Latin names of cities

Users of Neo-Latin have taken the Latin language to places the Romans never went; hence a need arose to make Latin names of cities that did not exist when Latin was a living language.

trategies for constructing Latin names

The first places that needed Latin names were encountered by Bible translators, who had a need to figure out what to call the many place names in the Bible in Latin. They either reworked the place names into Latin or Greek shapes; in one version, "Yerushalem" (tentative reconstruction of a more ancient Hebrew version of the name) becomes "Hierosolyma", doubtless influenced by Greek ιερος ("hieros"), "holy". Or, they adopted them directly, often treating the new place names as indeclinable nouns; here "Yerushalem" is brought over as "Ierusalem", with the Latin "I" being prononuced as an English "Y" sound and the /sh/ being transliterated to the closest Latin sound, /s/. [http://www.cwru.edu/univlib/preserve/Etana/SMITH.JERUv1/SMITH.JERUv1.250.273.pdf]

Similar strategies are used with United States and North America and other place names that Latin writers needed to give Latin names to. A number of methods are used:
* A classical ending such as -"um" or -"a" is added or substituted on the end of the source word. Hence "Baltimorum" for "Baltimore," "Albania" for "Albany."
* The words already fit into Latin declensions, as do "Indianapolis", "Cincinnati", and "Atlanta".
* Calques are resorted to if the New World name is based on an Old World name; the various "Parises" in the United States are likely to become "Lutetia", and "Novum Eboracum" or "Neo-Eboracum" represents "New York", because "Eboracum" is the city of York in England.
* The words are respelled to eliminate non-Latin letters; hence "Washington" becomes "Vasingtonium". Note that "V" in Latin is pronounced as an English "W;" there was no W in Latin.
* The words are adjusted to fit Latin declensions; "Kansas" appears as either "Cansas, Cansatis" or "Cansa, Cansae"; "Chicago", "Ohio", and "Idaho" become consonant stems, with genitives "Chicagonis", "Ohionis", "Idahonis", &c.
* The words are re-interpreted to fit Latin declensions; "Illinois" is treated as a third-declension noun.
* If the city is named for a specific thing, and especially if its name is a Romance language word or phrase, it may be directly translated into Latin. For example, the Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles is called "Diocesis Angelorum" in Latin, "Diocese of (the) angels"
* On the other hand, in some dioceses the church chose to simply to apply a Latin locational suffix to the existing name; the diocese of Des Moines, Iowa is simply "Dioecesis Desmoinensis".
* The words are treated as indeclinable, like some Biblical names; "Connecticut" is sometimes treated this way.In many cases, there is no consensus as to how to treat any given names, and variants exist. If a university or an episcopal see is in a town, the odds increase that there is a standard form hallowed by usage. Note that names of cities are usually feminine in gender in Latin, despite ending in -"us". This rule is not always strictly observed in the New World
*There are Latin forms of Gold Coast, Sunshine Coast, and other Oceanian-South Pacific communities as well.
*One example is London, Ontario which can be translatable to Londinium in Latin, while the rest of the other non-Latin languages like Greek and French for other Londons that are not London, England is spelt "London" (from English).

Here are the names that are listed in Latin and its modern meaning on the right for the world, except for Europe, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, and Kurdistan.
*This list includes Azerbaijan, Kurdistan southeast of Arbil, Abkhazia, Chechnya, Tatarstan, Dagestan, Malta and Pantelleria, and the whole of Kazakhstan, and Russia east of the ural mountains.

Note on word endings

Latin being an inflected language, names in a Latin context may have different word-endings to those shown here, which are given in the nominative case. For instance "Roma" (Rome) may appear as "Romae" meaning "at Rome" (locative), "of Rome" (genitive) or "for Rome" (dative), as "Romam" meaning "to Rome" (accusative), or indeed as "Romā" with a long "a", probably not indicated in the orthography, meaning "from Rome" (ablative). Similarly names ending in "-um" or "-us" may occur with "-i" or "-o", and names ending in "-us" may occur with "-um". The words "urbs" and "civitas" may occur as "urbis", "urbi", or "urbe", and "civitatis", "civitati" or "civitate".

List of names

Latin NameEnglish Name, [other name(s)] , [older name(s)] , [province] , [state]
AarhusiumÅrhus, Denmark
Alexandria (Aegyptus)¹Alexandria (Al-Iskandriyah), Egypt
Alexandria (Columbia Britannica)Alexandria, British Columbia
Alexandria (Ontario)Alexandria, Ontario
Alexandria (Virginia)Alexandria, Virginia
AlgerisAlgiers, Algeria
Aquae Sextiae Aix-en-Provence, France
Arae FlaviaeRottweil, Germany
Arbela, ArbilaErbil, Arbil
AscalonAshkelon, Israel
AtlantaAtlanta, Georgia
AugustaAugusta, Maine
Baltimorum, BaltimoriBaltimore, Maryland
BerytusBeirut, Lebanon
Bona AeraBuenos Aires, Argentina
BostoniaBoston, Massachusetts
BotrusBatroun, Lebanon
ByblosByblos, Lebanon
CamulodunumColchester
Cansae, CivitasKansas City
CarolinapolisCharlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada
CantabrigiaCambridge, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Ontario or Cambridge, England
CincinnatiCincinnati, Ohio
Civitas AlphabeticaAlphabet City (New York, New York)
Civitas CaliforniaCalifornia City, California
Citivas FloridaFlorida City, Florida
Civitas OklahomaOklahoma City, Oklahoma
Citivas PanamaPanama City, Florida
ColumbusColumbus, North Carolina
Corpus ChristiCorpus Christi, Texas
Cultellus FlavusYellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada
DamascusDamascus (Dimashq), Syria
Dublinum, EblanaDublin, Ireland
EboracumYork, England
EdessaSanli Urfa
Equus AlbusWhitehorse, Yukon, Canada
Flumen JanuariiRio de Janeiro
FredericopolisFredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
GevaliaGävle (Gefle), Sweden
HafniaCopenhagen, Denmark
HeliopolisBaalbeck, Lebanon
Hippo RegiusBone, Algeria
Hierosolyma²Jerusalem, Israel/Palestinian territories
Indianapolis (4)Indianapolis, Indiana
Jericho²Jericho, West Bank (Palestinian territories)
Leptis Magna, Lepcis Magnanear Tripoli, Libya
Londinium, Africa AustralisLondon, South Africa
Londinium (Ontario)London, Ontario
LudovicopolisLouisville, Kentucky
Marathon (Ontario)Marathon, Ontario
Massalia Marseille, France
MedabaMecca (Makkah), Saudi Arabia
Medina, ArabiaMedina, Saudi Arabia
Medina, Nova EburacaMedina, New York
Melburnium, Victoria (Regna)Melbourne, Australia
Mons Regius, Marianopolis, Villa MariaMontreal, Quebec
Minneapolis (4)Minneapolis, Minnesota
Nova Aurelia, Novum AureliumNew Orleans, Louisiana
Nova HelvetiaNueva Suiza (New Switzerland), Uruguay
Novum BaltimorumNew Baltimore, Michigan
Novum HamburgiumNew Hamburg, Ontario
Novum EboracumNew York, New York
Novum GlasgoviumNew Glasgow, Nova Scotia, Canada
Novum Londinium*New London, Connecticut
Olympia (Vasingtonia)Olympia, Washington
OxoniaOxford, England
Philadelphia¹ (America)Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
PhiladelphiaAmman, Jordan
Phoenix¹, ArizonaPhoenix, Arizona
Praetoria?Pretoria, South Africa
Providenia?Provideniya, Russia, west of Alaska
ProvidentiaProvidence, Rhode Island
Urbs QuebecisQuebec City, Quebec
Urbs ReginaeRegina, Saskatchewan, Canada
RubricobacilensisBaton Rouge, Louisiana
RegiopolisKingston, Jamaica
Regiopolis (Ontario)Kingston, Ontario
Sancti SpiritiSancti Spiriti, Argentina
Sanctus JohannesSaint John, New Brunswick, Canada
Sanctus Johannes Terrae NovaeSt. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Sanctus PaulusSão Paulo, Brazil
SarniaSarnia, Ontario
SicagumChicago, Illinois
SidonSidon¹, Lebanon
Sinus TonitralisThunder Bay, Ontario
Tempe (Arizona)Tempe, Arizona
TiberiasTiberias (Teverya), Israel
TingisTangier, Morocco
Tripolis¹Tripoli, Lebanon
Tripolis¹Tripoli, Libya
TunisTunis, Tunisia
TyreTyre, Lebanon
VasingtoniumWashington, DC
Victoria (Regna), Columbia BritannicaVictoria, British Columbia
VigorniaWorcester, England
VigorniaWorcester, Massachusetts

# Latinized form of the Greek-derived name.
# Latinized form of a Hebrew derived name
# Latinized form of an Amerindian languages-derived name.
# only polis is a Greek derived name.

ee also

* Latin names of islandsThere are major synergies with:
* Names of European cities in different languages
* List of city name changes

External links

* [http://www.columbia.edu/acis/ets/Graesse/contents.html Graesse, Orbis Latinus]
* [http://www.uni-mannheim.de/mateo/camenaref/hofmann.html Hofmann: Lexicon Universale]


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