Vietnam People's Army
Vietnam People's Army
Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam
Flag of the Vietnam People's Army. Slogan translates as "Determined to win."
Active December 22, 1944 – present Country Vietnam, North Vietnam Allegiance Vietnam, North Vietnam Type Armed forces Role Defense of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam Size 5,495,000 including militia forces Garrison/HQ Hanoi, Vietnam Motto Nothing is more precious than independence and freedom Anniversaries Traditional Founding Date: December 22, 1944. Dien Bien Phu Victory: May 7, 1954. Liberation of the South: April 30, 1975. Engagements Military history of Vietnam
- World War II (Anti-Japanese Campaign 1944–1945)
- First Indochina War (Against France and French-sponsored local forces, 1946–1954)
- Second Indochina War (Vietnam War) (Against the United States and South Vietnamese forces, 1954–1975)
- Cambodian-Vietnamese War (Against the Khmer Rouge, 1977–1989)
- Sino-Vietnamese War (Against China, 1979)
- Sino-Vietnamese border conflicts (border clashes with China, 1979-1990)
- Vietnamese border raids in Thailand (Against the Khmer Rouge insurgents and Thailand, 1979-1989)
- Thai-Laotian Border War (Against Thailand to defend its ally, Laos, 1987-1988)
- Clashes in Cambodia (Against the co-premier Norodom Ranariddh and the Khmer Rouge, 1997)
- Insurgency in Laos (secret war in Laos against Hmong separatists, 1975-present)
- War against rebellions 1975-1992 (against FULRO and National United Front for Liberation of Vietnam)
Võ Nguyên Giáp, Nguyễn Chí Thanh, Văn Tiến Dũng, Trần Văn Trà, Chu Văn Tấn, Vương Thừa Vũ, Lê Đức Anh, Nguyễn Thị Định, Hoàng Văn Thái, Chu Huy Mân, Lê Trọng Tấn, Nguyễn Bình, Trần Nam Trung, Hoàng Cầm, Trần Văn Quang, Đoàn Khuê, Nguyễn Hữu An, Nguyễn Minh Châu, Phùng Thế Tài, Trần Độ, Nguyễn Sơn etc.
The Vietnam People's Army (Vietnamese: Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam, variously translated as Vietnamese People's Army and People's Army of Vietnam) is the armed forces of Vietnam. The VPA includes: the Vietnamese People's Ground Forces (including VPA Strategic Rear Forces and Border Defense Forces), the Vietnam People's Navy (including VPN Marine Corps), the Vietnam People's Air Force, and the Vietnam Marine Police.
During the French Indochina War (1946–1954), the VPA was often referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War (1959–1975), the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) or the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). This allowed writers, the US Military, and the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong. However, northerners and southerners were always under the same command structure. According to Hanoi's official history, the Vietcong was a branch of the PAVN. In 2010 the Vietnam People's Army undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in Vietnam's history.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Equipment
- 4 Manpower
- 5 Reference
- 6 External links
The predecessor of the PAVN was the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation which consisted of 34 fighters headed by Vo Nguyen Giap who later became the first 4 Stars General of VPA on 28/5/1948, a famous military commander known for leading the PAVN to victories over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and against US backed South Vietnam in the Fall of Sai Gon in 30/4/1975. At first, This Propaganda Unit was formed under the guidelines of President Hồ Chí Minh on December 22, 1944 with the aim to introduce its members as main force to drive the French colonialists and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam. The group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945. In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army." At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it was officially named after People's Army of Vietnam.
First Indochina War
On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102th 'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division, later well-known as the Pioneer Division formed by the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was also backed by the 11th Battalion that later became the main force of the 312nd Victory Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10-15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hoa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province. Also in 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351th Division was formed, and later, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first siz divisions (308th, 304th, 312nd, 316th, 320th, 325th) became known as the original PAVN 'Steel and Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions (the 308th, 304th, 312nd, 316th, supported by the 351th Division's captured US howitzers) defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina.
Second Indochina War
Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, and by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332th, and 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, and the 335 Division of regroupees who had returned from Laos. In 1957, the 'interzones' of the war with the French were reorganised as the first five military regions, and in the next two years, several divisions were reduced to brigade size to meet the manpower requirements of collective farms. In May 1959 the first major steps to prepare infiltration routes into South Vietnam were taken; Group 559 was established, a logistical unit charged with establishing routes into the south via Laos and Cambodia, which later became famous as the Ho Chi Minh Trail. At about the same time, Group 579 was created as its maritime counterpart to transport supplies into the South by sea. Most of the early infiltratees were members of the 338th Division, former southerners who had been settled at Xuan Mai from 1954 onwards. Regular formations were sent to Southern Vietnam from 1965 onwards; the 325th Division's 101B Regiment and the 66th Regiment of the 304th Division met U.S. forces on a large scale, a first for the VPA, at the Battle of Ia Drang Valley in November 1965. The 308th Division's 88A Regiment, the 312th Division's 141A, 141B, 165A, 209A, the 316th Division's 174A, the 325th Division's 95A, 95B, the 320A Division also faced the US forces which included the 1st Cavalry Division, the 101st Airborne Division, the 173d Airborne Brigade, the 4th Infantry Division, the 1st Infantry Division, and the 25th Infantry Division. Those PAVN formations were seen as extremely brave forces by the US forces. Many of those formations later became main forces of the 3rd Division (Yellow Star Division) in Binh Dinh (1965), the 5th Division (1966) of 7th Military Zone (Capital Tactical Area of ARVN), the 7th (created by 141st and 209th Regiments originated in the 312th Division in 1966) and 9th Divisions (first Division of National Liberation Front of Vietnam in 1965 in Mekong Delta), the 10th Dakto Division in Dakto - Highland in 1972 south of Vietnam.
By Lunar New Year eve of 1968, the VPA launched a general offensive in more than 60 cities and towns throughout south of Vietnam against the US Army and ARVN. The US Embassy in Sai Gon, Presidential Palace, Headquarters of ARVN and ARVN's Navy, TV and Radio Stations, Tan Son Nhat International Airport in Sai Gon were attacked and invaded by commando forces known as "Dac Cong". The offensives caught the world's attention day-by-day and extremely demoralised the US public and military, both at home and abroad. The VPA sustained heavy losses of its main forces in southern military zones, its guerrillas, and its political hubs in South Vietnam. Some of its regular forces and command structure had to escape to Laos and Cambodia to avoid counter attacks from US forces and ARVN. Local guerrilla forces and political hubs in South Vietnam suffered heavy losses and had a hard time remaining within the delta area due to the extensive use of the Phoenix campaigns and military movements of the US Army and ARVN. These series of coordinated attacks came to be known as the "Tet Offensive."
Although the VPA lost militarily to the US forces and ARVN in the south, the political impact of the war in the United States was strong. Public demonstrations increased in ferocity and quantity after the Tet Offensive. From 1968 to 1972, the 5th, 7th, and 9th divisions had to fight for their existence in Cambodia against the US forces, ARVN, and Cambodian Prime Minister Lon Nol's troops but they also gained new allies: a part of the Cambodian army, guerrilla fighters supporting former Prime Minister Sihanouk, and later, the Khmer Rouge . The VPA succeeded against its enemies by supporting Sihanouk's forces rebelling against Lon Nol's regime, fighting and chasing ARVN forces from Cambodia, and containing the US influence in Cambodia.
In early 1975, nearly two years after the United States' withdrawal from South Vietnam (according to the terms of the Paris Peace Accords), the VPA launched a campaign to unite Vietnam. However, when the US left, it took with it billions of dollars in aid intended for South Vietnam, leaving the battered nation defenseless. Nothing now stood in North Vietnam's way, allowing the VPA to push deep into the South to secure victory.
- The PAVN was having forces in Laos in order to secure the Hochiminh Trail and to support the Pathet Lao. In 1975 the Laos forces succeeded in toppling the Royal Laotian regime and installing a new, and some sources claimed to be pro-Hanoi government, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, that rules Laos to this day.
- Parts of Cambodia were having a number of troops as well, in exchange for a economy and military aid to the neutral Sihanouk government, upsetting the Cambodian military, and with US aid, led to Lon Nol's coup in 1970 and the foundation pro-US Khmer Republic state, which also mark the beginning of the Khmer Rouge forces. In 1978, along with the FUNSK Cambodian Salvation Front, the Vietnamese and Ex-Khmer Rouge forces succeeded in toppling Pol Pot's Democratic Kampuchea regime and installing a new government, the People's Republic of Kampuchea. Unlike in Laos, the PRK/SOC state would not be recognized by the United Nations, mostly by US and China, despite the genocidal record of the regime that had been overthrown.
- During the Sino-Vietnamese War and the Sino-Vietnamese conflicts 1979-1990, Vietnamese forces would conduct cross-border raids into Chinese territory in order to destroy artillery ammunition. This greatly contributed to the outcome of the Sino-Vietnamese War, as the Chinese forces ran out of ammunition already at an early stage and had to call in reinforcements.
- While occupying Cambodia, Vietnam launched several armed incursions into Thailand in pursuit of Cambodian guerillas that had taken refuge on the Thai side of the border.
Both in Cambodia and in Laos, the heavily armed and battle-hardened Vietnam People's Army was a valuable ally to the Pathet Lao or the FUNSK forces, providing economy and military aid, also with new weapons, technologies and intelligence. Some claimed that just like the US Army relationship with the ARVN, Kingdom of Laos and the Khmer Republic and it's successor, the Khmer Rouge, the PAVN was having a key roles in both cases, and could be the real power standing after them.
During peaceful periods, the VPA has actively been involved in Vietnam's workforce to develop the economy of Vietnam, to coordinate national defense and the economy. The VPA has regularly sent troops to aid with natural disasters such as flooding, landslides etc. The VPA is also involved in such areas as industry, agriculture, forestry, fishery and telecommunications. The VPA has numerous small firms which have become quite profitable in recent years. However, recent decrees have effectively prohibited the commercialisation of the military.
The Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of Vietnam, though this position is nominal and real power is assumed by the Central Military Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam. The secretary of Central Military Commission (usually the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam) is the de facto Commander and now is Nguyễn Phú Trọng. The Minister of National Defense oversees operations of the Ministry of Defence, and the VPA. He also oversees such agencies as the General Staff and the General Logistics Department. However, military policy is ultimately directed by the Central Military Commission of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam.
The VPA is a "triple armed force" composed of the Main Force, the Local Force and the Border Force. As with most countries' armed forces, the VPA consists of standing, or regular, forces as well as reserve forces. During peacetime, the standing forces are minimized in number, and kept combat-ready by regular physical and weapons training, and stock maintenance.
The Vietnamese People's Army comprises various units of the Main Forces (Bộ đội Chủ lực), Local Forces (Bộ đội Địa phương) and the Border Forces (Bộ đội Biên phòng).
It is subdivided into the following branches and sub-branches:
- Vietnam People's Ground Forces (Lục quân Nhân dân Việt Nam)
- Vietnam Border Defense Force (Biên phòng Việt Nam)
- Vietnam People's Navy (Hải quân Nhân dân Việt Nam)
- Vietnam Marine Police (Cảnh sát biển Việt Nam)
- Vietnam People's Air Force (Không quân Nhân dân Việt Nam).
- Vietnam Air Defense Force (Phòng không Việt Nam)
Note:Vietnam Strategic Rear Force (Lực lượng dự bị chiến lược) is also a part of the ground force.
The Foreign Relations Department of the Ministry of National Defense organizes international operations of the VPA.
Apart from its occupation of half of the disputed Spratly Islands, which have been claimed as Vietnamese territory since the 17th century, Vietnam has not officially had forces stationed internationally since its withdrawal from Cambodia and Laos in early 1990.
Some pro-Hmong sources and international organizations claimed that since the end of the Vietnam War, Vietnamese forces are sent to Laos repeatedly to quell the Hmong rebellion. For example, in late November 2009, shortly before the start of the 2009 Southeast Asian Games in Vientiane, the Vietnamese army undertook a major troop surge in key rural and mountainous provinces in Laos where Lao and Hmong civilians and religious believers, including Christians, have sought sanctuary.
The main force of the VPA consists of combat ready troops, as well as support units such as educational institutions for logistics, officer training, and technical training.
In 1991, Conboy et al. stated that the VPA Ground Forces had four 'Strategic Army Corps' in the early 1990s, numbering 1-4, from north to south. 1st Corps (Vietnam People's Army), located in the Red River Delta region, consisted of the 308th (one of the six original 'Steel and Iron' divisions) and 312th Divisions, and the 309th Infantry Regiment. The other three corps, 2 SAC, 3 SAC, and 4 SAC, were further south, with 4th Corps (Vietnam People's Army), in what was South Vietnam, consisting of two former PLAF divisions, the 7th and 9th.
The IISS Military Balance 2008 attributes the Vietnamese ground forces with an estimated 412,000 personnel. Formations, according to the IISS, include nine military regions, 14 corps headquarters, 10 armoured brigades, three mechanised infantry divisions, and 67 infantry divisions whose strengths range from 5,000 to 12,500. The IISS estimate of 14 corps headquarters appears to be too high. Vietnamese Wikipedia entries suggest that a number of other corps heaquarters, including the 5th, 14th, and 68th, have indeed existed in the past, but now have been disbanded.
Smaller formations include 17 independent infantry regiments, one airborne brigade, various đặc công brigades and battalions of both of land combat - Đặc công bộ, urban combat - Đặc công biệt động and water-based combat - Đặc công nước (special task force units with unique high-level guerrila offensive combat tactics, sometimes incorrectly identified as "Sappers"; previously there had been a commando hunting force of this branch during Vietnam war, which has now evolved into an anti-terrorist force), more than 10 brigades of field artillery, eight divisions and more than 20 independent brigades of engineers, and 10-16 economic construction divisions.
Local forces are an entity of the VPA that, together with the militia and "self-defense forces," act on the local level in protection of people and local authorities. While the local forces are regular VPA forces, the militia consists of rural civilians, and the self-defense forces consist of civilians who live in urban areas and/or work in large groups, such as at construction sites or farms. The current number stands at 3-4 million part-time soldiers.
From the 1960s to 1975, the Soviet Union was the main supplier of military hardware to North Vietnam. After the latter's victory in the war, it remained the main supplier of equipment to the united Vietnam. The United States had been the primary supplier of equipment to South Vietnam; some of the equipment abandoned by the United States Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam came under control of the re-unified Viet Nam's government. The PAVN captured the South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) weapons on April 30, 1975 after Saigon was captured.
- 3,000+ tanks: 990 T-55 (to be upgraded to T-55M3), 480 T-72, 220 T-62, 360 Type-59 and 665 light tanks
- 3,600+ APC: details below, ex Soviet, ex US and IS origin
- 24290 Artillery
- 201 Helicopters
The Vietnamese have also produced their own equipment and repaired existing equipment.
- Poland T-72M1 Main battle tank (480)
- Soviet Union T-62 Main battle tank (220)
- Soviet Union T-54/55 Main battle tank (990+, upgrading to T-55 M3)
- Israel T-55M3 Main battle tank upgraded version of T-55 (990 planned)
- People's Republic of China Type-59 Main battle tank (360)
- People's Republic of China Type-63 Amphibious light tank (320)
- People's Republic of China Type 62 Light tank (180)
- Soviet Union PT-76 Light tank (300)
- North Korea PT-85 Light Tank (45)
- Soviet Union SU-100 Tank destroyer (132) - for training
- United States M48 Patton Main battle tank (40+) Phased out of service in the 1980s due to lack of spare parts, mainly use for training
- United States M-41 Light tank (90+) Phased out of service in the 1980s due to lack of spare parts, mainly use for training
IFV / APCs
- Soviet Union BMP-1 infantry fighting vehicle (600)
- Soviet Union BMP-2 infantry fighting vehicle (600)
- Soviet Union BTR-50 Tracked armoured personnel carrier (750)
- Soviet Union BTR-60 Wheeled armoured personnel carrier (450)
- Soviet Union BTR-70 Wheeled armoured personnel carrier (150)
- Soviet Union BRDM-1 reconnaissance vehicle (120)
- Soviet Union BRDM-2 reconnaissance vehicle (480)
- Israel RAM-2000 Armored Mine Protected Vehicle (150) from Israel Aerospace Industries
- United States M-113 armored personnel carrier (245)
- United States V-150 wheeled armoured personnel carrier (125)
- Soviet Union BTR-80 Wheeled armoured personnel carrier (several semi-civilian variants of the BTR-80 for rescue operations)(10-15?)
- Soviet Union ZIL-130 general purpose truck
- Soviet Union ZIL-131 general purpose truck
- Soviet Union ZIS-151 general purpose truck—various platforms
- Soviet Union ZIS-157 and Chinese version CA-30 general purpose truck (Called by "Hero of Hochiminh Trail)
- Soviet Union UAZ-469 all terrain vehicle
- Soviet Union UAZ-452 4x4 van-type transport vehicle
- Soviet Union UAZ452D single cab pickup truck
- Soviet Union UAZ-2206 4x4 van-type transport vehicle
- Soviet Union UAZ-3741 4x4 van-type transport vehicle
- Soviet Union UAZ-3909i ambulance
- Soviet Union UAZ 39625 4x4 van-type transport vehicle
- Soviet Union UAZ 39094 crewcab pickup truck
- Soviet Union Ural-375D general purpose truck
- Soviet Union GAZ-66 general purpose truck
- Soviet Union KrAZ-255 general purpose truck
- Soviet Union MAZ-537 tank transporter
- United States M-35 cargo truck (decommissioned)
- United States M-151 Jeep (decommissioned)
- Soviet Union TT-33 Pistols Militia force
- Soviet Union PMM Pistols Standard issue service pistol.
- Soviet Union APS Pistols Standard issue
- People's Republic of China Type-54 Pistols (Chinese copy of TT-33) Militia Force
- Czechoslovakia CZ-52 Pistols (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Soviet Union AKM Assault rifles Standard issue
- Soviet Union AK-74 Assault rifle (in limited service with the Vietnamese Naval Infantry)
- Soviet Union AKS-74U Compact Assault rifles (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- United States XM-177E2 Carbines (used by Special Force and marine police (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- United States M16 Assault rifles (decommissioned due to lack of ammo). In storage
- United States M16A1 Assault rifles (decommissioned due to lack of ammo) In storage
- United States M14 Battle Rifle (decommissioned due to lack of ammo) In storage
- Soviet Union SKS-45 Carbines (Militia force, Military police)
- People's Republic of China Type 56 Carbines (Militia force, Military police)
- Soviet Union SVD Sniper rifles Standard issue
- Russia SVU Sniper rifles (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Russia PP-19 Bizon Submachine guns (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Poland PM-63 Submachine guns (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Germany MP-5A4 Submachine guns (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong - 100 units)
- Israel Uzi Submachine guns (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Israel MiniUzi Submachine guns (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Israel MicroUzi Submachine guns (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Soviet Union RPD-44 Light machine guns Standard issue
- Soviet Union RPK Light machine guns Standard issue
- Soviet Union PKM General purpose machine Guns Standard issue
- Soviet Union DShK-38/DShKM Heavy machine guns Standard issue
- Soviet Union NSV Heavy Machine Guns Standard issue
- United States M2HB Heavy Machine Guns (decommissioned due to lack of parts) In storage
- United States M-60 Machine Guns (decommissioned due to lack of parts) In storage
- Soviet Union GP-25 Grenade launchers (used by Special Force (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- Soviet Union AGS-17 Automatic grenade launchers Standard issue
- United States M-79 Grenade Launchers Standard issue (decommissioned due to lack of ammo)
- South Africa MGL Mk-1 40 mm Grenade Launcher (a.k.a Dac Cong)
- United States M-72 Light Anti-Tank Weapon, improved for more durable launchers and thermobaric rockets, used as flame throwers (stock depleted).
- People's Republic of China Type 69 RPG rocket propelled grenade system (Chinese version of RPG-7, now replacing by RPG-7V due to lack of accuracy and penetration (Chinese ammo)).
- Soviet Union RPG-7V rocket propelled grenade system Standard issue
- Soviet Union RPG-7D rocket propelled grenade system (used by Dac cong and the airborne infantry brigade)
- Soviet Union/ Russia RPG-29 rocket-propelled grenade system
- Soviet Union B-10 82 mm Recoilless gun (700)
- Soviet Union B-11 107 mm Recoilless gun (900)
- Soviet Union SPG-9 73 mm Recoilless gun (900)
- Soviet Union 2S1 122 mm Self-propelled artillery gun (260)
- Soviet Union 2S3 152 mm Self-propelled artillery gun (240)
- Soviet Union D-20 152 mm howitzer gun (720)
- Soviet Union D-30 122 mm howitzer gun (900)
- Soviet Union M-46 130 mm towed field gun (480)
- Soviet Union BM-13 16tubes 132 mm multiple rocket launchers (160)
- Soviet Union BM-14 16tubes 140 mm multiple rocket launchers (372)
- Soviet Union BM-21 40tubes 122 mm multiple-launch rocket system (732)
- Soviet Union SS-1 Scud B/C/D Tactical ballistic missiles (2,000 missiles and 60-96 launchers)
- United States M-40 106 mm Recoilless gun (decommissioned)
- United States M-114 155 mm howitzer gun (decommissioned)
- United States M-107 175 mm howitzer self-propelled gun ((decommissioned)
- Soviet Union ZSU-57-2 57 mm self propelled anti-aircraft gun (530)
- Soviet Union ZSU-23-4 23 mm self propelled anti-aircraft gun (500)
- People's Republic of China Type 65 37mm towed anti-aircraft gun (1,200)
- People's Republic of China Type 63 37 mm self propelled anti-aircraft gun-retried?
- Soviet Union 61-K 37 mm Air defense gun (3,600)
- Soviet Union ZU-23-2 23 mm towed anti-aircraft gun (7,200)
- Soviet Union S-60 57 mm towed anti-aircraft gun (4,800)
- Soviet Union Tula Machinery Design Bureau AT-5 Spandrel anti-tank missile
- Soviet Union KBM SA-7 Grail surface-to-air missile system (A-72)
- Soviet Union SA-16 surface-to-air missile system
- Russia KBM SA-18 Grouse surface-to-air missile system (A87)
- Soviet UnionLavochkin SA-2 Guideline surface-to-air missile system
- Soviet Union Isayev SA-3 Goa surface-to-air missile system
- Soviet Union NIIP/Vympel SA-6 Gainful surface-to-air missile system
- Soviet Union KB Tochmash SA-9 Gaskin self-propelled surface-to-air missile
- Soviet Union KB Tochmash SA-13 Gopher surface to air missile system
- Soviet Union Almaz SA-20A Gargoyle surface-to-air missile system (4 batteries)
- Soviet Union Mil Mi-24A/D Hind attack helicopters (36)
- Soviet Union Mil Mi-6 Hook heavy transport helicopter (10-15+)
- Soviet Union Mil Mi-8 Hip transport helicopters (66)
- Soviet Union Mil Mi-17 Hip-H transport helicopters (69)
- United States Bell UH-1H Huey utility helicopter (15+)
The Vietnamese People's Army consists of:
- Military manpower—military age: age for compulsory service: 18–25 years old; conscript service obligation: 18 months
- Military manpower—availability:
- males age 15–49: 21,341,813 (2005 est.)
- Military manpower—fit for military service:
- males age 15–49: 16,032,358 (2005 est.)
- Military manpower—reaching military age annually:
- males: 915,572 (2005 est.)
- Military manpower—total troops:
- 487,000 ( source: the independence)
- Military expenditures: $4 billion (Military Balance2007)
- Military expenditures—percent of GDP: 2% (Military Balance2007)
- ^ http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Asia-and-Oceania/Vietnam-ARMED-FORCES.html
- ^ HISTORY - The Hmong
- ^ Military History Institute of Vietnam,(2002) Victory in Vietnam: The Official History of the People's Army of Vietnam, 1954–1975, translated by Merle L. Pribbenow. University Press of Kansas. p. 68. ISBN 0700611754.
- ^ a b c Early Day: The Development of the Viet Minh Military Machine"
- ^ http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/The-Vietnam-War-and-Its-Impact-Political-lessons.html
- ^ Christopher Robbins, The Ravens: Pilots of the Secret War in Laos. Asia Books 2000.
- ^ David P. Chandler, A history of Cambodia, Westview Press; Allen & Unwin, Boulder, Sydney, 1992
- ^ THE HMONG REBELLION IN LAOS: Victims of Totalitarianism or terrorists?, by Gary Yia Lee, Ph.D
- ^ Vietnamese soldiers attack Hmong in Laos
- ^ Joint-Military Co-operation continues between Laos and Vietnam
- ^ Combine Military Effort of Laos and Vietnam
- ^ Vietnam, Laos: Military Offensive Launched At Hmong
- ^ 2008May20: Laos, Vietnam: Attacks Against Hmong Civilians Mount
- ^ Laos, Vietnam: New Campaign to Exterminate Hmong
- ^ President Obama Urged To Address Laos, Hmong Crisis During Asia Trip, Student Protests in Vientiane
- ^ Hmong: Vietnam VPA, LPA Troops Attack Christians Villagers in Laos
- ^ Laos, Vietnam Peoples Army Unleashes Helicopter Gunship Attacks on Laotian and Hmong Civilians, Christian Believers
- ^ Vietnam, Laos Crackdown: SEA Games Avoided By Overseas Lao, Hmong in Protest
- ^ SEA Game Attacks: Vietnam, Laos Military Kill 23 Lao Hmong Christians on Thanksgiving
- ^ See also http://www.defencetalk.com/forums/showthread.php?t=6367
- ^ IISS Military Balance 2008, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2008, p.408
Vietnam People's Army GeneralMinistry of Defence • Vietnam People's Army • General Staff • General Department of Politics Branches Military regions1st • 2nd • 3rd • 4th • 5th • 7th • 9th • High Command of Capital Hanoi Army corps1st • 2nd • 3rd • 4th OthersGeneral Department of Technique • General Department of Logistics • General Department of Military Industry • General Department of Military Intelligence Military of Asia Sovereign
- Burma (Myanmar)
- People's Republic of China
- East Timor (Timor-Leste)
- North Korea
- South Korea
- Saudi Arabia
- Sri Lanka
- United Arab Emirates
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- Christmas Island
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands
- Hong Kong
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Korean People's Army — Chosŏn inmin gun (조선인민군) The flag of the Korean People s Army Founded 8 February 1948 / 25 April 1932 … Wikipedia
National People's Army — Flag of the National People s Army … Wikipedia
New People's Army — NPA flag Dates of operation March 29, 1969 Leader José María Sison Motives Proletarian revolution … Wikipedia