- Victory Day (Eastern Front)
:"For the song, see
Russian Federationand some former USSRcountries, Victory Day [( _ru. День Победы, "Den' Pobedy"; _uk. День Перемоги, "Den' Peremohy"; _be. Дзень Перамогі, "Dzień Pieramohi"; _pl. Dzień Zwycięstwa; _kk. Жеңіс Күні, "Jeñis Küni"; _lt. Pergalės diena; _mo. Зиуа Викторией, "Ziua Victoriei"; _lv. Uzvaras diena; _et. Võidupäev; _tt. Җиңү көне|Ciñü köne)] marks the capitulation of Nazi Germanyto the Soviet Unionat the end of the Second World War(commonly referred to in the Soviet Unionand later, the Russian Federation, as the Great Patriotic War). This surrender document was signed late in the evening on May 8, 1945( May 9by Moscow Time), following the original capitulation Germany agreed earlier to the joint Alliedforces on the Western Front. The Soviet government announced the victory early on May 9after the signing ceremony in Berlin[Ziemke Further reading [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/other/us-army_germany_1944-46_ch15.htm#b3 CHAPTER XV:The Victory Sealed] Page 258 last 2 paragraphs] , and established a yearly celebration throughout USSR.
Two separate capitulation events took place at the time. First, the capitulation to the Allied nations in
Reimswas signed on May 7, 1945, effective 23:01 CET May 8. This date is commonly referred to as the V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) in most western European countries. The other World War IIvictory day, the V-J day(Victory in Japan Day) is commemorated in August, and is of considerably lesser significance in Europe.
Soviet Union's only representative in Reims was General Ivan Susloparov, the Military Liaison Mission Commander. General Susloparov's scope of authority was not entirely clear, and he had no means of immediate contact with the Kremlin, but nevertheless decided to sign for the Soviet side. Susloparov was caught off guard; he had no instructions from Moscow. But if he did not sign, he risked a German surrender without Soviet participation. However, he noted that it could be replaced with a new version in the future. Joseph Stalinwas later displeased by these events, believing that the German surrender should have been accepted only by the envoy of the USSR Supreme command and signed only in Berlin and insisted the Reims protocol be considered preliminary, with the main ceremony to be held in Berlin, where Marshal Zhukov was at the time, as the latter recounts in his memoirs: [G.K. Zhukov, "Memoirs", Moscow, Olma-Press, 2002, p.329]
Therefore, another ceremony was organized in a surviving manor in the outskirts of Berlin late on
May 8, when it was already May 9in Moscowdue to the difference in time zones. Field-Marshal Wilhelm Keitelsubmitted the capitulation of the Wehrmachtto the Soviet Marshal Georgy Zhukovin the Red Army headquarters in Berlin-Karlshorst. To commemorate the victory in the war, the ceremonial Moscow Victory Parade was held in the Soviet capital on June 24, 1945.
During the Soviet Union's existence, the
May 9Victory Day was celebrated throughout the USSR and in the countries of the Eastern Bloc.
After the fall of the communism in Central and Eastern Europe, several
former USSRcountries, especially Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, retained the celebration and regard it as one of, if not the most venerated holiday/celebration of the entire year. Traditionally, ceremonial military parades are held on the day, with the most prominent one usually in Moscowon the Red Square. Other countries of the former Eastern Blockswitched to recognizing Victory in Europe Day, and celebrate it on May 8 along with Western Europe.
End of World War II in Europe
German Instrument of Surrender, 1945
Minute of Silence
Ribbon of Saint George
Victory Dayin other countries
Victory in Europe Day
Victory over Japan Day
* [http://english.pobediteli.ru/ Interactive map of the "Great Patriotic War" between the USSR and Nazi Germany]
* [http://economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=3956125 Still jostling after all these years, The Economist May 10, 2005] (subscription required)
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