista School, Marymount School, Montessori School, Colegio Fontán, Gimnasio Los Pinares, Gimnasio Los Alcázares, San Jose de la Salle, Instituto Jorge Robledo, the Salesian Technical School Pedro Justo Berrío, Colegio Cumbres,'El Sufragio' Salesian School and many others.

Many non-governmental organizations and official organizations support the development of children and youth from poor communities. Ciudad Don Bosco cares for street children.[36] The pacification of the city brought organizations to the poorest quarters to work with youth involved in urban violence, in order to improve their opportunities. Medellín universities, public and private, also played a role, along with official institutions both local and national.

The Central Plaza in the University of Antioquia

Transport

Air transportation

Medellín is the only city in Colombia with two airports. One of them, The José María Córdova International Airport (MDE) is in Rionegro, another municipality east of Medellín and outside the Aburrá Valley. It serves both international and domestic destinations, and can handle large aircraft and night landings. There are international flights daily to and from Miami, Fort Lauderdale, New York, Orlando, Mexico City, Caracas, Quito, Panama City, Lima, Guayaquil, San José, Costa Rica, and other important cities. Olaya Herrera Airport (EOH) serves mainly regional flights, commuter and light aircraft.

Land transportation

Medell√≠n¬īs Metro

Medell√≠n is also the only city in Colombia with two transportation terminals, Terminal de Transporte Intermunicipal del Norte (North Transportation Terminal) and Terminal de Transporte Intermunicipal del Sur (South Transportation Terminal). The city's public transport system includes diesel buses, taxis, and an urban train referred as the Metro de Medell√≠n. The Metro connects the cities of Medell√≠n, Itag√ľ√≠, Envigado and Bello. Line A goes from Itag√ľ√≠ to Niqu√≠a, while Line B goes from San Antonio to San Javier. In addition, Line K and Line J, an air cable car, locally known as Metrocable, serve a depressed and geographically difficult area. Line K begins at Acevedo Station on Metro Line A, and continues uphill, ending at Santo Domingo Savio. Line J begins at San Javier Station on Metro Line B, and continues uphill to La Aurora. A new Metrocable line (Line S) is planned to open in 2009, and will connect Santo Domingo Savio with El Tambo in Arv√≠ Park near Guarne. Medell√≠n is the only Colombian city with such a transport system.

Despite the variety of options, traffic in Medellín has become chaotic[according to whom?], as the number of vehicles has exceeded highway capacity; furthermore, pollution produced by diesel buses has become a major issue, notably in the center of the city and the southern district of El Poblado. The city has no space for the construction of new highways.

In 2006, construction began on Metropl√ļs, a bus service with a dedicated road, much like Bogot√°'s TransMilenio. This will allow faster transit for the service's buses and Metro stations. Metroplus will be inaugurated in 2009, and it will cover most of the city. The first leg will be the Troncal Medell√≠n, which goes from the Universidad de Medell√≠n in the west to Aranjuez in the northeast part of the city. Metroplus will help lessen the city's pollution and traffic, as many old buses will be taken out of service, while the new buses will work with natural gas.

Demography

Growing of the population of
Medell√≠n between 1905‚Äď2005
Years
with census
Total
population
 % growing
year base 1905
1905* 59,815 100%
1912* 70,547 118%
1918* 79,146 132%
1928* 120,044 201%
1938* 168,266 281%
1951** 358,189 599%
1964** 772,887 1292%
1973** 1,077,252 1791%
1985** 1,468,089 2454%
1993** 1,630,009 2725%
2005** 2,223,078 3717%
Poblacion Medellin.png
*Historia de Antioquia[37] - **Censos del DANE

The Aburrá Valley contains 58% of the population of the Department of Antioquia, and 67% of the Aburrá Valley population lives in the city of Medellín. Of the inhabitants of Medellín, 61.3% were born in the city, 38% in other parts of Colombia and 0,3% in another country.[38]

According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics, Medellín had, by 2005, a population of 2,223,078 inhabitants, making it the second largest city in Colombia. The metropolitan area of Medellín in 2005 included 3,312,165 inhabitants. There are 5820 people per square kilometer in the city. There were 130,031 people living in the city townships; 46.7% of the population are male and 53.3% are female. Illiteracy is 9.8% in persons older than 5 years old. 98.8% of the households in Medellín have electricity, 97.3% have drinking water, and 91% have a land-line phone.[38]

Birth and death

According to the 2005 DANE census, in that year Medellín registered 33,307 births,[39] slightly fewer than in 2004 (33,615). In 2005 the number of deaths was 10,828, in 2004 11,512.

Ethnicities

The ethnographic makeup of the city is:

During the 17th and 18th centuries, Medellín received many immigrants from Spain, and some forced immigration from West Africa. Most Indigenous peoples died from the introduction of European diseases, and many of those who survived intermarried with early Spanish settlers, who were mostly men; later, Spanish women also began to immigrate. During the 19th century, immigrants arrived from Lebanon, Jordan, Germany, and Portugal. Many people from Medellín are referred to as Paisas, people of mainly Spanish ancestry, a lot of them Basque origin mixed with African and Indigenous blood. There is a small Afro-Colombian and Zambo-Colombian (people of Indigenous and African descent) population .

The Chocó Department is just west of Antioquia, and is home to many Afro-Colombian and Zambo-Colombian migrants to Medellín and its vicinity. Migration from the Colombian Caribbean coast has been important, especially that of young people who come to study in Medellín universities and remain to work in the city. The main foreign immigration is of Ecuadorians in informal trade.

Culture

The inhabitants of Medell√≠n are often called Antioque√Īos (Antioquians) after their state, rather than Medellinenses (Medellinians) after their city. They are also often known as Paisas, a name which some suggest comes from the coffee growers. The term Paisa comes from the word paisano (fellow countryman). Paisas make up one of the five different regional cultures within Colombia. The Paisa region includes the states of Caldas, Risaralda, Quindi¬≠o and some towns of Valle del Cauca and Tolima.

Although Paisa culture is dominant in Medellí­n (the "Paisa Capital"), the city is becoming more cosmopolitan, now offering music from other regions of Colombia (Vallenato and Chocó), and a variety of restaurants including Chinese, Cuban, and Argentinian.

The Paisa culture has a Spanish background, and is traditionally Catholic, entrepreneurial, hard-working, and famously hospitable. Paisas are said to speak softly and quickly, to smile easily, and to love bullfights, rodeo, music, poetry, soccer, bargaining in the markets, and parties. They are proud of their city. The Medellí­n weekend nightlife, in discos, pubs, parks, and certain dedicated streets, is traditionally called rumba.[40]

Festivals and events

Silleteros Parade at the Festival of the Flowers, one of the winning silletas in 2007.
  • Festival of the Flowers. It is the most representative event in the city of Medell√≠n. Is done in late July to early August. The Festival, plus many other activities and festivities, is the main axis the Desfile de Silleteros, a colorful and artistic parade of flowers filled saddles on the back for their own grower and already well known internationally.
  • International Poetry Festival. This is an annual congregation of poets in almost all the world, who give at public his poems and readings of a peculiar way mass in parks, auditoriums, neighborhoods and towns near Medell√≠n. This event has been awarded the Right Livelihood Award, the prelude to the Nobel Peace Prize by the Right Livelihood Foundation of Sweden, and its aim is to strive for peace through poethic.[41] The XVII International Poetry Festival of Medell√≠n was performed between 14 and 22 July 2007, with the participation of over 80 poets from around 55 nations.
  • International Tango Festival. Popular annual celebration, an expression of the tango culture that Medell√≠n adopted as their own. This is a legacy of the bard Carlos Gardel, who died in this city in a plane crash in 1935. Among the activities of the Festival highlights the Tangov√≠a, where people took to the streets en masse to dance, listen to tango, milonga and obviously having fun at the behest of culture.
  • International Jazz Festival. The Corporaci√≥n Medell√≠n de Jazz and other entities in the city organized annually in September this traditional festival, with participation of renowned national and global exponents of the genre. Is performed simultaneously in several places in the city, including the outdoor theater of the Centro Comercial El Tesoro and the Caf√© Teatro of the city. The Jazz Festival has embodied a revival of this music of newest generation in the city and attracts more and more renowned musicians and mass audience.
  • Book Fair. One of the most important cultural events in Medell√≠n, Medell√≠n Book Fair is held with the participation of national and international authors and exhibitors from all genres. It is sponsored by the Mayor of Medell√≠n.
  • Festival del Humor. Annual celebration of laughter, humor, ballads, comedy and uncomplicated life, performed at the Teatro Metropolitano de Medell√≠n with the participation of artists of humor throughout the country and abroad, and aims to cultivate and preserve the good humor as an important expression cultural as well as keeping the community a sustainable school or related artists dedicated to it.
  • Parade of Myths and Legends. On the night of 7 December each year, the Noche de las luces, the center of the city is adorned with the parade that amid of costumes, songs and bands, evokes the most popular myths and legends of the region: La madre monte, El cura sin cabeza, La dama verde, El sombrer√≥n, La llorona and many more.
  • Feria internacional del caballo. Since 2009 was added to the horse paisa culture the Feria internacional del caballo, held in October, an exhibition truly unique and beautiful to watch with the participation of several countries and varied and fine horse races.[42]
  • Bullfighting Festival of La Macarena. One of the most important bullfighting festivals in the Americas, held every year between January and February enjoy of a lot of fans, it brings the best exponents of the bullfight and winners of the best places in the Americas and Spain, is held in the Plaza de toros de La Macarena, a plaza of Category A. Most revenues of the show is donated to the Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Pa√ļl, in addition to generating a good income to the city.

Other highlights events of the city: Expofinca, Home Fair and the Cooperative Integration, Construction Fair, Metalworking Exhibition, Antioquía Fair, Expocasa, Colombiamoda, Superventas, Transport International Fair, Coffee of Colombia, Saludexpo, Expoempresa, Agroferia, Hecho a Mano and many others.

Museums and other venues

Medellín has about 40 galleries, which are one of the main attractions of the city.

Some of the main museums are:

Inside the Museum of Antioquia
  • Museum of Antioquia is the most important museum in Medell√≠n,[citation needed] and one of the best known of Colombia. Was the first founded (1881) in the department of Antioquia, the second in the country. Its collections lie at the heart of Medell√≠n in the old city hall, now transformed in the institution's headquarters, next to Plaza Botero.
  • Museum of Modern Art of Medell√≠n (MAMM), founded in 1978, has a valuable collection of contemporary art comprising sculptures, assemblages, paintings, photographs, and prints by local and foreign artists. One of its major attractions is the collection of almost all the works of the Antioquian painter D√©bora Arango. Another of its main attractions is the projection of cinema-art. It is also headquarters of the International Biennale of Video in September.
  • University Museum, University of Antioquia, was created in 1942, is located in University City. The area of anthropology exhibits a collection of 18 000 pieces of pre-Columbian pottery, stone, shell, metal and textiles, the second richest in the country, and a complete ethnographic collection. The area of visual arts includes contemporary painting and sculpture, and includes 1200 pieces of contemporary artists. The area of History at the university collects in a thousand pieces and documents the 200 years of existence of the University, and the natural sciences section displays 5400 pieces, including native and exotic stuffed animals, skins for study, minerals and fossils.
Museum El Castillo.
  • Museum El Castillo, built in 1930 in medieval Gothic and open to the public in 1971, has French-style gardens, explosions room, library and concert hall for 250 people, exhibit permanently porcelain and glass, stained glass, music, sculpture, piano and ballet.
  • Interactive Museum EPM environment is part of Parque de los Pies Descalzos. Receives 1000 visit a day, mostly students. This is an educational tour of 22 rooms spread over four buildings in which, with technological resources and entertaining way, is explained and interacts with the physical principles of water, energy, gas and telecommunications. It is funded and managed by Empresas P√ļblicas de Medell√≠n.
  • Mineralogy Museum is located in the School of Mines of National University of Colombia. It has a permanent exhibition of a total of 2778 specimens, its collections are recognized by mineralogists and experts among the best museums in South America.
Museum Cemetery San Pedro.
  • Museum Cemetery San Pedro was built in 1842, became a museum in 1998 and declared a National monument in 1999, this place is an integral part of cultural and architectural heritage of Medell√≠n. Although it falls under the category of sculpture and architecture works representing the funerary art, the space has begun to emerge as a new venue for artistic dissemination. There is preserved collections of local and national art and, in full moon nights, there are concerts, shows, storytelling, theater and dance. But undoubtedly the most significant are the funerary monuments in memory of prominent figures in national history.
  • House Museum Master Pedro Nel G√≥mez was the home where lived the master Pedro Nel G√≥mez; became a museum in 1975 with the donation by the artist and his family of the works in it. It currently has 1500 works, 200 square meters of fresco painting and an art library with over 500 volumes.
  • Casa Museo Gardeliana disseminates the culture and history of the Tango. It was declared a Cultural Heritage and Historic Monument by the Council of Medell√≠n in 2002. Founded on February 14, 1973, by the Argentine Leonardo Nieto Jarbon in the neighborhood Manrique, in a traditional house of simple looking. The famous tango singer Carlos Gardel met his death in Medell√≠n, in accident airplane crash. Since then -and before- exists in the city a deep tango culture. Some plaques testify the visit, to the house, of personalities from politics, entertainment and literature, as the Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges.
  • Parque Explora is located between the Botanical Garden and the Parque Norte. Although its name suggests otherwise, it is more of an interactive museum, focused on science, technology and many other aspects of knowledge and creativity. It offers visitors an experience of close contact with the cutting edge of science and technology, the universe and outer space, nature and our planet, the human body, biology, ecology, research, creativity and inventiveness and learning by playing, among other factors. Provides, among other attractions, the largest aquarium in South America where it can watch the fishes of the Amazon and Orinoco rivers, with a sample of the Colombian Caribbean and Pacific.
  • Planetarium of Medell√≠n is located in front to Parque de Los Deseos. With telescopes and projection room for 300 people, in its dome 17.5 meters in diameter are permanent exhibitions, for all ages, on our planet and space. Its services include an auditorium, library and a permanent exhibition on space history.

Other prominent museums are: Centro Cultural Banco de la Rep√ļblica, Entomological Museum Francisco Luis Gallego, Casa Museo Santa Fe, Museum of Natural Sciences, Ethnographic Museum Miguel √Āngel Builes and Museum of the Mother Laura.

Sports

Medellí­n's best-known and most popular sports clubs are the Atlético Nacional, Envigado F.C. and Independiente Medellín football (soccer) teams. They play at the Atanasio Girardot Stadium. Medellí­n is also known for its two main swim teams, the Calamares Pilsen and the Huracanes. Three-time Tour de France lap winner Santiago Botero Echeverry was born in the city. Medellí­n is also the birthplace of professional golfer and PGA Tour player Camilo Villegas.

On March 26 and 27 (2011) Medellín will host the 15th IAAF Pan American Race Walking Cup. Athletes and teams from the countries in North, South and Central American as well as the Caribbean Islands will be participating. Race Walking is an Olympic track & field event.

Nicknames of the city

Known as the "industrial capital of Colombia", Medell√≠¬≠n is also called Ciudad de la Eterna Primavera (City of Everlasting Spring), Capital de la Monta√Īa (Mountain Capital), Ciudad de las Flores (City of Flowers), "Capital de las Orqu√≠¬≠deas" (Orchid Capital), La Bella Villa (the Beautiful Village), Tacita de Plata (Little Silver Cup), and Medallo (a modification of the city's name).

International relations

Twin towns ‚ÄĒ Sister cities.

Medellín is twinned with:

Other forms of cooperation, partnership and city friendship

Gallery

References

Notes
  1. ^ Veedur√≠a de Medell√≠n. "Veedur√≠a Ciudadana al Plan de Desarrollo de Medell√≠n IDH 2004-2007" (in Spanish) (xls). http://www.veeduriamedellin.org.co/img_upload/9eab3531de2c5b3c94fe5391c9495b98/IDH_InversionPerCapitaMedellin2001_2004.xls. Retrieved 2009-01-26. [dead link]
  2. ^ Helders, Stefan. "World Gazetteer: Colombia: largest cities: calc 2006". http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&geo=-55&srt=npan&col=aohdq&pt=c&va=&srt=pnan. Retrieved 2006-06-15. 
  3. ^ Butler, Rhett (2003). "Largest cities in Colombia (2002)". http://www.mongabay.com/igapo/Colombia.htm. Retrieved 2006-06-15. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Milford Bateman, Juan Pablo Duran Ortíz and Kate Maclean 2010. A post-Washington consensus approach to local economic development in Latin America? An example from Medellín, Colombia. London: Overseas Development Institute
  5. ^ GaWC. "The World According to GaWC 2008". lboro.ac.uk. http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2008t.html. Retrieved November 10, 2011. 
  6. ^ a b c "Report on Medell√≠n's Economy by 2005". Proexport Colombia. http://www.proexport.com.co/VBeContent/NewsDetail.asp?ID=7658&IDCompany=16. Retrieved May 8, 2008. "participation of the cities GDP by countries provided by the International Cooperation Agency of Medell√≠n" 
  7. ^ a b "Ayuntamiento de Medell√≠n (Espa√Īa). Topon√≠micos de Medell√≠n" (in Spanish). http://www.medellin.es/psituacion.htm. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Restrepo Uribe, Jorge (1981), Medellín, su Origen, Progreso y Desarrollo, Servigráficas, Medellín. ISBN 84-300-3286-X.
  9. ^ '"Suramericana de Seguros", in History of Antioquia, Ed. Presencia Ltda, Medellín, 1988, without ISBN, in Spanish.
  10. ^ Compa√Ī√≠a Colombiana de Tejidos (Colombian Textile Company) Coltejer: History of the Company, Itag√ľ√≠, Colombia, Retrieved on May 7th, 2008.
  11. ^ Savage presented his thesis Factories in the Andes: Social Organization in a Developing Economy for his PhD in Business Administration at Harvard University in 1962.
  12. ^ Savage, Charles H., Jr.; Lombard, George F. F. (1986), Sons Of The Machine., MIT Press 
  13. ^ Sons of the Machine: Case Studies of Social Change in the Workplace, 29, January 1988, pp. 177‚Äď179, http://www.jstor.org/pss/3105262, retrieved May 6, 2008 
  14. ^ http://siu.udea.edu.co
  15. ^ "Universidad de Antioquia". Udea.edu.co. http://www.udea.edu.co. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  16. ^ Nelson Alcantara: Colombia’s Medellín: City transformed, February 23, 2008. De Colombia Net. Retrieved on May 7, 2008.
  17. ^ www.ideam.gov.co
  18. ^ orrell, Jhon. "Colombia the Most Dangerous City - TIME." TIME 21 Mar. 1988: 1-4. Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Web. 04 Nov. 2010. <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,967029-1,00.html>
  19. ^ Luis Flores Ballesteros. "La guerra contra las drogas y el verdadero aprendizaje del Milagro de Medellín" 54 Pesos May. 2010:54 Pesos 26 May 2010. <http://54pesos.org/2010/05/26/la-guerra-contra-las-drogas-y-el-verdadero-aprendizaje-del-milagro-de-medellin/>
  20. ^ BBC. "Fuego cruzado en Medellín." 17 October 2002. BBCMundo.com. 3 May 2009.
  21. ^ Valencia, German Dario. "Balance del progrma de desmovilizacion." Marzo 2008. www.medellincomovamos.org. 3 May 2009.
  22. ^ Caracol Radio. "Las '√Āguilas Negras' anuncian limpieza social en un sector de Medell√≠n". Enero 31 de 2008.
  23. ^ "Medell√≠n minus the "Leviathan"". Plan Colombia and Beyond. http://www.cipcol.org/?p=644. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  24. ^ "Indicadores sobre derechos humanos y DIH Colombia A√Īo 2008" (in Spanish) (PDF). Programa Presidencial de Derechos Humanos y Derecho Internacional Humanitario. p. 58. http://www.derechoshumanos.gov.co/observatorio_de_DDHH/documentos/Indicadores/obs_indicadores_dic2008_090330.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-27. [dead link]
  25. ^ Time Magazine Medellín: A disturbing comeback of crime. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1967232,00.html
  26. ^ "Homicidios 2009" (in Spanish) (PDF). Medicina Legal. p. 43. http://www.medicinalegal.gov.co/drip/2009/2%20Forensis%202009%20Homicidios.pdf. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  27. ^ "Policia and Crime in Medellin, Colombia". 2011-02-24. http://www.llworldtour.com/2011/02/24/my-run-in-with-the-policia/. Retrieved 2011-09-15. 
  28. ^ "Data on Cementos Argos". http://www.argos.com.co/wps/portal/!ut/p/kcxml/04_Sj9SPykssy0xPLMnMz0vM0Y_QjzKLN4i3MPMASYGYxqb6kWhCjgiRIH1vfV-P_NxU_QD9gtzQiHJHR0UAcrHMnA!!/delta/base64xml/L3dJdyEvd0ZNQUFzQUMvNElVRS82XzBfQ0k!. 
  29. ^ "Grupo Empresarial Antioque√Īo". suleasing-intl.com. http://www.suleasing-intl.com/Colombia/ColGrupoSura.asp. Retrieved October 15, 2006. 
  30. ^ "Contáctenos." Aerolínea de Antioquia. Retrieved on January 26, 2011.
  31. ^ "PREGUNTAS FRECUENTES WEST CARIBBEAN AIRWAYS." West Caribbean Airways. August 11, 2003. Retrieved on January 26, 2011. "6. ¬ŅD√≥nde quedan ubicadas las oficinas de West Caribbean Airways? Las oficinas principales, es decir, la sede administrativa, operaciones, el √°rea comercial y el call center est√°n ubicados en el hangar 73 del aeroparque Olaya Herrera."
  32. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 17‚Äď23, 1999. 40. "Calle 49, No 50-21, Piso 34, Edificio del Cafe, Medell√≠n, Antioquia, AA 6503, Colombia"
  33. ^ a b c Revista Semana (2007): ¬ęRuta Empresarial¬Ľ, en Semana, vol. II, Edici√≥n especial, N¬ļ 1329. p. 106.
  34. ^ Cámara de Comercio de Medellín. Comunidad Clusters.
  35. ^ "Skyscrapers of Medell√≠n". http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/ci/bu/sk/?id=101122. 
  36. ^ Ciudad Don Bosco Medellín, a center for street children.
  37. ^ Suramericana de Seguros (1988), Historia de Antioquia. Editorial Presencia Ltda.(Edición especial no tiene ISBN) Medellín. pp. 299.
  38. ^ a b DANE: the 2005 census of the National Department of Statistics of Colombia.
  39. ^ DANE: Results of births and dead.
  40. ^ Brown, Matthew. "Colombia: An Emerging Travel Destination". http://albeiror24.wordpress.com/2008/03/11/colombia-an-emerging-travel-destination/. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 
  41. ^ Festival Internacional de Poesía de Medellín (Colombia), Right Livelihood Awards
  42. ^ El Colombiano, Medellín: Una fiesta en torno al caballo, 2009
  43. ^ "Sister cities". Online directory: the Americas (the member directory for sister cities in the Americas. http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/Americas. Retrieved April 2, 2008. 
  44. ^ "Hermandad entre ciudades". La Naci√≥n,. March 14, 2004. http://www.lanacion.com.ar/herramientas/printfriendly/printfriendly.asp?nota_id=580269. 
  45. ^ Gardel en Tacuarembó, Radio Gardel
  46. ^ "Acuerdos de colaboraci√≥n seg√ļn la web del Ayuntamiento de Barcelona". http://w3.bcn.es/XMLServeis/XMLHomeLinkPl/0,4022,229724149_257217612_2,00.html. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Medellin ‚ÄĒ Medell√≠n Wappen Flagge Hilfe zu Wappen ‚Ķ   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Medell√≠n ‚ÄĒ Medell√≠n ‚Ķ   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Medellin ‚ÄĒ Medell√≠n Medell√≠n H√©raldique Dr ‚Ķ   Wikip√©dia en Fran√ßais

  • Medell√≠n ‚ÄĒ ‚ÄĘ Archdiocese in the Republic of Colombia, Metropolitan of Antioquia and Manizales, in the Departments of Medell√≠n, Antioquia, and Manizales Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Medellin ¬†¬†¬†¬†Medell√≠n ‚Ķ   Catholic encyclopedia

  • MEDELL√ćN ‚ÄĒ Ville de Colombie et chef lieu du d√©partement d‚ÄôAntioquia, Medell√≠n est situ√©e √† 1 400 m√®tres d‚Äôaltitude dans la vall√©e d‚ÄôAburra. Elle se trouve dans l‚Äô√©tage dit ¬ętemp√©r√©¬Ľ des Andes colombiennes. Medell√≠n est devenu un des principaux centres… ‚Ķ   Encyclop√©die Universelle

  • Medell√≠n ‚ÄĒ puede referirse a: Campa√Īas Militares 1. Batalla de Medell√≠n: Batalla que se libr√≥ en Medell√≠n a principios del Siglo XIX, en la que los espa√Īoles se enfrentaron a las tropas de Napole√≥n. * * * C. del centro NO de Colombia, capital del… ‚Ķ   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Medell√≠n ‚ÄĒ ¬† [me»ďe jin], Hauptstadt des Departaments Antioquia, Kolumbien, 1 500 m √ľber dem Meeresspiegel, in der Zentralkordillere, mit 1,96 Mio. Einwohnern drittgr√∂√üte Stadt des Landes; katholischer Erzbischofssitz; zwei staatliche und zwei private… ‚Ķ   Universal-Lexikon

  • Medellin ‚ÄĒ Medellin, 1) Stadt in der spanischen Provinz Badajoz (Estremadura), an der Guadiana, √ľber welche eine Br√ľcke f√ľhrt, Titel einer Grafschaft, Geburtsort von Ferdinand Cortez; 3200 Ew.; dabei 19. M√§rz 1809 Sieg der Franzosen unter Victor √ľber die… ‚Ķ   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Medell√≠n ‚ÄĒ Medell√≠n, 1) Stadt in der span. Provinz Badajoz. Bezirk Don Benito, am linken Ufer des Guadiana, √ľber den eine Br√ľcke (von 1636) f√ľhrt, an der Eisenbahn Madrid Badajoz, hat ein Kastell aus dem 14. Jahrh. und (1900) 1625 Einw.; Geburtsort des… ‚Ķ   Meyers Gro√ües Konversations-Lexikon

  • Medellin ‚ÄĒ (spr. elljńęn), Hauptstadt des kolumb. Dep. Antioquia, (1902) 53.000 E.; Bergbaubezirk ‚Ķ   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Medell√≠n ‚ÄĒ [mńĀőĄdńĀ yńďn‚Ä≤] city in NW Colombia: pop. 1,971,000 ‚Ķ   English World dictionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
… Do a right-click on the link above
and select ‚ÄúCopy Link‚ÄĚ

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.