- Juan Antonio Ríos
Infobox_President | name=Juan Antonio Ríos
President of Chile
April 2 1942
June 27 1946
death_date=death date and age|1946|6|27|1888|11|10|mf=y
spouse=Marta Ide Pereira
Juan Antonio Ríos Morales (
November 10, 1888- June 27, 1946) was a Chilean political figure, and President of Chilefrom 1942 to 1946, during the height of World War II. He died in office.
Ríos was born at the "Huichicura"
hacienda, near the town of Cañete, a coal-mining village in the Arauco Provinceof southern Chile. He was the youngest son of Anselmo Ríos, a rich landowner, and his third wife Lucinda Morales. His father (aged 69 to his young wife's 19 at marriage) died when he was very young so him and his three brothers were raised single-handedly by his mother. He completed his primary studies at the rural school of Cañete, and his secondary studies first at the "Liceo" of Lebu and later at the one in Concepción, and continued legal studies at the courses given at the annex of his school. Ríos became a lawyer in 1914 with an exposition on the creation and development of the police in Chile.
A member of the conservative wing of the Radical Party since his high school days, he was elected local president of the youth branch of that party and later city councillor. During the presidential election of 1920 he campaigned for
Arturo Alessandri, being responsible for the southern part of the country. He was rewarded by Alessandri with the appointment of Consul-general and Chargé d'affairesto Panama. On October 21, 1921he married Marta Ide, and together they had three sons: Juan, Carlos and Fernando.
He returned to Chile in 1924, in order to run in that year's congressional elections. Ríos resulted elected as deputy for "Arauco, Lebu and Cañete" being reelected in 1926. After Alessandri's return to power following the
Chilean coup of 1925, he participated of the committee charged with drafting a new constitution, that led to the approval and proclamation of the 1925 Chilean Constitution.
In the meantime, Juan Antonio Ríos had become president and one of the principal leaders of the Radical Party. During the administration of colonel
Carlos Ibáñez del Campohe was caught between his party's opposition to the government's dictatorial administration and his personal admiration for the government's results. As party president, he participated of the "Thermal Congress" (an unelected Congress convened by President Ibañez) as a senator for "Arauco, Malleco and Cautín". After the fall of general Ibañez in 1931, Ríos was expelled from his party for his cooperation with the former dictatorship.
1932 was a very politically turbulent time for Ríos. First, he supported the
Chilean coup of 1932, a successful coup that toppled President Juan Esteban Montero, and resulted in the proclamation of the Socialist Republic of Chile. Then he went on to become the Minister of the Interior when Carlos Dávilatook over as head of state. In turn, after the resignation of Dávila three months later, general Bartolome Blanchebecame president, and Ríos became his Minister of Justice. Nonetheless, with the election of Arturo Alessandriin the presidential election of 1932 and the return to institutional normality, he was politically shunned.
Ríos run as an independent in the congressional election of 1933 and was elected as deputy for "Arauco and Cañete". That was the beginning of his political comeback. In 1935 he was welcomed back into the Radical fold. In 1937, the Radical Party, the Socialist Party, the Communist Party, the Democratic Party and the Radical Socialist Party, as well as organizations such as the "
Confederación de Trabajadores de Chile" (CTCH) trade-union, the Mapuchemovement which unified itself in the " Frente Único Araucano", and the feminist " Movimiento Pro-Emancipación de las Mujeres de Chile" (MEMCh) allied themselves in the Popular Front ( _es. Frente Popular), with Ríos becoming its first president. Nonetheless, Ríos was defeated in the internal presidential primaries by Pedro Aguirre Cerda, who got the nomination and then went on to win the presidential election of 1938.
to France, leaving him free to pursue his own political advancement. At the time it was rumored that President Aguirre Cerda had also offered him an ambassadorial position, but that he had answered: "... tell the President that I thank him for his offer, but I am moving up, not down".
1942 presidential campaign
In 1941, due to his rapidly escalating illness, President Aguirre Cerda appointed his minister of the Interior,
Jerónimo Méndezas vice-president and died soon after, on November 25, 1941. Presidential election were called for February 1, 1942. This was the opportunity he had been waiting for and he immediately started to campaign. Nevertheless, two days before the internal primaries, Gabriel González Videla returned to Chile to dispute him the nomination. The results were too close to call, so a "tribunal of honor" (electoral commission) was constituted, and Juan Antonio Ríos was finally proclaimed the candidate of the left-wings' coalition. This Democratic Alliance ( _es. Alianza Democratica) was formed by the Radical Party, the Socialist Party, the Communist Party, the Democratic Party and the Workers' Socialist Party.
The left-wings' coalition was united by a common opponent, General
Carlos Ibáñez del Campo. Ríos was a member of the conservative wing of the Radical Party and defeated Ibáñez in the 1942 election, portraying himself as a conservative anti-fascist candidate. Ibáñez had the support of Chile's Conservative party, Liberal Party, National Socialist party, Popular Socialist Vanguard and the majority of the independents. Ríos obtained 55,95% of the votes and took office on April 2, 1942.
Ríos' presidency was marked from the very beginning by parliamentary unstability, caused by rivalries between the different political tendencies in his cabinet, and the renewed and increased influence of Congress. The
Chilean Communist Partyopposed Ríos because he had initially chosen neutrality in World War IIand had refused to break off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers, while the right-wing accused him of complacency with the left. Economically, he faced labor unrest at home, brought about in large part by a drop in copperprices worldwide, while at the same time, the Chilean Socialist Partyaccused him of being too soft with big business and of failing to enact labour legislation protecting workers' rights.
Even though Ríos had been elected with the support of the Communist party, he refused the direct participation of this party in the government, thus earning their opposition. Ríos' option instead was to appoint "technical experts" and "personal friends" to cabinet and high-level government positions; this policy allowed him to include not only members of his own party, but also from the Conservative and Liberal opposition.
In 1943, Congress approved and Ríos signed the first constitutional reform to the 1925 constitution. This reform gave constitutional rank to the General Comptroller ( _es. Contraloría General de la República) and limited the power of the President with respect to public expenditures without congressional approval.
In 1944, the Radical Party itself presented to Ríos a serie of propositions which he deemed unacceptable. Those included breaking-off diplomatic relations with Francoist Spain — diplomatic and especially economic pressure had caused him to finally break off relations with the
Axis Powersin January 1943 — the recognition of the USSRand a cabinet exclusively composed of Radicals. His refusal to implement the Radical Party's propositions, and the violent repression of riots that took place on Plaza Bulnesin Santiago, leading to several deaths, caused the resignation of all the Radical ministers, leaving the President without a party.
These internal divisions partly explain the right-wing parties success' during the 1945 legislative elections, which were a debacle for the Socialists and the Communists, who obtained close to no seats in Parliament. The Radicals themselves lost a number of seats. Finally, shortly after the end of the war, in October 1945, his entire cabinet resigned again, this time to protest a planned state visit he made to
Washington D.C.to meet with President Harry S. Truman.
After his return from the
United States, and faced with failing health, he finally gave in to the political pressure and appointed a cabinet made up exclusively of Radical party members. Soon after, he transferred his presidential powers to his minister of the Interior Alfredo Duhalde( January 17, 1946) and died a few months later, on June 27.
Ríos' administration — continuing the Aguirre Cerda policies — focused on the development of the steel, power and oil industries. To that effect, funds were channeled via the "Production Development Corporation" ( _es. Corporación de Fomento de la Producción -
CORFO), created under the previous administration.
Thus in 1943, it was created the "National Power Company" ( _es. Empresa Nacional de Electricidad (Endesa)); in 1945, the National Oil Company ( _es. Empresa Nacional de Petróleos (ENAP)); and in 1946, the Pacific Steel Company ( _es. Compañía de Aceros del Pacífico (CAP)), which opened the "Huachipato" steelworks next to the port of
Up to 1942, Chile and
Argentinahad declined to sever relations with the Axis powers, and the Chilean election was viewed by many as critical during World War II ["Current Biography 1942", pp. 691-93 ] . A bitter disagreement sprung up between the president and its supporting Democratic Alliance. Initially, Ríos' government was committed to neutrality during the war, but the left-wing parties of his coalition were in favor of an immediate and total rupture with the Axis as well as for the recognition of the USSR, which they saw as their contribution to the world-struggle against fascism.
Diplomatic and especially economic pressure from the
United Statesfinally caused him to break off relations with the Axis Powerson January 20, 1943. By doing so, he made Chile eligible for the Lend-Leaseprogram, and obtained the necessary loans to help along the economic recovery. The close relations that emerged with the United States were, however, problematic for Ríos at home. Shortly after the war, in October 1945, his entire cabinet resigned in protest of the state visit he made to Washington D.C..
President Ríos returned from his
state visitand reassumed power on December 3, 1945; but by then he was already terminally ill with cancer. He transferred his presidential powers on January 17, 1946, to his Minister of the Interior, Alfredo Duhalde, who took over as Vice-President. Juan Antonio Ríos spent his last days at "Villa Paidahue", in La Reina, where he died on June 27, 1946, before the end of his constitutional period.
Chilean presidential election, 1946
External links and sources
* Valencia Avaria, Luis. 1986. "Anales de la República: textos constitucionales de Chile y registro de los ciudadanos que han integrado los poderes ejecutivo y legislativo desde 1810". 2ª edición Santiago de Chile. Editorial Andrés Bello. es icon
* [http://www.geocities.com/masonchile/rios.htm Biographies of famous Chilean Freemasons] es
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