Personal water craft
A personal water craft (PWC) is a
recreational watercraftthat the rider sits or stands on, rather than inside of, as in a boat. Models have an inboard enginedriving a pump jetthat has a screw-shaped impellerto create thrust for propulsion and steering. They are often referred by the names WaveRunner, Jet Ski, or Sea-Doo, which are brand names owned by Yamaha, Kawasaki, and Bombardier, respectively.
Most are designed for two or three people, though four-passenger models exist.
Stand-up PWCs were first to see mass production and are still popular for single riders. The invention of both major types of PWC is credited to Clayton Jacobson IIof Arizona, originally a motocross enthusiast.
Because of their relatively low cost and the freedom they afford to owners, PWC are widely used for recreation. However, many U.S. states require safety training for personal watercraft operators. Modern PWC include a
lanyardattached to a dead man's switch, to turn off the vessel if the operator falls off -- provided the lanyard is attached to the operator. Lake Havasu, Arizona, is a favorite for PWC riders and racers alike, and hosts the IJSBA World Finalsfor personal watercraft racing each October since 1982.
world recordfor the distance travelled on a PWC, held by John Moffatt, is 11,525 miles, set in 2007. [cite web|url=http://www.apbaracing.com/071018_news_moffatt_background.pdf|title=Backgrounder: John Moffatt|work= American Power Boat Association|accessdate=2008-02-08|date= October 17 2007]
surfers use PWCs to get to the waves and get up to speed with them; this is known as tow-in surfing. They can also be used for towing water skiers on flat water.
PWCs are small, fast, easily handled, fairly easy to use, affordable and their propulsion systems, which do not have external propellers, making them safer for swimmers and wildlife. For these reasons, they are used non-recreationally in preference to small
motorboats. Lifeguards in some areas use PWCs equipped with rescue platforms to rescue water users who get into difficulties and carry them back to shore. Rescuers have also used personal watercraft to pick up flood survivors.
PWCs have been used by biologists studying marine life.
PWCs are also used for law enforcement. Due to their speed and excellent maneuverability, police and rangers use them to enforce laws on lakes and rivers.
A PWC combined with a wash-reduction system, carrying waterproof loudspeaker equipment and GPS for instructions and distance measurement, has purportedlyFact|date=June 2008 been used by assistant coaches for rowing sports on the River Tyne.
PWC's are used by the US Navy as surface targets.Fact|date=June 2008 Equipped with GPS, electronic compass, radar reflector, and a radio modem, the PWC is fully remotable with a two way link. Its small shipboard foot print allows it to be stored and deployed from the smallest of vessels and has been used for target practice for everything from 5" to small arms.Fact|date=June 2008
Before 1990, personal watercraft emissions were unregulated in the
United States. Many were powered by two-stroke cycleengines, which are smaller and lighter than four-stroke cycleengines but much more polluting. Simple two-stroke engines are lubricated on a "total loss" method, mixing lubricating oil with their fuel; they are estimated to exhaust in excess of 25% of their fuel and oil unburned in addition to the products of incomplete and complete combustion.
The 1990 amendments to the
Clean Air Actallowed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to begin regulating personal watercraft and other off-road internal combustion engines. The agency began a dialog with manufacturers in 1991, resulting in regulations that were enacted in 1996. These regulations, set to phase in between 1998and 2006, are averaging standards, allowing manufacturers to offset more polluting engines in their range by selling other engines that exceed the standard. The U.S. stateof Californiahas adopted more stringent regulations than the federal standard.
To meet these regulations, manufacturers have adopted a variety of improvements, including increased use of four-stroke engines, the use of direct injection for two-strokes and the use of
catalytic converters and other pollution-curbing measures that overall have reduced emissions by approximately 75% compared to pre-regulation models.
In some areas, only new personal watercraft that meet the current regulations are permitted; an example is
Environmental groups such as the
Surfrider Foundationand the Bluewater Networkclaim that more rapid progress could be made and the large numbers of older watercraft in use continue to emit substantial pollution.
Against this, industry groups such as the
Personal Watercraft Industry Associationpoint out that environmental groups continue to cite pollution levels of pre-regulation watercraft and ignore the improvements made to newer models; and furthermore, that personal watercraft are unfairly singled out when they are no more polluting than other powered boats.
Apart from the obvious hazards of collisions and mechanical breakdowns common to all
vehicles, personal watercraft feature the unique hazard of orifice injuries. [Jim Stingl, "Have fun on your watercraft, butt beware," " Milwaukee Journal Sentinel", 28 June 2000, 1.] [Roy Scott Hickman and Michael M. Sampsel, "Boat Accident Reconstruction and Litigation" (Tucson: Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company, 2003), 78.] Such injuries are the logical result of the unusually close proximity of PWC riders to the output end of the pump jet, as well as the fact that personal watercraft are usually not enclosed. A rider who falls (or is ejected) off the back can land directly in the path of the PWC's high-pressure jet of water. Unless a rider is appropriately dressed in garments made out of a strong, thick substance like neoprene(as is commonly found in wetsuits), the jet will easily penetrate any orifice it reaches. The consequences include permanent disabilityor death. [Bernard Descottes, Fouzi Lachachi, Issifou Moumouni, Sylvaine Durand-Fontanier and Ramy Geballa, "Case Report: Rectal Injury Caused by Personal Watercraft Accident," "Diseases of the Colon and Rectum" 46, no. 7 (June 2003): 971-972. The 16-year-old patient described in this case report was deceased. The autopsy revealed that the primary cause of death was toxic shock syndromecaused by the rectal tear.] [David P. Parsons, Harry A. Kahn, John T. Isler and Richard P. Billingham, "Case Report: Rectal Injury Caused by Personal Watercraft Accident," "Diseases of the Colon and Rectum" 42, no. 7 (July 1999): 959-960. The patient described in this case report survived.] For example, in 2006, the California Court of Appeal(First District) upheld a $3.7 million Napa Countyjury verdict against Polaris Industriesarising out of one such incident (which had devastating effects on the victim's lower abdomen). ["Ford v. Polaris Industries, Inc.", [http://online.ceb.com/calcases/CA4/139CA4t755.htm 139 Cal. App. 4th 755] (2006). The plaintiff survived due to the heroic efforts of UC Davis Medical Centerpersonnel (the court noted that she required "massive resuscitation") but was permanently disabled by her injuries; for example, she has no bowel control.]
PWCs also present safety concerns in terms of their ability to steer. Since steering is achieved from aiming the nozzle of the pump jet, there is no rudder involved, which means the craft cannot be steered in an emergency breakdown situation. Also, steering is significantly reduced when the throttle is not being applied; this leads to dangerous situations because it is against one's instinct in an emergency to accelerate. However, turning is not effective without doing so. After market products are available to help with this problem, including different types of rudder steering systems such as Cobra Jet Steering. In 2001 Sea-doo added the O.P.A.S. (Off-Power Assisted Steering) system which uses rudders installed on the rear sides of the PWC to assist in steering.
List of popular brands
* Bombardier Recreational Products (Sea-Doo)
* Kawasaki (Jet-Ski)
Polaris Industries(out of market now)
Arctic Cat(Tigershark) (out of market now)
* Yamaha (Waverunner)
* Yamaha FX-1
" [http://www.epa.gov/otaq/marinesi.htm Gasoline Boats and Personal Watercraft] ". Retrieved on
May 4, 2005.
California Air Resources Board. " [http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/offroad/recmarine/recmarine.htm Recreational Marine Engine Activities] ". Retrieved on May 4, 2005.
* Chad Nelsen (1988). " [http://www.surfrider.org/makingwaves/makingwaves3/jetski6.htm Jet Skis Suck] ".
Surfrider Foundation. Retrieved on May 4, 2005.
* Surfrider Foundation. (1988). " [http://www.surfrider.org/makingwaves/makingwaves4/pwcII.htm Minimizing the Impacts of Personal Watercraft- Part II: Seeking a Solution] ". Retrieved on
May 4, 2005.
* Personal Watercraft Industry Association. " [http://www.pwia.org/] ". Retrieved on
9 August, 2005.
BombardierRecreational Products. " [http://www.seadoo.com/en-US/Watercrafts/About.Us/Sea-Doo/History/ About Sea-Doo] ". Retrieved on 9 August, 2005.
* MIT Inventor of the Week Archive: " [http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/watercraft.html Clayton Jacobsen II] " Retrieved on
15 March, 2006.
* [http://www.pwia.org/ Personal Watercraft Industry Association]
* [http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/personal-watercraft.htm How Personal Watercraft Work]
* [http://www.awahq.com/ American Watercraft Association]
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