Thyroid-stimulating hormone


Thyroid-stimulating hormone

protein
Name = Thyroid-stimulating hormone, alpha (Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide)
caption =


width =
HGNCid = 1885
Symbol = CGA
AltSymbols = HCG, GPHa, GPHA1
EntrezGene = 1081
OMIM = 118850
RefSeq = NM_000735
UniProt = P01215
PDB =
ECnumber =
Chromosome = 6
Arm = q
Band = 14
LocusSupplementaryData = -q21
Protein
Name=Thyroid-stimulating hormone, beta


caption=
Symbol=TSHB
AltSymbols=
HGNCid=12372
Chromosome=1
Arm=p
Band=13
LocusSupplementaryData=
ECnumber=
OMIM=188540
EntrezGene=7252
RefSeq=NM_000549
UniProt=P01222
PDB=

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a peptide hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland.cite book |last= Sacher|first= Ronald|coauthors= Richard A. McPherson|title= Wildmann's Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests, 11th ed.|year= 2000|publisher= F.A. Davis Company|isbn= 0-8036-0270-7]

Physiology

Controlling the rate of release

TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete the hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). [GeorgiaPhysiology|5/5ch5/s5ch5_4] TSH production is controlled by a Thyrotrophin Releasing Hormone, (TRH), which is manufactured in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland via the superior hypophyseal artery, where it increases TSH production and release. Somatostatin is also produced by the hypothalamus, and has an opposite effect on the pituitary production of TSH, decreasing or inhibiting its release.

The level of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in the blood have an additional effect on the pituitary release of TSH; When the levels of T3 and T4 are low, the production of TSH is increased, and conversely, when levels of T3 and T4 are high, then TSH production is decreased. This effect creates a regulatory negative feedback loop.

ubunits of TSH

TSH is a glycoprotein and consists of two subunits, the "alpha" and the "beta" subunit.
* The α ("alpha") subunit (i.e., chorionic gonadotropin alpha) is identical to that of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).
* The β ("beta") subunit is unique to TSH, and therefore determines its function.

The TSH receptor

The TSH receptor is found mainly on thyroid follicular cells [cite journal |author=Parmentier M, Libert F, Maenhaut C, "et al" |title=Molecular cloning of the thyrotropin receptor |journal=Science (journal) |volume=246 |issue=4937 |pages=1620–2 |year=1989 |month=December |pmid=2556796 |doi=10.1126/science.2556796 |url=] . Stimulation of the receptor increases T3 and T4 production and secretion.

Stimulating antibodies to this receptor mimic TSH action and are found in Graves' disease.

Diagnostic use

TSH levels are tested in the blood of patients suspected of suffering from excess (hyperthyroidism), or deficiency (hypothyroidism) of thyroid hormone. Generally, a normal range for TSH for adults is between 0.4 and 5.0 uIU/mL (equivalent to mIU/L), but values vary slightly among labs. The optimal goal TSH level for patients on treatment ranges between 0.3 to 3.0 mIU/L. [ [http://www.aace.com/newsroom/press/2006/index.php?r=20060110 American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ] ] . The interpretation depends also on what the blood levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are. The National Health Service in the UK considers a "normal" range to be more like 0.1 to 5.0 uIU/mL.Fact|date=April 2007

TSH levels for children normally start out much higher. In 2002, the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) in the United States recommended age-related reference limits starting from about 1.3-19 uIU/mL for normal term infants at birth, dropping to 0.6-10 uIU/mL at 10 weeks old, 0.4-7.0 uIU/mL at 14 months and gradually dropping during childhood and puberty to adult levels, 0.4-4.0 uIU/mL. [cite web| last =Demers| first =Laurence M.| authorlink =| coauthors =Carole A. Spencer| title = LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease| work =| publisher =National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA)| date =2002| url =http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/thyroid_LMPG_PDF.stm |format =| doi =| accessdate =2007-04-13 - see "Section 2. Pre-analytic factors"]

The NACB also stated that it expected the normal (95%) range for adults to be reduced to 0.4-2.5 uIU/mL, because research had shown that adults with an initially measured TSH level of over 2.0 uIU/mL had "an increased odds ratio of developing hypothyroidism over the [following] 20 years, especially if thyroid antibodies were elevated". [cite web| last =Demers| first =Laurence M.| authorlink =| coauthors =Carole A. Spencer| title = LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease| work =| publisher =National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA)| date =2002| url =http://www.nacb.org/lmpg/thyroid_LMPG_PDF.stm |format =| doi =| accessdate =2007-04-13 - see "Section 3.C.Thyrotropin/ Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) measurement]

Clearly, both TSH and T3 and T4 should be measured to ascertain where a specific thyroid dysfunction is caused by primary pituitary or by a primary thyroid disease. If both are up (or down) then the problem is probably in the pituitary. If the one component (TSH) is up, and the other (T3 and T4) is down, then the disease is probably in the thyroid itself. The same holds for a low TSH, high T3 and T4 finding.

A TSH assay is now also the recommended screening tool for thyroid disease. Recent advances in increasing the sensitivity of the TSH assay make it a better screening tool than free T4.cite book |last= Sacher|first= Ronald|coauthors= Richard A. McPherson|title= Wildmann's Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests, 11th ed.|year= 2000|publisher= F.A. Davis Company|isbn= 0-8036-0270-7]

Therapeutic use

A drug, recombinant human TSH (rhTSH), called Thyrogen, is manufactured by Genzyme Corp. in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The rhTSH is used in patients with thyroid cancer which is related to tumoral factors.

Footnotes

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — hormone which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland and stimulates activity in the thyroid gland (Endocrinology), TSH …   English contemporary dictionary

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — TSH. A hormone produced by the pituitary gland. TSH stimulates the release of thyroid hormone from thyroglobulin. It also stimulates the growth of thyroid follicular cells. An abnormal TSH level may mean that the thyroid hormonal regulation… …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — TSH; = thyrotrophin a hormone, synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland under the control of thyrotrophin releasing hormone, that stimulates activity of the thyroid gland. Defects in TSH production lead to over or under secretion… …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — noun anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the function of the thyroid gland (Freq. 1) • Syn: ↑thyrotropin, ↑thyrotropic hormone, ↑thyrotrophin, ↑thyrotrophic hormone, ↑TSH • Hypernyms: ↑hormone, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — (= TSH; thyrotropin) Polypeptide hormone (28 kD), secreted by the anterior pituitary gland, that activates cyclic AMP production in thyroid cells leading to production and release of the thyroid hormones …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — noun Date: 1941 a hormone that is secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid gland abbreviation TSH; called also thyrotropic hormone, thyrotropin …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — /thuy royd stim yeuh lay ting/. Biochem. thyrotropin. Abbr.: TSH [1955 60] * * * …   Universalium

  • thyroid-stimulating hormone — noun another term for thyrotropin …   English new terms dictionary


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