Plan Colombia


Plan Colombia

The term Plan Colombia is most often used to refer to controversial U.S. legislation aimed at curbing drug smuggling by supporting different Drug War activities in Colombia. cite web
author =
date =April 26, 2001
url =http://www.heritage.org/Research/LatinAmerica/BG1435.cfm
title =Helping Colombia Fix Its Plan to Curb Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Insurgency
format =HTML
work =
publisher =The Heritage Foundation
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
] Plan Colombia also refers to a wider aid initiative originally proposed by Colombian President Andrés Pastrana Arango, which contemplated the above piece of legislation but was not limited to it. The plan was conceived between 1998 and 1999 by the administration of President Andrés Pastrana with the goals of social and economic revitalization, ending the armed conflict and creating an anti-drug strategy. The most controversial element of the anti-narcotic strategy is aerial fumigation to eradicate coca. This activity has come under fire because it damages legal crops and has adverse health effects upon those exposed to the herbicides. Critics of the initiative also claimed that elements within the Colombian security forces, which received aid and training from it, were involved in supporting or tolerating abuses by the now largely dismantled right-wing paramilitary forces against left-wing paramilitary organizations and their sympathizers.

Original Plan Colombia

The original version of Plan Colombia was officially unveiled by President Andres Pastrana in 1999. Pastrana had first proposed the idea of a possible "Marshall Plan for Colombia" during a speech at Bogotá's Tequendama Hotel on June 8 1998, nearly a week after the first round of that year's presidential elections. Pastrana argued that:

" [Drug crops are] a social problem whose solution must pass through the solution to the armed conflict...Developed countries should help us to implement some sort of 'Marshall Plan' for Colombia, which will allow us to develop great investments in the social field, in order to offer our peasants different alternatives to the illicit crops."cite book | first =Andrés | last =Pastrana | authorlink = | coauthors =Camilo Gómez | title = La Palabra bajo Fuego | publisher = Editorial Planeta Colombiana S.A. | location =Bogotá | year=2005 | pages= 48-51 ]

After Pastrana was inaugurated, one of the names given to the initiative at this early stage was "Plan for Colombia's Peace", which President Pastrana defined as "a set of alternative development projects which will channel the shared efforts of multilateral organizations and [foreign] governments towards Colombian society". Pastrana's Plan Colombia, as originally presented, did not focus on drug trafficking, military aid, or fumigation, cite book
first =Grace
last =Livingstone
authorlink =
coauthors ="(Forward by Pearce,Jenny)"
year =2004
month =
title =Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy, and War
chapter =
chapterurl =
editor =
others =
edition =
pages = 123-130
publisher =Rutgers University Press
location =
id =0813534437
url =
] but instead emphasized the manual eradication of drug crops as a better alternative. [Pastrana, p. 116] According to author Doug Stokes, one of the earlier versions of the plan called for an estimated 55 per cent military aid and 45 percent developmental aid. [cite book | author= Stokes, Doug| title= [http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/54324.html America's Other War: Terrorizing Colombia] | publisher= Zed Books| year= 2005| id=ISBN 1-84277-547-2 p. 96]

During an August 3 1998 meeting, President Pastrana and U.S. President Bill Clinton discussed the possibility of "securing an increase in U.S. aid for counternarcotics projects, sustainable economic development, the protection of human rights, humanitarian aid, stimulating private investment, and joining other donors and international financial institutions to promote Colombia's economic growth". Diplomatic contacts regarding this subject continued during the rest of the year and into 1999. [Pastrana, p. 115-116; 120-122]

For President Pastrana, it became necessary to create an official document that specifically "served to convene important U.S. aid, as well as that of other countries and international organizations" by adequately addressing US concerns. The Colombian government also considered that it had to patch up a bilateral relationship that had heavily deteriorated during the previous administration of President Ernesto Samper (1994-1998). According to Pastrana, Under Secretary of State Thomas R. Pickering eventually suggested that, initially, the U.S. could be able to commit to providing aid over a three year period, as opposed to continuing with separate yearly packages. [Pastrana, p. 203]

As a result of these contacts, US input was extensive, and meant that Plan Colombia's first formal draft was originally written in English, not Spanish, and a Spanish version was not available until "months after a revised English version was already in place". cite book
first =Grace
last =Livingstone
authorlink =
coauthors ="(Forward by Pearce,Jenny)"
year =2004
month =
title =Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy, and War
chapter =
chapterurl =
editor =
others =
edition =
pages = 123-126
publisher =Rutgers University Press
location =
id =0813534437
url =

*cite journal
first =Marc
last = Cooper
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2001
month = March 19
title = Plan Colombia
journal =The Nation
volume =
issue =
pages = 3
id =
url =http://www.thenation.com/doc/20010319/cooper

*Crandall, Russell (February 6 2003) cite web | title=From Drugs to Guerrillas? US Policy Toward Colombia / The Samper Scandal Erupts| work= Wake Forest University| url=http://www.wfu.edu/~caron/ssrs/Crandall.doc | accessmonthday=February 23 | accessyear=2006|format=DOC p. 9 [Word document] "In fact, a Spanish language version of the plan in Spanish did not exist until months after a copy in English was available."--Author interview with US Department of State official. Washington, DC. November 2000.
*cite book
first =Russell
last =Crandall
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2002
month =April
title =Driven by Drugs: United States Policy Toward Colombia
chapter =
chapterurl =
editor =
others =
edition =
pages =
publisher =Lynne Rienner Publishers
location =
id =158826064X
url =

*cite web | title=Prospects for Peace: The Projected Impact of Plan Colombia | work= Trina Zahller McNair Scholars Project University of Montana 2002| url= http://www.cjpf.org/drug/prospectsforpeace.pdf| accessmonthday=February 23 | accessyear=2006|format=PDF p. 15 [PDF file] "The original format of Plan Colombia (written by President Pastrana) was focused primarily on economic development, human rights and judicial reform. It was a prospect of change for Colombian civil society and an ambitious attempt to dig to the root of Colombian’s strife."
*Nagle, Luz Estella cite web | title=The Search for Accountability and Transparency in Plan Colombia: Reforming Judicial Institutions- Again | work= U.S. Strategic Studies Institute 2001| url= http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB24.pdf| accessmonthday= February 23 | accessyear=2006|format=PDF p. 17. Nagle quotes Ambassador Robert White.
*cite journal
first =Naom
last =Chomsky
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2001
month =Spring
title =Plan Colombia
journal =Alternative Press Review
volume =6
issue =1
pages =
id =
url =http://www.altpr.org/apr14/plan_colombia.html

*cite journal
first =Martin
last =Hodgson
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2000
month =May/June
title =The coca leaf war A report from Colombia--the front line in Washington's war on drugs
journal =Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
volume =56
issue =3
pages =
id =
url =http://www.thebulletin.org/article.php?art_ofn=mj00hodgson
format =dead link|date=June 2008 – [http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3AHodgson+intitle%3AThe+coca+leaf+war+A+report+from+Colombia--the+front+line+in+Washington%27s+war+on+drugs.&as_publication=Bulletin+of+the+Atomic+Scientists&as_ylo=2000&as_yhi=2000&btnG=Search Scholar search]
p. 36-45 ]

Critics and observers have referred to the differences between the earliest versions of Plan Colombia and later drafts. Originally, the focus was on achieving peace and ending violence, within the context of the ongoing peace talks that Pastrana's government was then holding with the FARC guerrillas, following the principle that the country's violence had "deep roots in the economic exclusion and...inequality and poverty".

The final version of Plan Colombia was seen as considerably different, since its main focuses would deal with drug trafficking and strengthening the military. Ambassador Robert White stated:

"If you read the original Plan Colombia, not the one that was written in Washington but the original Plan Colombia, there's no mention of military drives against the FARC rebels. Quite the contrary. (President Pastrana) says the FARC is part of the history of Colombia and a historical phenomenon, he says, and they must be treated as Colombians... [Colombia] come and ask for bread and you (America) give them stones." [cite web | title= DrugSense | work= Ottawa Citizen| url=http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v00/n1323/a08.html?152 | accessmonthday=February 23 | accessyear=2006 White is the president of the Center for International Policy and former American ambassador to Paraguay and El Salvador, and former No. 2 man with the U.S. Embassy in Bogota.]
In the final U.S. aid package, 78.12 percent of the funds for 2000 went to the Colombian military and police for counternarcotics and military operations. "(See graph, below)"

President Pastrana admitted that most of the resulting US aid to Colombia was overwhelmingly focused on the military and on counternarcotics (68%), but argued that this was only some 17% of the total amount of estimated Plan Colombia aid. The rest, focusing mostly on social development, would be provided by international organizations, Europe, Japan, Canada, Latin America, and Colombia itself. In light of this, Pastrana considered that the Plan had been unfairly labeled as "militarist" by national and international critics that focused only on the US contribution. [Pastrana, p. 256-257]

Financing

U.S. 2005 Estimate

On April 14, 2006, the U.S. Drug Czar's office announced that its Colombian coca cultivation estimate for 2005 was significantly greater than that of any year since 2002. cite web
author =
date =April 14, 2006
url =http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/news/press06/041406.html
title =2005 Coca Estimates for Colombia
format =
work =HTML
publisher =Office of National Drug Control Policy
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
] cite web
author =
date =April 14, 2006
url =http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/cocagrowing.htm
title =Coca Cultivation in the Andes
format =
work =HTML
publisher =The Center for International Policy
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
] The press release from the U.S. Office of National Drug Control Policy stated that "coca cultivation declined by 8 percent, from 114,100 to 105,400 hectares, when those areas surveyed by the US government in 2004 were compared with the same areas in 2005". However, "the survey also found 144,000 hectares of coca under cultivation in 2005 in a search area that was 81 percent larger than that used in 2004...newly imaged areas show about 39,000 additional hectares of coca. Because these areas were not previously surveyed, it is impossible to determine for how long they have been under coca cultivation."

Critics of Plan Colombia and of ongoing fumigation programs considered this new information as a sign of the failure of current U.S. drug policy. The Center for International Policy stated that "even if we accept the U.S. government’s argument that the high 2005 estimate owes to measurement in new areas, it is impossible to claim that Plan Colombia has brought a 50 percent reduction in coca-growing in six years...Either Colombia has returned to [the 2002] level of cultivation, or the 'reductions' reported in 2002 and 2003 were false due to poor measurement." cite web
author =
date =April 15, 2006
url =http://ciponline.org/colombia/060415coca.pdf
title =Colombian coca cultivation in 2005
format =PDF
work =Center for International Policy
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
]

UN 2005 Estimate

On June 20, 2006, the United Nations (UN) Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) presented its own survey on Andean coca cultivation, reporting a smaller increase of about 8% and confirming a rising trend shown by the earlier U.S. findings. cite web
author =
date =June 20, 2006
url =http://www.unodc.org/pdf/andean/Andean06_ExSumm.pdf
title =Coca Cultivation in the Andean Region. A Survey of Bolivia, Colombia and Peru. June 2006
format =PDF
work =United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
accessmonthday =June 20
accessyear =2006
] UN surveys employ a different methodology and are part of the ongoing "Illicit Crop Monitoring Programme" (ICMP) and its "Integrated Illicit Crop Monitoring System" (SIMCI) project.cite web
author =
date =June 20, 2006
url =http://www.unodc.org/colombia/es/simci_project.html
title =Proyecto SIMCI II. Sistema Integrado de Monitoreo de Cultivos Ilicitos
work =United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
accessmonthday =June 20
accessyear =2006
] The UNODC press release stated that during 2005 the "area under coca cultivation in Colombia rose by 6,000 hectares to 86,000 after four consecutive years of decline despite the continued efforts of the Government to eradicate coca crops". This represents a small increase above the lowest figure recorded by UNODC's surveys, which was 80,000 hectares in 2004. For UNODC, current cultivation remained "still well below the peak of 163,300 hectares recorded in 2000", as "significant reductions [...] have been made in the past five years and overall figures remain nearly a third below their peak of 2000".cite web
author =
date =June 20, 2006
url =http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/press_release_2006-06-20.html
title =Coca cultivation in Andes stabilizes in 2005, farmers need help to find alternative livelihoods
work =United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
accessmonthday =June 20
accessyear =2006
]

UNODC concluded that "substantial international assistance" is needed by Colombia and the other Andean countries "so they can provide poor coca farmers with sustainable alternative livelihoods" and that "aid efforts need to be multiplied at least tenfold in order to reach all impoverished farmers who need support".

Analysis

The results of Plan Colombia have been mixed. From the perspective of the U.S. and Colombian governments, the results of Plan Colombia have been positive. U.S. government statistics would show that a significant reduction in leftover coca (total cultivation minus eradicated coca) has been observed from peak 2001 levels of 1,698 square kilometres to an estimated 1,140 square kilometres in 2004. It is said that a record high aerial herbicide fumigation campaign of 1,366 square kilometres in 2004 has reduced the total area of surviving coca, even as newer areas are planted.Despite this, effective reductions may appear to have reached their limits as in 2004, despite a record high aerial herbicide fumigation campaign of 1,366 square kilometres, the total area of surviving coca has remained constant, as an estimated 1,139 square kilometres in 2003 were followed by about 1,140 square kilometres in 2004.

Additionally, recent poppy seed cultivation has decreased while coca cultivation actually has not. Overall attempted coca cultivation by growers (total planted coca without taking eradication into account) increased somewhat, from 2,467 square kilometres in 2003 to 2,506 square kilometres in 2004. Coca cultivation reached it's highest point during the program in 2002 at 2,671 square kilometres. cite web
author =
date =March 30, 2005
url =http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/blog/archives/000082.htm
title =The State Department's new coca data
format =HTML
work =Plan Colombia and Beyond CIP's running commentary about U.S. policy toward Colombia and Latin America, with a focus on peace, security and military issues. | publisher =The Center for International Policy
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
] cite web
author =
date =March 25, 2005
url =http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/news/press05/032505.html
title =2004 Coca and Opium Poppy Estimates for Colombia and the Andes
format =HTML
work =
publisher =whitehousedrugpolicy.gov
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
]

The U.S. and Colombian governments interpret this data to show a decline in potential production of cocaine, from a peak of 700 metric tons in 2001 to 460 in 2003 and 430 in 2004, as result of an increase in "newly planted [coca fields] in response to eradication," which should be less productive than mature coca.

U.S. government officials admitted in late 2005 that the market price of cocaine has yet to rise significantly, as would be expected from the above reductions in supply. They pointed to possible hidden stashes and other methods of circumventing the immediate effect of eradication efforts which allow for a relatively constant flow of drugs able to enter into the market, delaying the consequences of drug eradication. U.S. Drug Czar John Walters stated that "the reason for [reductions in supply not immediately driving prices up] is that you are not seizing and consuming coca leaves that were grown in 2004 in 2004. You are seizing and consuming coca leaves that were probably grown and processed in 2003 and 2002." cite web
author =
date =November 17, 2005
url =http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/news/speech05/111705.html
title =Progress Report on Anti-Drug Efforts in Colombia
format =
work =HTML
publisher =Office of National Drug Control Policy
accessmonthday =April 23
accessyear =2006
]

Other observers say this points to the ultimate ineffectiveness of the Plan in stopping the flow of drugs and addressing more important or underlying issues like providing a viable alternative for landless and other peasants, who turn to coca cultivation due to a lack of other economic possibilities, in addition to having to deal with the tumultuous civil conflict between the state, guerrillas and paramilitaries. They also say that simply making coca difficult to grow and transport in one area will lead to the movement of the drug cultivation processes to other areas, both inside and outside Colombia, a consequence also known as the balloon effect. cite web
author =
date =January 10, 2005
url =http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/blog/archives/000044.htm
title =That stubborn "balloon effect"
format =HTML
work =Plan Colombia and Beyond CIP's running commentary about U.S. policy toward Colombia and Latin America, with a focus on peace, security and military issues. | publisher =The Center for International Policy
accessmonthday =April 26
accessyear =2006
]

As an example of the above, it is claimed by critics that Peru and Bolivia, as countries which had earlier monopolized coca cultivations until local eradication efforts later led to the eventual transfer of that part of the illegal business to Colombia, have recently had small increases in coca production despite record eradication in Colombia, which some years ago accounted for about 80% of the coca base produced in South America. Supporters of the Plan and of drug prohibition in general consider that the increase has, as of yet, been significant to be a sign of the above "balloon effect".

The Colombian government announced that it eradicated around 73,000 coca hectares during 2006 which, according to it, would be above all local records in coca plant destruction. The Colombian government said that it plans to destroy an additional 50,000 hectares of coca in 2007. [http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/sne/2007/enero/03/17032007.htm] .

Quotes

*"The intensification of Plan Colombia is extremely dangerous. It could produce a Vietnam-isation of the region, that is to say, an extension of the conflict to neighbouring countries, especially Brazil." Brazilian President-elect Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's party statement on Plan Colombia, October 2002. [Livingstone, p. 141]
*"U.S. assistance will fund training and support for human rights-related nongovernmental organizations as well as government investigators and prosecutors, including a specialized human rights task force. Working with the Colombian Vice President's office, the U.S. is promoting and assisting the development of a national human rights policy. The U.S. is providing human rights-related training for security force members and judges and assistance to the human rights ombudsman. The U.S. also supports enhanced security protection for human rights monitors in Colombia." 2001 Plan Colombia Fact Sheet from the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs. [cite web
title =Fact Sheet. Plan Colombia and Human Rights
work = Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs Fact Sheet
url =http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rls/fs/2001/1041.htm
accessdate=2006-08-19
]
*"We are strongly opposed to the amount of military aid being sent to the Colombian army when unionists and innocent people are being killed by the very military forces we are financing." Leo Gerard, United Steelworkers president. [cite book
last =Leech
first =Garry M.
authorlink =
coauthors =
month =April | year =2002
title =Killing Peace: Colombia's Conflict and the Failure of U.S. Intervention
publisher =Information Network of Americas (Inota)
location =
id =ISBN 0-9720384-0-X
p. 61
*cite journal
first =David
last =Bacon
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2001
month =July
title =The Colombian Connection: U.S. Aid Fuels a Dirty War Against Unions
journal =In These Times
volume =
issue =
pages =13
id =
url =http://www.infoshop.org/inews/article.php?story=01/07/05/6976419
]
*"Without Plan Colombia, the Colombian police and military would not have the additional ability they now have to combat irregular armed groups and drug trafficking. The state has acquired a greater degree of control over territory in good measure thanks to Plan Colombia." Alfredo Rangel of the Security and Democracy Foundation. [cite journal
first =Joseph
last =Contreras
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2005
month =August 29,
title =Failed 'Plan'. After five years and billions of U.S. aid in the drug war, cocaine production still thrives
journal =Newsweek International
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/9025208/site/newsweek/
]

ee also

*Leahy Law

*Mérida Initiative

*United States and South and Central America

Notes

External links

Web sites

*cite web | title=The Center for International Policy's Colombia Program| work= | url=http://ciponline.org/colombia/index.htm| accessmonthday=March 18 | accessyear=2006:*cite web | title=The 2000-2001 Colombia aid package by the numbers| work= | url=http://www.ciponline.org/colombia/aidcompare.htm| accessmonthday=April 10 | accessyear=2006
*cite web | title= Challenges and successes for U.S. Policy t oward Colombia: is Plan Colombia Working?| work= US Government| url=http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=108_senate_hearings&docid=f:92685.pdf | accessdate= | accessyear=|format=PDF [PDF file]
*cite web | title=The Colombian Cartels | work= PBS Frontline | url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/business/inside/colombian.html | accessmonthday=February 23 | accessyear=2006
*cite web | title=Information about Colombia| work= From three books on Colombia (Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy, and War; Colombia: Inside the Labyrinth; Walking Ghosts: Murder and Guerrilla Politics in Colombia)| url=http://www.geocities.com/travbailey/colombia.htm| accessmonthday=February 25 | accessyear=2006 Photos, statistics, graphs, and maps
*cite web | title=Links and Resources| work= PBS Frontline | url=http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/colombia/links.html| accessmonthday=February 23 | accessyear=2006
*cite web | title=Beehive Design Collective's Plan Colombia Graphics Campaign|work= An illustrated graphic campaign against the rhetoric of the drug war. Made in 2002 through interviews with persons affected by the policy and fumigations. | url= http://www.beehivecollective.org/english/plancolombia.htm| accessmonthday=October 27 | accessyear=2006
*cite web | title= Plan Colombia| work=Colombian Embassy in Washington| url=http://www.colombiaemb.org/opencms/opencms/plancolombia/ | accessdate= | accessyear=
*cite web | title=Plan Colombia - Cashing in on the Drug War Failure | work= plancolombia.org| url=http://www.plancolombia.org/ | accessdate= | accessyear=
*cite web | title=Support for Plan Colombia| work=U.S. State Department | url=http://www.state.gov/p/wha/rt/plncol/ | accessdate= | accessyear=
*cite web | title=Thirty years of America's Drug War, A chronology| work=PBS Frontline | url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/cron/ | accessmonthday=February 23 | accessyear=2006 Timeline
*cite web | title=Two US Soldiers Implicated in Arming Paramilitaries| work=truthout.org | url=http://www.truthout.org/docs_2005/050505Z.shtml | accessdate= | accessyear=
*cite web | title=US weighs costs of Plan Colombia | work=BBC | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4627185.stm | accessdate= | accessyear=
*cite web | title=Plan Colombia by Carmen Guhn-Knight | work= | url=http://www.mtholyoke.edu/~cmguhnkn/plancolombia/ | accessmonthday=May 7 | accessyear=2006
* [http://www.presidencia.gov.co/prensa_new/sne/2007/enero/03/17032007.htm Successful coca eradication results in Colombia]

Videos

*cite visual | crew= Sebastian J. F. | year=2007 | url=http://www.war-on-drugs.com/ |title = The War on Drugs | medium=film | location= | distributor=parallel universe
*cite visual | crew= Various directors | year=2001 |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/video/ |title = Drug War series | medium= Real player| location= | distributor= PBS Frontline 4 video clips
*cite visual | crew=Various directors | year=1999 | url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/archive/ | title = Frontline Archives Fourteen Reports on the Drug War: 1987-1999 | medium= Real player| location= | distributor= PBS Frontline Video clips
*cite visual | crew= Jorge Enrique Botero| year= 2003| title= Held hostage in Colombia| medium= DVD| location= | distributor= Organic Pictures
*cite visual | crew=Barbet Schroeder | year= 2000| title=Our Lady of the Assassins | medium=DVD | location= | distributor= Paramount "Fictional story. Love story about Fernando, an older man who has recently returned to his crime-ridden and drug influenced hometown of Medellin, Colombia."
*cite visual | crew= Gerard Ungerman | year=2005 | url=http://peacenowar.net/Colombia/film.htm |title = Plan Colombia: Cashing in on the Drug War Failure | medium=DVD | location= | distributor=Cinema Libre
*cite visual | crew= Tom Feiling| year=2002 | title=Resistencia: Hip Hop in Colombia | medium= DVD| location= United Kingdom| distributor= [http://www.factionfilms.co.uk/ Faction Films]
*cite visual | crew= Andrew Patterson| date=Unknown year | title=Subtle Voices: Cries From Colombia | medium= DVD| location= | distributor= [http://www.createspace.com/207938 CreateSpace]
*cite visual | crew=Scott Alexander | year= 2002| title=World History of Organized Crime - Disc 2 | medium= DVD | location= | distributor= History Channel Volume two contains "China," "India," and "Colombia."

Further reading

*cite journal
first =Daniel
last =Kovalik
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2004
month =
title =International Human Rights & U.S. Foreign Policy: War and Human Rights Abuses: Colombia & the Corporate Support for Anti-Union Suppression
journal =2 Seattle J. Soc. Just. 393
volume =Spring / Summer, 2004
issue =
pages =393–408
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/67064.html

*cite journal
first =Andrew
last =Miller
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2000
month = Fall
title =Point/Counterpoint: U.S. Military Support for Plan Colombia: Adding Fuel to the Fire
journal =8 Human Rights Brief 8
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/67130.html

*cite journal
first =George
last =Monbiot
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2003
month =February 4
title =To crush the poor First it was Reds, then drugs, then terror. So who have the US really been fighting in Colombia?
journal =The Guardian
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://www.guardian.co.uk/colombia/story/0,11502,888496,00.html

*cite journal
first =Mauricio
last =Solaún
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2002
month =April
title =U.S. Interventions in Latin America: "Plan Colombia"
journal =ACDIS Occasional Paper
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://www.acdis.uiuc.edu/Research/OPs/Solaun/SolaunOP.pdf


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