Edward Gordon Craig

Edward Gordon Craig (16 January 187229 July 1966), sometimes known as Gordon Craig, was a English modernist theatre practitioner; he worked as an actor, producer, director and scenic designer, as well as developing an influential body of theoretical writings.

Life

The illegitimate son of the architect Edward Godwin and actress Ellen Terry, [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=VuTb0py4axQC&pg=PA8&lpg=PA8&dq=%22Edward+Gordon+Craig%22+illegitimate+-wikipedia&source=web&ots=9D7tH28KUk&sig=KZpMC57VgmpBlqVSWPJWEe6C0yk&hl=en#PPA27,M1 Google book search] Innes, Christopher D., "Edward Gordon Craig: A Vision of Theatre." Routledge, 1998, page 27. ISBN 978-9057021244] Craig was born Edward Godwin on 16 January 1872, in Railway Street, Stevenage in Hertfordshire, England, and baptized, at age 16, as Edward Henry Gordon. He took the surname Craig by deed poll at age 21.

In 1893, Craig married May Gibson and had four children: Rosemary, Robin, Peter, and Philip. With his lover Elena Meo he had two children, Nelly and Edward Carrick (1894-), art director of British motion pictures. With his lover, the dancer Isadora Duncan, Craig had a daughter, Deirdre (1906-1913), who drowned at the age of seven. Craig died in Paris in 1966 at the age of 94.

Career

Craig asserted that the director was "the true artist of the theatre" and, controversially, suggested viewing actors as no more important than marionettes. He designed and built elaborately symbolic sets; for instance, a set composed of his patented movable screens for a Moscow Art Theatre production of "Hamlet". He also was the editor and chief writer for the first international theatre magazine, "The Mask".

He worked as an actor in the company of Sir Henry Irving, but became more interested in art, learning to carve wood under the tutelage of James Pryde and William Nicholson. His acting career ended in 1897, when he went into theatrical design.

Craig's first productions, Handel's opera "Acis and Galatea" and Ibsen's "The Vikings" were produced in London. Neither was a success, but Craig had already begun to develop his style. He concentrated on keeping the designs simple so as to set off the movements of the actors and of light, and introduced the idea of a "unified stage picture" that covered all the elements of design.

After finding little financial success in Britain, Craig set out for Germany in 1904. While there, he wrote one of his most famous works, the essay "The Art of the Theatre" (later reprinted with the title "On the Art of the Theatre"). In 1908, Isadora Duncan introduced Craig to Constantin Stanislavski, who invited him to direct their famous production of "Hamlet" with the Moscow Arts Theatre, which opened in December of 1911. After settling in Italy, Craig created a school of theatrical design with support from Lord Howard de Walden.

Craig was considered extremely difficult to work with and ultimately refused to direct or design any project over which he did not have complete artistic control. This led to his withdrawal from the practical theatre production. [Leiter (1994, 84).] He received the OBE and in 1958 was made a Companion of Honour.

Legacy

Craig's idea of using neutral, mobile, non-representational screens as a staging device is probably his most famous scenographic concept. In 1910 Craig filed a patent which described in considerable technical detail a system of hinged and fixed flats that could be quickly arranged to cater for both internal and external scenes. He presented a set to William Butler Yeats for use at the Abbey Theatre in Ireland, who shared his symbolist aesthetic.

Craig’s second innovation was in stage lighting. Doing away with traditional footlights, Craig lit the stage from above, placing lights in the ceiling of the theatre. Colour and light also became central to Craig’s stage conceptualizations.

Under the play of this light, the background becomes a deep shimmering blue, apparently almost translucent, upon which the green and purple make a harmony of great richness. [Craig in Bablet (1981).]

The third remarkable aspect of Craig’s experiments in theatrical form were his attempts to integrate design elements with his work with actors. His mise en scene sought to articulate the relationships in space between movement and sound, line and colour. Craig believed in a theatre of the craft of the director – a theatre where action, words, colour and rhythm combine in dynamic dramatic form. [Brockett (1994).]

All of his life, Craig sought to capture "pure emotion" or "arrested development" in the plays on which he worked. Even during the years when he was not producing plays, Craig continued to make models, to conceive stage designs and to work on directorial plans that were never to reach performance. He believed that a director should approach a play with no preconceptions and he embraced this in his fading up from the minimum or blank canvas approach (Walton 1983).

As an engraver and a classical artist, Craig found inspiration in puppets and masks. In his 1910 article "A Note on Masks", Craig expounds upon the virtue of using masks as a mechanism for capturing the audience’s attention, imagination and ‘soul’. He also proclaimed “…There is only one actor – nay one man (sic) who has the soul of the dramatic poet, and who has ever served as the true and loyal interpreter of the poet. This is the marionette…” (Walton 1983), asking for actors to lose their prominence.

'On the Art of the Theatre' (Craig 1911), is an imaginary dialogue between a Playgoer and a Stage Director examining the problems of the nature of stage directing. Craig suggests that the first dramatists were not playwrights, but performers who made the first pieces of drama using action, words, line, colour and rhythm. Craig goes on to contend that only the director who seeks to truly interpret drama and commit to training in all aspects of dramatic art, can restore the ‘Art of the Theatre’ (Wills 1976). Maintaining that the director should seek faithful interpretation of the text, Craig pointed out that audiences go to the theatre to ‘see’ not hear ‘plays’. A director must find the rhythm, movement, tone and colour of the text and these elements are more fundamental than the play’s scene and staging details. The design elements can transcend reality and function as symbols, communicating a deeper meaning, rather than simply reflecting the real world.

References

Further reading

* Bablet, D. "The Theatre of Edward Gordon Craig", Eyre Methuen, London, 1981.
* Brockett, O. "History of the Theatre", Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1994.
* Craig, E.G. "On the Art of the Theatre", Routledge, London, 2008, first published 1911.
* Innes, Christopher. 1983. "Edward Gordon Craig". Directors in Perspective ser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521273838.
* Johnston, M. "Directing Methods", Singleton Press, San Paolo, 1972.
* Leiter, S.L. "The Great Stage Directors", Facts on File, New York, 1994.
* Steegmuller, F. "Your Isadora: The Love Story of Isadora Duncan & Gordon Craig", New York: Random House, 1974.
* Taxidou, Olga. 1998. "The Mask: A Periodical Performance by Edward Gordon Craig". Contemporary Theatre Studies ser. volume 30. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 9057550466.
* Walton, J.M. "Craig on Theatre", Methuen, London, 1983.
* Wills, R. "The Director in a Changing Theatre", Mayfield, Palo Alto, 1976.

External links

* [http://www.ellenterry.org/gordoncraig.htm Gordon Craig Biography]
* [http://perspicacity.goose24.org/20033152323.shtml "Edward Gordon Craig and the Modern Theatre of Devising"]
* [http://www.stevenage-leisure.co.uk/gordoncraig/ The Gordon Craig Theatre, Stevenage]
* [http://www.vieusseux.fi.it/archivio/fondi_acb.html Contemporary Archive "Alessandro Bonsanti"]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Edward Gordon Craig — Edward Gordon Craig, ca. 1900 Edward Gordon Craig (CH/OBE/Chevalier de la Légion d Honneur, * 16. Januar 1872 in Stevenage, Hertfordshire, England; † 29. Juli 1966 in Vence, Frankreich; gebürtig/eigentlich …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Edward Gordon Craig — Edward Gordon Craig. Edward Henry Gordon Craig (16 de enero de 1872 29 de julio de 1966), conocido también como Gordon Craig, fue un actor, productor, director de escena y escenógrafo británico. Hijo ilegítimo del arquitecto Edward Godwin y de la …   Wikipedia Español

  • Edward Gordon Craig — dans le rôle de Hamlet en 1897. Edward Gordon Craig, né à Londres le 16 janvier 1872 et mort à Vence le 29 juillet 1966 est un acteur, metteur en scène, théoricien et décorateur de théâtre britannique influent …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gordon Craig — may refer to: Edward Gordon Craig (1872–1966), sometimes known as Gordon Craig, English modernist theatre practitioner Gordon A. Craig (1913–2005), Scottish American historian of German history and of diplomatic history Gordon M. Craig… …   Wikipedia

  • Gordon Craig — ist der Name folgender Personen: Gordon A. Craig (1913–2005), US amerikanischer Historiker schottischer Herkunft Gordon Y. Craig (* 1925), schottischer Geologe Edward Gordon Craig (1872–1966), britischer Schauspieler, Regisseur, Bühnenbildner und …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Craig, Edward Gordon — ▪ British actor and director Introduction in full  Edward Henry Gordon Craig  born Jan. 16, 1872, Stevenage, Hertfordshire, Eng. died July 29, 1966, Vence, France  English actor, theatre director designer, producer, and theorist who influenced… …   Universalium

  • Craig,Edward Gordon — Craig (krāg), Edward Gordon. 1872 1966. British theatrical producer, director, and designer whose innovative productions and simplified stage designs influenced modern theater. * * * …   Universalium

  • Craig, Edward Gordon — ► (1872 1966) Actor y escritor británico. Obras: El arte teatral y Hacia un nuevo teatro, entre otras …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Craig (Name) — Craig ist ein ursprünglich ortsbezogener männlicher Vorname und Familienname, der heute im gesamten englischen Sprachraum vorkommt. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Herkunft und Bedeutung 2 Namensträger 2.1 Familienname …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Craig — Craig, Edward Gordon Craig, James * * * (as used in expressions) Craig, (Edward Henry) Gordon Craig, Sir James (Henry) Moore, Marianne (Craig) …   Enciclopedia Universal

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.