Master of Arts (postgraduate)

A Master of Arts (M.A., MA, A.M., or AM) from the Latin Magister Artium, is a type of Master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The M.A. is usually contrasted with the M.S. or M.Sc. (both Master of Science) degrees. Those admitted to the degree typically study English, history, geography, other of the humanities, philosophy, social sciences, fine arts or (at some universities) nursing or theology. The degree can be conferred in respect of passing examinations, in respect of research, or a combination of the two.

The Master of Arts degree traces its origin to the teaching licence, or Licentia docendi, for the University of Paris.[1]



In Germany, the traditional equivalent of the postgraduate Master of Arts was the Magister Artium, which was a first degree. This degree, which required 5 years of studies, did exist in former West Germany and in reunited Germany until 2010, but not in former East Germany where all degree courses led to Diplom degrees. Traditional Magister degrees where granted in social sciences and most of the humanities, with the exception of visual and performing arts such as music and theatre. The Magister Artium was either a double major degree, or a combination of one major and two minors. German postgraduate Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees were introduced in 2001. Therefore, the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees existed side by side until the phase out of the old degrees in 2010. The new Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees together also require 5 years of studies, which is the reason why the new Master of Arts and the old Magister Artium degrees are considered equivalent, although the Magister Artium was a first degree.


In the Netherlands, the Master of Arts and the Master of Science degrees were introduced in 2002. Until that time, a single program that led to the doctorandus degree (or the ingenieur degree in the case of technical subjects) was in effect, which comprised the same course load as the Bachelor and Master programs put together. Those who had already started the doctorandus program could, upon completing it, opt for the doctorandus degree (before their name, abbreviated to 'drs.'; in the case of ingenieur, this would be 'ir.'), or simply use the Master's degree (behind their name) in accordance with the new standard (so, 'M.A.' or 'M.Sc.'). Since these graduates do not have a separate Bachelor's degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the Master’s degree is their first academic degree.


The Polish equivalent of both Master of Arts and Master of Science is "magister" (its abbreviation "mgr" is placed before one's name, like Dr). In the 1990s, the M.A. programs usually lasting 5 years were replaced by separate 3-year bachelor's and 2-year master's programs. The degree is awarded in the arts (literature, foreign languages, etc.), natural sciences, mathematics, computer science fields, and economics. The completion of a research thesis is required. All master's degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program.


In Denmark and Norway, the candidate degree is a combined taught/research degree, awarded after 2 years of studies after completing the bachelor's degree. The student is required to write a scientific thesis. This programme was earlier called a candidate degree, abbreviated as cand. and followed by a suffix denoting the subject of study - e.g. cand.mag. (Master of Arts), cand.scient. (Master of Science), cand.psych./cand.pæd.psych. (Master of Psychology), etc.

In Sweden, Norway and Denmark, there previously existed a higher degree, the magister degree, which in Norway required 7 years of studies including a 3-year research thesis, and was roughly comparable to a Ph.D..

United Kingdom and Ireland

At Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin, it is conferred after a certain number of years without further examination to those who are Bachelors of Arts, and in the ancient universities of Scotland it is a first degree. The Master of Arts (BrE: MA, UsE: M.A.) is awarded in Arts, Humanities, Theology and Social Sciences. However, some universities—particularly those in Scotland—award the Master of Letters (MLitt) to students in the Arts, Humanities, Divinity and Social Sciences. The MLitt is a research degree at the University of Cambridge, where the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) is the name given to the standard one-year taught degree with a unique research element, in contrast to the use of MPhil at other institutions for a research degree.

The M.A. is typically a "taught" postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examination, and a short dissertation. Taught master's programmes involve 1 or 2 years of full-time study.

In law, the standard taught degree is the Master of Laws, but certain courses may lead to the award of an M.A., MLitt, Master of Studies (MSt), and at Oxford, the Bachelor of Civil Law (BCL). These degrees are all considered substitutes to one another and are thus generally equivalent.

Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate master's degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an honours degree). Nowadays however, master's degrees are normally classified into the categories of Fail, Pass, Pass with Merit or Pass with Distinction.

The degree of Master of Arts may also be awarded, in the case of the oldest British universities only, without further examination to those who have graduated as Bachelor of Arts and who have the requisite years' standing as members of the university or as graduates. This happens, in England, only at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge (see Master of Arts (Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin)). It is also the case at the University of Dublin in Ireland. In Scotland, the degree of Master of Arts is awarded in some universities as a first degree to undergraduates (see Master of Arts (Scotland)). The practice of awarding these degrees of Master of Arts without postgraduate examination or coursework is very ancient although, among modern universities, anomalous.

This education pattern in United Kingdom is followed in India and many Commonwealth Nations.

United States

In the United States, the Master of Arts (Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degrees are the basic graduate-level degrees in most subjects and may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture.[2]

Admission to a master's program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor's degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor's and master's degree after about five years.[citation needed] Some universities use the Latin degree names, such as Artium Magister (A.M.) or Scientiæ Magister (S.M.). For example, Harvard University, Dartmouth College, the University of Chicago, MIT, the University of Pennsylvania, and Brown University use the degree abbreviations A.M. and S.M. for some of their master's degrees.

Theological MA Degrees

Graduate theological degrees are amongst the oldest and differentiated master's degrees offered by universities. The prerequisite for enrollment in the following graduate degree programs is usually a Bachelor's degree.

The Master of Arts in Theology (MA in Theology) is a traditional academic graduate degree which consists in the study of theology, focuses upon a specific area such as dogmatic, historical, moral, sacramental, or scriptural, and normally requires the writing and defense of a thesis.In China,Abbot Shiyongxin is the first Chinese monk ever to get a MBA degree.[3]

In addition to the MA, there are other master's-level and professional master's degrees dealing with or related to theology. These include the Master of Divinity (M.Div.), the Master of Theology (ThM), and the Master of Theological Studies (MTS).


  1. ^  "Master of Arts". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. 
  2. ^ Structure of the U.S. Education System: Master’s Degrees, International Affairs Office, U.S. Department of Education, February 2008,, retrieved 2010-02-25 
  3. ^ Shaolin Temple Kung Fu school-Shaolin Kung Fu Abbot

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