George V of Hanover


George V of Hanover
George V
King of Hanover
Reign 18 November 1851 – 20 September 1866
Predecessor Ernest Augustus I
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Predecessor Ernest Augustus I
Successor Ernest Augustus II
Consort Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Issue
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover
Princess Frederica of Hanover
Princess Marie of Hanover
Full name
George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus
German: Georg Friedrich Alexander Karl Ernst August
House House of Hanover
Father Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Mother Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Born 27 May 1819
Berlin, Prussia
Died 12 June 1878(1878-06-12) (aged 59)
Paris, France
Burial St George's Chapel, Windsor

George V (George Frederick Alexander Charles Ernest Augustus; 27 May 1819 – 12 June 1878) was King of Hanover, the only child of Ernest Augustus I, and a grandchild of King George III of the United Kingdom. In the peerage of Great Britain, he was 2nd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 2nd Earl of Armagh. He was the fifth and final King of Hanover.

George V, a first cousin of Queen Victoria, inherited the Hanoverian realm (which could not pass to Victoria because of Salic law) through his father, who ascended the throne of Hanover in place of Victoria. George spent his childhood in Berlin and in Britain, losing the sight of one eye following a childhood accident and illness in 1828.[1] He lost the sight in the other eye in 1833.[2] His uncle, William IV, created him a Knight of the Garter on 15 August 1835. His father had hoped that the young prince might marry his cousin Victoria, thus keeping the British and Hanoverian thrones united, but nothing ever came of that desire and on King William's death, Victoria became Queen of the UK and George became 1st in line to the Hanoverian throne and 2nd in line to the British throne (after his father).

Contents

Early life

Prince George of Cumberland was born in Berlin, the only son of Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, himself fifth son of George III, and his wife, Princess Frederica, Duchess of Cumberland.

He was baptized on 8 July 1819, at a hotel in Berlin where his parents were staying, by the Rev. Henry Thomas Austen (brother of author Jane Austen). His godparents were The Prince Regent (represented by The Duke of Cumberland), The King of Prussia, The Emperor of Russia, The Crown Prince of Prussia, Prince William of Prussia, Prince Frederick Louis of Prussia, Prince Henry of Prussia, Prince William of Prussia, The Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Duke Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, The Empress Maria Feodorovna of Russia, The Queen of the Netherlands, The Princess Augusta, The Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Homburg, The Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, The Princess Sophia, Princess Alexandrine of Prussia, The Electoral Princess of Hesse-Kassel, The Duchess of Anhalt-Dessau, Princess William of Prussia, The Dowager Princess Ferdinand of Prussia, Princess Louisa of Prussia and The Princess Radziwill.[3]

Crown Prince

Upon the death of William IV and the accession of Queen Victoria to the British throne, the 123-year personal union of the British and Hanoverian thrones ended due to the operation of Salic Law in the German states. The Duke of Cumberland succeeded to the Hanoverian throne as Ernst August I, and Prince George became the Crown Prince of Hanover. As a legitimate male-line descendant of George III, he remained a member of the British Royal Family, and second in line to the British throne, until the birth of Queen Victoria's first child, Victoria, Princess Royal, in 1840. Since he was totally blind, there were doubts as to whether the Crown Prince was qualified to succeed as king of Hanover; but his father decided that he should do so.

Marriage

George married, on 18 February 1843, at Hanover, Princess Marie of Saxe-Altenburg, the eldest daughter of Joseph, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, by his wife, Duchess Amelia of Württemberg.

King of Hanover

The Crown Prince succeeded his father as the King of Hanover and Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, as well as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, in the Peerage of Great Britain, and Earl of Armagh, in the Peerage of Ireland, on 18 November 1851, assuming the style George V.

From his father and from his maternal uncle, Prince Charles Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, one of the most influential men at the Prussian court, George had learned to take a very high and autocratic view of royal authority. During his 15-year reign, he engaged in frequent disputes with the Hanoverian parliament. Having supported Austria in the Diet of the German Confederation in June 1866, he refused, contrary to the wishes of his parliament, to assent to the Prussian demand that Hanover should observe an unarmed neutrality during the Austro-Prussian War. As a result, the Prussian army occupied Hanover and the Hanoverian army surrendered on 29 June 1866, the King and royal family having fled to Austria. The Prussian government formally annexed Hanover on 20 September, but the deposed King never renounced his rights to the throne nor acknowledged Prussia's actions. From exile in Gmunden, Austria, he appealed in vain for the European great powers to intervene on behalf of Hanover. From 1866, George V maintained the Guelphic Legion at his own expense.

British Royalty
House of Hanover
Quarterly, I and IV Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or; II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules; III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent; overall an escutcheon tierced per pale and per chevron, I Gules two lions passant guardant Or, II Or a semy of hearts Gules a lion rampant Azure, III Gules a horse courant Argent, the whole inescutcheon surmounted by crown
George III
   George IV
   Frederick, Duke of York
   William IV
   Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg
   Edward, Duke of Kent
   Princess Augusta Sophia
   Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg
   Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
   Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
   Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
   Mary, Duchess of Gloucester
   Princess Sophia
   Prince Octavius
   Prince Alfred
   Princess Amelia
Grandchildren
   Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
   Princess Charlotte of Clarence
   Princess Elizabeth of Clarence
   Victoria
   George V, King of Hanover
   George, Duke of Cambridge
   Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
   Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck

Death

George V died in Paris in June 1878. He was buried in St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle.

Legacy

The king supported industrial development – in 1856 the "Georgs-Marien-Bergwerks- und Hüttenverein" was founded which was named after him and his wife. The company erected an iron and steel works which gave the city Georgsmarienhütte its name.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 27 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: His Royal Highness Prince George of Cumberland
  • 20 June 1837 – 18 November 1851: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Hanover
  • 18 November 1851 – 12 June 1878: His Majesty The King of Hanover

Arms

By grant dated 15 August 1835, George's arms in right of the United Kingdom were those of his father (being the arms of the United Kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point charged with a fleur-de-lys azure, and each of the other points charged with a cross gules), the whole differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent.[4]

Ancestors

George's ancestors in three generations
George V of Hanover Father:
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Paternal grandfather:
George III of the United Kingdom
Paternal great-grandfather:
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Paternal great-grandmother:
Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Paternal grandmother:
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Paternal great-grandfather:
Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow
Paternal great-grandmother:
Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Mother:
Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Maternal grandfather:
Charles II, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Maternal great-grandfather:
Charles Louis Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Mirow
Maternal great-grandmother:
Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal grandmother:
Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt
Maternal great-grandfather:
Prince Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt
Maternal great-grandmother:
Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Ernest Augustus, Crown Prince of Hanover 21 September 1845 14 November 1923 Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; born at Hanover, died at Gmunden, married Princess Thyra of Denmark; had issue
Princess Frederica of Hanover 9 January 1848 16 October 1926 born at Hanover, died at Biarritz; married Alfons, Baron von Pawel-Rammingen; had no surviving issue
Princess Marie of Hanover 3 December 1849 4 June 1904 Marie Ernestine Josephine Adolphine Henrietta Theresa Elizabeth Alexandrina; born at Hanover, died unmarried at Gmunden

References

  1. ^ Letter to the Times dated July 3rd by William Christian Sellé
  2. ^ Letter to the Times dated July 5th by William Christian Sellé
  3. ^ London Gazette: no. 17497. p. 1296. 24 July 1819. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
  4. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family

External links

George V of Hanover
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 27 May 1819 Died: 12 June 1878
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus I
King of Hanover
18 November 1851 – 20 September 1866
Office abolished
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus I
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
18 November 1851 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus II
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
Ernest Augustus I
Earl of Armagh
18 November 1851 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus II
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of Hanover
20 September 1866 – 12 June 1878
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus II

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