- Models of migration to the New World
There are several popular models of migration to the New World proposed by the anthropological community. The question of how, when and why humans first entered the
Americasis of intense interest to anthropologists and has been a subject of heated debate for centuries. As new discoveries come to light, past hypotheses are reevaluated and new theories constructed.
Understanding the debate
The chronology of migration models is divided into two general schools of thought. One school believes in a “short chronology,” with the first movement into the New World occurring no earlier than 14,000 – 16,000 years ago followed by successive waves of immigrants. The “long chronology” camp posits that the first group of people entered the hemisphere at a much earlier date, possibly 20,000 years ago or earlier, and may have been followed by successive waves of immigrants. [National Genographic. "Atlas of the Human Journey." 2005. May 2, 2007. [https://www3.nationalgeographic.com/genographic/atlas.html] ]
One factor fueling the debate is the discontinuity of archaeological evidence between North and
South America. A more or less uniform techno-complexpattern known as Clovis appears in North and Central American sites from at least 13,500 years ago onwards. South American sites of equal antiquity do not share the same consistency and exhibit more diverse cultural patterns. Thus, many archaeologists conclude that the "Clovis-first" model does not adequately explain prehistoric tool complexes appearing in South America. Some theorists are seeking to develop a colonization model that integrates both North and South American archaeological records.
Land bridge theory
Also known as The Bering Strait Theory or Beringia theory, Land Bridge theory has been widely accepted since the 1930s. This model of migration into the New World proposes that people migrated from
Siberiainto Alaska, tracking big game animal herds. They were able to cross between the two continents by a land bridge called the Bering Land Bridge, which spanned what is now the Bering Strait, during the Wisconsin glaciation, the last major stage of the Pleistocenebeginning 50,000 years ago and ending some 10,000 years ago, when ocean levels were convert|60|m|ft|-1 lower than today. This information is gathered using oxygen isotope records from deep-sea cores. An exposed land bridge that was at least 1,000 miles wide existed between Siberia and the western coast of Alaska. In the "short chronology" version, from the archaeological evidence gathered, it was concluded that this culture of big game hunters crossed the Bering Strait at least 12,000 years ago and could have eventually reached the southern tip of South America by 11,000 years ago.
At some point during the last
Ice Age, about 17,000 years ago, as the ice sheets advanced and sea levels fell, people first migrated from the Eurasian landmass to the Americas. These nomadic hunterswere following game herds from Siberiaacross what is today the Bering Straitinto Alaska, and then gradually spread southward. Based upon the distribution of Amerind languages and language families, a movement of tribes along the Rocky Mountain foothills and eastward across the Great Plainsto the Atlantic seaboard is assumed to have occurred some 10,000 years ago.
This big game hunting culture has been labeled as the
Clovis culture, and is primarily identified with fluted projectile points. The culture received its name from artifacts found near Clovis, New Mexico, the first evidence of this tool complex, excavated in 1932. The Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and even appeared in South America. The culture is identified by distinctive " Clovis point", a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute by which it was inserted into a shaft; it could then be removed from the shaft for traveling. This flute is one characteristic that defines the Clovis point complex.
Dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of
carbon datingmethods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B.P. ( before present). This evidence suggests that the culture flowered somewhat later and for a shorter period of time than previously believed. Michael R. Waters of Texas A&M Universityin College Station and Thomas W. Stafford Jr., proprietor of a private-sector laboratory in Lafayette, Coloradoand an expert in radiocarbon dating attempted to determine the dates of the Clovis period. The heyday of Clovis technology has typically been set between 11,500 and 10,900 radiocarbon years B.P. (The radiocarbon calibration is disputed for this period, but the widely used IntCal04 calibration puts the dates at 13,300 to 12,800 calendar years B.P.). In a controversial move, Waters and Stafford conclude that no fewer than 11 of the 22 Clovis sites with radiocarbon dates are "problematic" and should be disregarded--including the type site in Clovis, New Mexico. They argue that the datable samples could have been contaminated by earlier material. However, this contention was received as highly controversial by many in the archaeological community.
Clovis-type artifacts seem to disappear from the archaeological record after the hypothesized
Younger Dryas impact eventroughly 12,900 years before the present. The effects of the event possibly caused a decline in post-Clovis human populations and shifts in culture and behavior patterns. [ [http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/104/41/16016 Evidence for an extraterrestrial impact 12,900 years ago that contributed to the megafaunal extinctions and the Younger Dryas cooling - Firestone et al. 104 (41): 16016 - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ] ]
molecular geneticsstudy suggests that the Amerindianpopulation in the Americas may be derived from a theoretical founding populationwith an effective size of as small as 70. [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1131883 On the Number of New World Founders: A Population Genetic Portrait of the Peopling of the Americas ] ] The Hey study is restricted to 9 genomic regions (or loci) in the Americas and Asia, and excludes speakers of Na-Deneand Eskimo-Aleut languages. The study does not address the question of separate migrations for these groups, and excludes other DNA datasets not sampled in the source literature.
An October 2007 study suggested "that the initial founders of the Americas emerged from a single source ancestral population that evolved in isolation, likely in Beringia... the isolation in Beringia might have lasted up to 15,000 years. Following this isolation, the initial founders of the Americas began rapidly populating the New World from North to South America." [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1952074 Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders] ]
To be sure, Amerindian groups in the Bering Strait region exhibit perhaps the strongest DNA or mitochondrial DNA relations to Siberian peoples. The genetic diversity of Amerindian groups seems to increase with distance from the assumed entry point into the Americas, and certain genetic diversity patterns from West to East may suggest at least some coastal migration events. [PLoS Genet 3(11): e185. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030185]
A more recent article in the American Journal of Human Genetics states "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Native American haplogroups, including haplogroup X, were part of a single founding population, thereby refuting multiple-migration models." The study also argues for a Beringian isolation and subsequent coastal migration. [http://www.ajhg.org/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00139-0# "Mitochondrial Population Genomics Supports a Single Pre-Clovis Origin with a Coastal Route for the Peopling of the Americas" Fagundes, Nelson J.R.; Kanitz, Ricardo; Eckert, Roberta; Valls, Ana C.S.; Bogo, Mauricio R.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Smith, David Glenn; Silva, Wilson A.; Zago, Marco A.; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Andrea K.; Santos, Sidney E.B.; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Bonatto, Sandro L. American journal of human genetics(volume 82 issue 3 pp.583 - 592) ]
Problems with Clovis migration models
Significant problems arise with the Clovis migration model. If Clovis people radiated south after entering the New World and eventually reached the southern tip of South America by 11,000 years ago, this leaves only a short time span to populate the entire hemisphere.Fact|date=July 2008 Another complication for the Clovis-only theory arose in 1997, when a panel of authorities inspected the
Monte Verdesite in Chile, concluding that the radiocarbonevidence predates Clovis sites in the North American Midwest by at least 1,000 years. This supports the theory of a primary coastal migration route that moved South along the coastline faster than those that migrated inland into the central areas of the Americas. Many excavations have uncovered evidence that subsistence patterns of early Americans included foods such as turtles, shellfish, and tubers. This is quite a change of diet from the big game mammoths, long-horn bison, horse, and camels that early Clovis hunters apparently followed east into the New World.
At the Topper
archaeological site(located along the banks of the Savannah Rivernear Allendale, South Carolina) investigated by University of South Carolinaarchaeologist Dr. Albert Goodyear, charcoalmaterial recovered in association with purported human artifacts returned radiocarbon dates of up to 50,000 years BP. This would indicate the presence of humans well before the last glacial period; however, considerable doubt over the validity of these findings has been raised by many other researchers, and the pre-Clovis Topper dates remain controversial.
Pre-Clovis dates have been claimed for several sites in
South America, but these early dates have yet to be verified unequivocally.
Recent discoveries of human
coprolites(desiccated feces) found deeply buried in an Oregon Cave, indicates the presence of humans in North America as much as 1,200 years prior to the Clovis culture. [ [http://www.siliconvalley.com/latestheadlines/ci_8807322 Fossilized human feces rewrite ancient history] Dead link|date=September 2008]
Watercraft migration theories
Earlier finds have led to a pre-
Clovis culturetheory encompassing different migration models with an expanded chronology to supersede the "Clovis-first" theory.
A study by Brian Kemp and colleagues published in "The American Journal of Physical Anthropology" reports new DNA-based research that uniquely links the DNA retrieved from a 10,000-year-old fossilized tooth from an Alaskan island, with specific coastal tribes in
Tierra del Fuego, Ecuador, Mexicoand California. [http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-me-bones11sep11,0,7890755.story?coll=la-home-headlines "DNA Ties Together Scattered Peoples,"] Los Angeles Times (accessed September 11, 2006)] Unique markers found in DNA recovered from the Alaskan tooth were found in these specific coastal tribes, and were rare in any of the other indigenous peoples in the Americas. This finding lends substantial credence to a migration theory that at least one set of early peoples moved south along the west coast of the Americas in boats. A previous study (Eshleman et al. 2004) showed that mtDNA(human mitochondrial DNA) from indigenous populations in coastal British Columbia showed similarities to coastal populations in Southern California, while inland populations in both localities differed markedly.
Pacific coastal models
Pacific models propose that people reached the Americas via water travel, following coastlines from northeast Asia into the Americas. Coastlines are unusually productive environments because they provide humans with access to a diverse array of plants and animals from both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. While not exclusive of land-based migrations, the Pacific 'coastal migration theory' helps explain how early colonists reached areas extremely distant from the Bering Strait region, including sites such as
Monte Verdein southern Chile and Taima-Taima in western Venezuela. Two cultural components were discovered at Monte Verde near the Pacific Coast of Chile. The youngest layer is radiocarbon dated at 12,500 radiocarbon years (~14,000 cal BP) and has produced the remains of several types of seaweeds collected from coastal habitats. The older and more controversial component may date back as far as 33,000 years, but few scholars currently accept this very early component.
Other coastal models, dealing specifically with the peopling of the
Pacific Northwestand California coasts, have been advocated by archaeologists Knut Fladmark, Roy Carlson, James Dixon, Jon Erlandson, Ruth Gruhn, and Daryl Fedje. In a 2007 article in the Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, Erlandson and his colleagues proposed a corollary to the coastal migration theory--the kelp highway hypothesis--arguing that productive kelp forests supporting similar suites of plants and animals would have existed near the end of the Pleistocene around much of the Pacific Rim from Japan to Beringia, the Pacific Northwest, and California, as well as the Andean Coast of South America. Once the coastlines of Alaska and British Columbia had deglaciated about 16,000 years ago, these kelp forest (along with estuarine, mangrove, and coral reef) habitats would have provided an ecologically similar migration corridor, entirely at sea level, and essentially unobstructed.
For the Pacific Northwest, Carlson, [1990 in Matson and Coupland, 1995:61-61] and others have argued for a coastal migration from Alaska pre-10,000 B.P. that predates the migration of Clovis people moving south through an ice-free corridor located near the continental divide. [Matson & Coupland, 1995:64] These people were followed by the
Clovis culture, which some archaeologists believe moved south from Alaskathrough an ice-free corridor located between modern British Columbiaand Alberta. However, recent dating of Clovis and similar paleoindian sites in Alaska suggest that Clovis technology actually moved from the south into Alaska following the melting of the continental glaciers about 10,500 years ago. [Dixon 1999]
As the ice sheets began to melt, it became possible for riverine-adapted people who made and used
microblade technologyto move west to the Northwest coast. A second migration of the Denali culture at around 10,700 b.p. brought peoples down the coast from Alaska. Carlson hypothesizes that a population with a maritime adaptation could have travelled south from Alaska down the coastal islands by watercraft, settling as the ice receded, then moving up rivers to the interior. This would account for early finds at Ground Hog Bay in SE Alaska and Namu, about 800 km south of Ground Hog Bay near modern Bella Cooladating to 10,180 +/- 800 b.p. and 9700 b.p., respectively. According to the Matson and Coupland dual migration hypothesis, Namu and Ground Hog Bay represent a second migration while the initial migration route south was through the ice free corridor. Part of the difficulty is the lack of site data prior to 10,000 b.p. as well as the limited number of archaeological investigations into the coastal migration model. Other factors affecting migration models are sea level changes and the question of available land mass to support migrating groups of people.
Evidence from Southeast
Alaskaand Queen Charlotte Islandsin British Columbia, provides some data about food and land resources during the last glacial maximum. Fedje and Christensen (1999) have identified several sites on Haida Gwaii that date to post 9000 b.p. (642). The oldest human remains known from Alaska or Canadaare from On Your Knees Cave, which is on Prince of Wales island in Southeast Alaska. The individual, a young man in his early twenties when he died, has been dated to 10,300 years ago and isotopic analyses indicate the individual was raised on a diet primarily of marine foods. [Dixon 1999] These data suggest that there are a number of submerged sites just beyond the shorelines of Haida Gwaii (Fedje & Christensen, 1999) and along the coast of Southeast Alaska. Paleoecological evidence suggests that travel along the coast would have been possible between 13,000 and 11,000 b.p. as the ice sheets began retreating. [Dixon 1993, 1999; Matson & Coupland, 1995:64] Between 13,000 and 10,500 b.p. Haida Gwaii had more than double its current land mass (Fedje & Christensen, 1999:638). This area was flooded as the ice sheets began to melt between 11,000 and 9,000 b.p. (Ibid). Therefore any evidence of human occupation would now be below sea level. Conversely, older sites that are located near modern shorelines would have been approximately 15m from the coast (Ibid). The antiquity of the lithic scatters that Fedje and Christensen (1999) have found in intertidal zones along the Haida Gwaii coast suggests an early human occupation of the area.
Fedje and Christensen (1999) support Carlson (1990), and Fladmark's (1975, 1979 & 1989) initial coastal migration model rather than the ice free corridor model proposed by Matson and Coupland (1995) through their investigations of intertidal zones on Haida Gwaii. [In Fedje & Christensen, 1999:648] The coastal region was quite hospitable by 13,000 b.p. to peoples with watercraft and a maritime adaptation. [Fedje & Christensen, 1999:648] Furthermore, Fedje and Christensen (1999) argue that the coast was likely colonized before 13,000 b.p. (648). This assertion is based largely on watercraft evidence from Japan and Australia before 13000 b.p. [Erlandson 2001, 2002; Fedje & Christensen, 1999:648] If maritime peoples colonized Island Southeast Asia, Australia, western Melanesia, the Ryukyu Islands, and Japan between 50,000 and 35,000 years ago, they may well have been capable of migrating from Northeast Asia into the Americas as the North Pacific Coast warmed and deglaciated after about 16,000 years ago. Although no boats have been recovered from early Northwest Coast archaeological sites, this may be due to poor preservation of organic materials and the inundation of coastal areas mentioned above. We can still infer water travel, however, based on the presence of artifacts made by humans found in island sites.
Other evidence comes from zooarchaeological finds along the Northwest coast. Goat remains as old as 12,000 b.p. have been found on
Vancouver Island, British Columbia as well as bear remains dating to 12,500 b.p. in the Prince of Wales Archipelago, British Columbia. [Ibid.] Even older remains of black and brown bear, caribou, sea birds, fish, and ringed sealhave been dated from a number of caves in Southeast Alaska by paleontologist Timothy Heaton. This means that there were enough land and floral resources to support large land mammals and theoretically, humans. Further intertidal and underwater investigations may produce sites older than 11,000 b.p.. Coastal occupation prior to 13,000 b.p. would allow for people to migrate further south and account for the early South Americansites.
Anecdotal evidence comes from the surviving Bella Bella oral tradition as recorded by Franz Boas in 1898. "In the beginning there was nothing but
waterand iceand a narrow strip of shoreline". [Boas, 1898:883 in Fedje & Christensen, 1999:635] Some believe this story describes the Northwest Coast during the last glacialmaximum and that the story suggests that the Northwest Coast colonization occurred during the last ice age.
Further south, California's Channel Islands have produced even earlier evidence for seafaring by Paleoindian (or Paleocoastal) peoples. Santa Rosa and San Miguel islands, for instance, have produced five sites dating to the Terminal Pleistocene, including the Arlington Man site dated to ~11,000 radiocarbon years (13,000 cal BP) and Daisy Cave occupied about 10,700 radiocarbon years ago (~11,500 cal BP). Erlandson and his colleagues have also identified several early shell middens located near sources of chert used to stone tools. These quarry/workshop sites have been dated between about 10,800 and 10,500 RYBP (~12,000-11,500 cal BP) and contain crescents and finely made stemmed projectiles points probably used to hunt birds and sea mammals, respectively. Significantly, the Channel Islands have not been connected to the mainland coast during the Quaternary, so maritime peoples contemporary with the Clovis and Folsom complexes in the interior had to have seaworthy boats to colonize them. The Channel Islands have also produced the earliest fishhooks yet found in the Americas, bone bipoints (gorges) that date between about 10,000 and 9500 cal BP.
Some anthropologists such as
Paul Rivethave proposed that peoples of Oceaniaor southeast Asiacrossed the Pacific Oceanand arrived in South Americalong before the Siberian hunter-gatherers. These hypothetical Pre-Siberian American Aboriginespopulated much of South America before being nearly exterminated and/or absorbed by the Siberian migrants coming from the north. Some of the theories involve a southward migration from or through Australiaand Tasmania, hopping Subantarctic islandsand then proceeding along the coast of Antarcticaand/or southern ice sheets to the tip of South Americasometime during the last glacial maximum.
There have been well-dated
stratigraphicstudies that point to people entering Australia some 40,000 years ago. At this period Australia was not connected to another continent, which leads to the assumption that it was reached by watercraft. If Australia was reached in this fashion, some reason that the New World could have been reached in the same way. Proponents of this model have pointed to cultural and phenotypical similarities between the Aboriginals of Australia and the Selknamand Yaghantribes of southern Patagonia. However, the theory of Australoid migration to the Americas has earned little scientific support as there is no genetic evidence matching indigenous Australians with South American populations. This model is taught in Chilean schools together with the land bridge modelFact|date=February 2007.
A recent study found that the
Mapuchepre-Columbian Araucanachicken came from Polynesiaby analysing their DNA; [http://www.uv.cl/noti_videos/textos_detalle.php?codigo=716] [http://www.dibam.cl/noticias.asp?id=6478] [http://pvs.kcc.hawaii.edu/rapanui/mapuche.html] [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/06/070604-chickens_2.html] this suggests a more recent contact between the Mapuche and Polynesia.
One of the earliest known sites of human occupation in the Americas,
Monte Verde, lies within what was later to become Huillicheterritory, although there is currently no demonstrated link between the Monte Verde people and the Mapuche.
Atlantic coastal model
Dennis Stanfordand Bruce Bradley champion the coastal Atlantic route. Their Solutrean Hypothesis is also based on evidence from the Clovis complex, but instead traces the origins of the Clovis toolmaking style to the Solutreanculture of ice age Western Europe. They have hypothesized that Solutrean hunters and fishers may have worked their way along the southern margins of the Atlantic sea ice to North America. Their argument is based on similarities between Solutrean and Clovis flint-knapping techniques, and is indirectly supported by the pre-Columbian presence of the northern European mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup X in North America.
Other Atlantic migration proponents include the French archaeologist Remy Cottevieille-Giraudet, who in the 1930s suggested a European
Cro-Magnonorigin of the Algonquian peoples. In 1963, Emerson Greenman proposed a hypothetical Atlantic migration during the Upper Paleolithic, also citing New World similarities with Solutrean tools as well as art. He suggested that the Beothukpeople of Newfoundland, among others, may have been at least partial descendants of that migration. According to McMaster Universityanthropologist Hendrik Poinar, dental samples from a Beothuk chief yielded positive results for mtDNA Haplogroup X. [ [http://www.science.mcmaster.ca/geo/news/beothuk.pdf Aug ] ] Another explanation that has been suggested for the presence of Haplogroup X among the Beothuk is that it resulted from the intermarriage of Vikings or Icelanders with Beothuk natives. The Vikings are known to have settled in Newfoundland during the early 11th century, and their writings discuss interactions with the "Skraelings" who are thought to be synonymous with the Beothuks.Fact|date=May 2008
Problems with coastal migration models
The coastal migration models have provided a new look at migration in the New World, but they are not without their own problems. One of the biggest problems is the fact that global sea levels have risen over 100 meters since the end of the last glacial, submerging the ancient coastlines maritime people would have followed into the Americas. This makes finding sites associated with early coastal migrations extremely difficult--and systematic excavation of any sites found in deeper waters may not be feasible until the utilization of underwater technology advances. If there was an early pre-Clovis coastal migration, there is always the possibility of a “failed colonization.” Another problem that arises is the lack of hard evidence found for a “long chronology” theory. No sites have yet produced a consistent chronology older than about 12,500 radiocarbon years (~14,500 calendar years), but South America has still seen only limited research on the possibility of early coastal migrations. There is also the possibility that archaeologists are not identifying the tool technology of pre-Clovis sites.Fact|date=July 2008 Early tools might have been crude stone flakes, edge-trimmed cobble tools, and tools of perishable bone that North and South American archaeologists could easily overlook.
Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact
Haplogroup X (mtDNA)
Pre-Siberian American Aborigines
Paul Rivet, one of the first ethnologists to tie the migration to America to Australiaand Melanesia
European colonization of the Americas
Origins of Paleoindians
* Dixon, E. James. Quest for the Origins of the First Americans. University of New Mexico Press. 1993.
* Dixon, E. James. Bones, Boats, and Bison: the Early Archeology of Western North America. University of New Mexico Press. 1993.
* Erlandson, Jon M. Early Hunter-Gatherers of the California Coast. Plenum Press. 1994.
* Erlandson, Jon M. The Archaeology of Aquatic Adaptations: Paradigms for a New Millennium. Journal of Archaeological Research, Vo. 9, 2001. Pp. 287-350.
* Erlandson, Jon M. Anatomically Modern Humans, Maritime Migrations, and the Peopling of the New World. In The First Americans: The Pleistocene Colonization of the New World, edited by N. Jablonski, 2002. Pp. 59-92. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences. San Francisco.
* Erlandson, Jon. M., M. H. Graham, Bruce J. Bourque, Debra Corbett, James A. Estes, & R. S. Steneck. The Kelp Highway Hypothesis: Marine Ecology, The Coastal Migration Theory, and the Peopling of the Americas. Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology, Vo. 2, 2007. Pp. 161-174.
* Jason A. Eshleman, Ripan S. Malhi, and David Glenn Smith, " [http://tracegenetics.com/Eshlemanetal2003.pdf Mitochondrial DNA Studies of Native Americans: Conceptions and Misconceptions of the Population Prehistory of the Americas] ", Evolutionary Anthropology, 12:7–18 (2003)
* Fedje, & Christensen. Modeling Paleoshorelines and Locating Early Holocene Coastal Sites in Haida Gwaii. American Antiquity, Vol. 64, #4, 1999. Pp. 635-652.
* E. F. Greenman, "The Upper Palaeolithic and the New World", Current Anthropology, 4: 41–66 (1963)
* Jody Hey, " [http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0030193 On the Number of New World Founders: A Population Genetic Portrait of the Peopling of the Americas] ", Public Library of Science Biology, 3(6):e193 (2005).
* Jones, Peter N. Respect for the Ancestors: American Indian Cultural Affiliation in the American West. Bauu Institute Press. 2005.
* Matson and Coupland. The Prehistory of the Northwest Coast. Academic Press. New York. 1995.
*Adovasio, J. M., with Jake Page. "The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology’s Greatest Mystery." New York: Random House, 2002.
*Lauber, Patricia. "Who Came First? New Clues to Prehistoric Americans." Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 2003.
*Snow, Dean R. “The First Americans and the Differentiation of Hunter-Gatherer Cultures.” In Bruce G. Trigger and Wilcomb *E. Washburn, eds., "The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas, Volume I: North America" (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1996), 125-199.
*Jones, Peter N. "Respect for the Ancestors: American Indian Cultural Affiliation in the American West." Boulder, CO: Bauu Press. 2004
*Dixon, E. James. Bones, Boats and Bison: the Early Archeology of Western North America. University of New Mexico Press. 1999.
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/04/science/04fossil.html?_r=1&scp=3&sq=&st=nyt&oref=slogin Evidence Supports Earlier Date for People in North America, April 4, 2008]
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