Politics of Ukraine
Ukrainetake place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republicand of a multi-party system. Executive poweris exercised by the Cabinet. Legislative poweris vested in the parliament.
Shortly after becoming independent in
1991, Ukraine named a parliamentary commission to prepare a new constitution, adopted a multi-party system, and adopted legislative guarantees of civil and political rights for national minorities. A new, democratic constitution was adopted on June 28, 1996, which mandates a pluralistic political system with protection of basic human rightsand liberties. Freedom of religionis guaranteed by law, although religious organizations are required to register with local authorities and with the central government.Minority rights are respected in accordance with a 1991law guaranteeing ethnic minorities the right to schoolsand cultural facilities and the use of national languages in conducting personal business. According to the Ukrainian constitution, Ukrainian is the only official state language. However, in Crimeaand some parts of eastern Ukraine--areas with substantial ethnic Russian minorities -- use of Russian is wide-spread in official business.
Freedom of speech and press are guaranteed by law, but authorities sometimes interfere with the news media through different forms of pressure. In particular, the failure of the government to conduct a thorough, credible, and transparent investigation into the
2000disappearance and murder of independent journalist Georgiy Gongadzehas had a negative effect on Ukraine's international image.
Ukrainizationand return of Crimean Tatarsto Crimea during 1992prompted a number of pro-Russian political organizations to advocate secession of Crimea and annexation to Russia. (Crimea was ceded to Ukraine in 1954by First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev, in recognition of historic links and for economic convenience, to mark the 300th anniversary of "Ukrainian union with Russia".) In July 1992, the Crimean and Ukrainian parliaments determined that Crimea would remain under Ukrainian jurisdiction while retaining significant cultural and economic autonomy.
Official labor unions have been grouped under the Federation of Labor Unions. A number of independent unions, which emerged during
1992, among them the Independent Union of Miners of Ukraine, have formed the Consultative Council of Free Labor Unions. While the right to strike is legally guaranteed, strikes based solely on political demands are prohibited.
Presidential Elections Crisis of 2004
Orange Revolutionwas a series of peaceful protests that resulted in the nullification of the results of the elections re-run on November 21, 2004. The Supreme Court of Ukraineordered a repeat of the re-run to be held on December 26, 2004, and asked the law enforcement agencies to investigate cases of election fraud.
The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The President nominates the Prime Minister, who must be confirmed by parliament. The Prime-minister and cabinet are "de jure" appointed by the Parliament on submission of the President and Prime Minister respectively. of .
Verkhovna Rada(Parliament of Ukraine) has 450 members, elected for a five year term (four year until 2006). Prior to 2006, half of the members were elected by proportional representationand the other half by single-seat constituencies. Starting with the March 2006 parliamentary election, all 450 members of the Verkhovna Rada were elected by party-list proportional representation.The Verkhovna Radainitiates legislation, ratifies international agreements, and approves the budget.
Political parties and elections
Ukraine has a large number of political parties, many of which have tiny memberships and are unknown to the general public. Small parties often join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocks) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections.
Presidential Election 2004
Parliamentary Election 2007
Constitutional Court of Ukraine."general jurisdiction":
Supreme Court of Ukraine;
* high specialized courts: the High Arbitration Court of Ukraine ( _ua. Вищий господарський суд України), the High Administrative Court of Ukraine;
* regional courts of appeal, military courts of appeal, specialized courts of appeal;
* local district courts, military garrison courts.
Laws, acts of the parliament and the Cabinet, presidential edicts, and acts of the Crimean parliament (
Autonomous Republic of Crimea) may be nullified by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine, when they are found to violate the Constitution of Ukraine. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court of Ukraineis the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction.
The Constitution of Ukraine provides for trials by jury. This has not yet been implemented in practice. Moreover, some courts provided for by legislation as still in project, as is the case for, e.g., the Court of Appeals of Ukraine. The reform of the judicial branch is presently under way.Important is also the Office of the
Prosecutor General of Ukraine, granted with the broad rights of control and supervision.
Local government is officially guaranteed. Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets.
Practically, the scope of local self-government is limited Fact|date=February 2007. A large-scale reformation of the local government (that would require new constitutional changes) is periodically urged since 2000, most actively by the
Socialist Party of Ukraineand Oleksandr Moroz.
International organization participation
BSEC, CE, CEI, CIS, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat,
Intelsat(nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNMOT, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant), Zangger Committee
*Declaration of Independence
*Proclamation of Independence
Ukraine without Kuchma
Russia-Ukraine gas dispute
Universal of National Unity
2007 Ukrainian political crisis
* [http://www.aegee.tv/movies/archive/movies/307.html Short film: AEGEE's Election Observation Mission]
* Learn the latest news about Ukrainian politics from the [http://www.pravda.com.ua/en Ukrainska pravda] newspaper
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