Jagiellon dynasty

The Jagiellons ( _lt. Jogailaičiai, _pl. Jagiellonowie) were a royal dynasty originating from Lithuanian House of Gediminas dynasty that reigned in Central European countries (present day Lithuania, Belarus, Poland, Ukraine, Latvia, Estonia, Kaliningrad, parts of Russia, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia) between the 14th and 16th century. Members of the dynasty were Grand Dukes of Lithuania 1377–1392 and 1440–1572, kings of Poland 1386–1572, kings of Hungary 1440–1444 and 1490–1526, and kings of Bohemia 1471–1526.

The dynastic union between the two countries (converted into a full administrative union only in 1569) is the reason for the common appellation "Poland–Lithuania" in discussions about the area from the Late Middle Ages onwards. One Jagiellonian briefly ruled both Poland and Hungary (1440–44), and two others ruled both Bohemia (since 1471) and Hungary (1490–1526) and then continued in distaff line as the Eastern branch of the House of Habsburg.


The name (other variations used in English include: Jagiellonians, Jagiellos, Jogailos) comes from Jogaila ( _pl. Jagiełło), the first Polish king of that dynasty. In Polish, the dynasty is known as "Jagiellonowie" (singular: "Jagiellon", adjective, used of dynasty members, also patronimical form: "Jagiellończyk"); in Lithuanian it is called "Jogailaičiai" (sing.: "Jogailaitis"), in Belarusian Яґайлавічы ("Jagajłavičy", sing.: Яґайлавіч, "Jagajłavič"), in Hungarian "Jagellók" (sing.: "Jagelló"), and in Czech "Jagellonci" (sing.: "Jagellonec"; adjective: "Jagellonský"), as well as Jagello or Jagellon (fem. "Jagellonica") in Latin. In all variations of that name, the letter J should be pronounced as in "Hallelujah" (or as Y in "yes"), and G – as in "get".

Pre-dynasty background

Gediminids (Lithuanian: "Gediminaičiai"), the immediate predecessors of the first Jagiello, were monarchs of the medieval Lithuania with the title didysis kunigaikštis which would be translated as High King according to the contemporary perception. The later construct for its translation is Grand Duke (for its etymology, see Grand Prince). Their realm, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, chiefly meant monarch of Lithuanians and Ruthenians, and was at least half-Slavic.

Jogaila, the eponymous first Jagiello ruler, started as the Grand Duke of Lithuania. He then converted to Christianity and married the 11-year-old Jadwiga, the second of Poland's Angevin rulers, and thereby becoming himself King of Poland, founded the dynasty. At the time, he called himself King Władysław, without an ordinal number, but later historians have referred to him as Władysław II (of Poland), V (of Lithuania) or sometimes Władysław II Jagiello of Poland and Lithuania.

The rule of Piasts, the earlier Polish ruling house (c.962–1370) had ended with the death of Casimir III.

Jagiellon rulers

Jagiellons were hereditary rulers of Lithuania and Poland.

The Jagiellon rulers of Lithuania and Poland (with dates of ruling in brackets) were:

*Ladislaus (Jogaila) (in Lithuania 1377–1401; in Poland 1386–1434). (also known as Władysław II Jagiełło)
*Ladislaus III (1434–44)
*Casimir IV (1447–92)
*John Albert (1492–1501)
*Alexander (1501–05)
*Sigismund I (1506–48)
*Sigismund II Augustus (1548–72) (also known as Sigismund II)

After Sigismund II Augustus, the dynasty underwent further changes. Sigismund II's heirs were his sisters, Anna Jagellonica and Catherine Jagellonica. The latter had married Duke John of Finland, who thereby from 1569 became king "John III Vasa" of Sweden, and they had a son, Sigismund III Vasa; as a result, the Polish branch of the Jagiellons merged with the House of Vasa, which ruled Poland from 1587 until 1668. During the interval, among others, Stephen Bathory, the husband of the childless Anna, reigned.

Jagiellon family

Bohemia and Hungary

The Jagiellons at one point also established dynastic control over the kingdoms of Bohemia (1471 onwards) and Hungary (from 1490 onwards), with Wladislaus Jagiello whom several history books call Vladisla(u)s II.

Jagiellon Kings of Bohemia and Hungary:
* Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary (Vladislaus Jagiello)
* Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia (Louis Jagiello). By Louis' sudden death in Battle of Mohács in 1526, that royal line was extinguished in male line.
* Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, Queen consort, sister of Louis. Her husband Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor was elected king of Bohemia based on her rights. He was also elected King of Hungary in dispute at first with John Zápolya and then with John II Sigismund Zápolya.

Maturity pattern

Anthropologists have noted the tendency of members of the Jagiello dynasty to marry late in life, and not procreate until older. Most of its males over the dynasty's two centuries (approximately between 1360 and 1560) managed to have their heirs only when well into their middle years.

This contrasts with the later Bourbons and Habsburg-Lorraines, prolific Roman Catholic dynasties, whose members usually started to produce offspring while still in their teens. Also, interestingly enough, those Jagiellons who continued the line, lived to ripe old ages, while those who died in their twenties or thirties, generally did not leave children. Because the average life span was relatively short in that time period, this habit of starting to produce children late axed many potential branches from the dynasty, since persons who were generally potential parents, did not start procreating until their thirties.

This was no coincidence. In this dynasty, "maturity" and willingness to settle down occurred only later in life, not in one's twenties. It has been speculated that cultural reasons may have also been co-factors. However, it has been proposed that inherited features were the chief reason. Some female-line descendants within a couple of generations showed similar tendencies, such as Charles II, Archduke of Inner Austria, and Albert VII, Archduke of Austria. However, the tendency later diminished, and after the 17th century, all members resumed the trait of having their children at a young age.

This tendency to bear children late, weakened the potential of the dynasty compared to others of same era. After just four generations, the dynasty went extinct in its male line. But those same four generations lasted two centuries, averaging approximately fifty years between siring each new generation:
* Algirdas (1291–1377), Ladislaus (1351–1434), Casimir IV (1427–92), Sigismund I (1467–1548) and Sigismund II (1520–72).
* Algirdas (1291–1377), Ladislaus (1351–1434), Casimir IV (1427–92), Ladislaus II (1456–1516) and Louis (1506–26)(Generational chart: Zeroeth interval 60/60 years, first interval: 76/76 years, second interval 29/40 years, third interval 50/53 years)

Sometimes, women of this dynasty married only when relatively old. Catherine Jagiellon, wife of John III of Sweden, was 11 years older than her husband, having remained unmarried into her thirties. She bore her children at ages 38, 40 and 42.

Jagiello himself was born to a father already in his fifties or sixties.

In generational terms, this was a most extraordinary dynasty.

urviving Members

According to some members of the academic community, there are surviving, male-line descendants of the dynasty through Alexander and Helena, although this is yet to be conclusively verified.

ee also

* List of Lithuanian rulers
* List of Polish rulers
* List of Hungarian rulers
* List of Czech rulers

* Jagiellonian University in Kraków

External links

* [http://www.istorija.net/ Pages and Forums on Lithuanian history]
* [http://www.oa.uj.edu.pl/index.en.html Jagiellonian Observatory]

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