Stockton-on-Tees


Stockton-on-Tees

Coordinates: 54°34′N 1°19′W / 54.57°N 1.32°W / 54.57; -1.32

Stockton-on-Tees
Stockton-on-Tees is located in County Durham
Stockton-on-Tees

 Stockton-on-Tees shown within County Durham
Population 83,490 (2009)[1]
OS grid reference NZ440200
    - London  252.5m 
Unitary authority Stockton-on-Tees
Ceremonial county County Durham
North Yorkshire
Region North East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town STOCKTON-ON-TEES
Postcode district TS16 – TS21
Dialling code 01642
Police Cleveland
Fire Cleveland
Ambulance North East
EU Parliament North East England
UK Parliament Stockton North
Stockton South
List of places: UK • England • County Durham

Stockton-on-Tees is a market town in north east England. It is the major settlement in the unitary authority and borough of Stockton-on-Tees. For ceremonial purposes, the borough is split between County Durham and North Yorkshire as it also incorporates a number of smaller towns including Billingham, Yarm and Thornaby. The wider borough has a population of 191,000 as of 2011 estimates.

Contents

History

Stockton began as an Anglo-Saxon settlement on high ground close to the northern bank of the River Tees.

The manor of Stockton was created around 1138. It was purchased by Bishop Pudsey of Durham in 1189 and since then has undergone many changes.

Stockton's market can trace its history to 1310, when Bishop Bek of Durham granted a market charterto our town of Stockton a market upon every Wednesday for ever.

The first recorded reference to Stockton Castle was in 1376. The Scots captured it in 1644 and occupied it until 1646. It was destroyed at the order of Oliver Cromwell at the end of the Civil War. A shopping centre, the Castlegate Centre, now occupies the castle area. There are no known accurate depictions of the castle in existence.[2]

In 1771 a five arch stone bridge was built replacing the nearby Bishop's Ferry. Until the opening of the Middlesbrough Transporter bridge in 1911 this was the lowest bridging point on the Tees.

In June 1890 Major Robert Ropner offered a piece of land to the people of Stockton which could be used as a public park, providing the local council would lay it out tastefully and keep it forever. On 4 October 1893 the park was officially opened by the then Duke & Duchess of York. After a century of regular use by the people of Stockton, the park was refurbished and renovated between 2004–2007 to its former glory by Stockton Council, thanks to a £2.65m grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund. It includes a new bandstand, based on the original design, a Park Ranger's Office and a cafe, (run by the local charity, the Friends of Ropner Park.[3]

Industrial history

Shipbuilding in Stockton began in the 15th century, and prospered in the 17th and 18th centuries. Smaller-scale industries began developing around this time, such as brick- and ropemaking, the latter reflected in road names such as Ropery Street in the town centre. Stockton became the major port for County Durham, northern Yorkshire and Westmorland during this period, exporting mainly rope made in the town, agricultural produce and lead from the Dales.[4][5]

The town grew rapidly as the Industrial Revolution began, with iron making and engineering beginning in the town in the 18th century. The town's population grew from 10,000 in 1851 to over 50,000 in 1901 as workers moved in. The discovery of iron ore in the Eston Hills resulted in blast furnaces lining the River Tees from Stockton through to Redcar. The first bell for Big Ben was cast in Stockton in 1856, but became damaged beyond repair while being tested and had to be replaced.[6]

The Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, the first public passenger railway in the world. The line connected Stockton with Shildon.

Geography

The town is located on the north bank of the River Tees. The town's extreme northern and western areas are located on slightly higher ground than the town centre, which is located directly on the north bank of the Tees. These offer views of the town with its relatively mid-rise centre and the surrounding Tees Valley area.

The town has many suburbs with individual identities: Fairfield, Grangefield, Hardwick, Hartburn, Elm Tree Farm, Norton, Roseworth, Newtown, Bishopsgarth and Oxbridge to name a few. Within the borough, but distinct settlements from the town of Stockton, are Thornaby-on-Tees, Ingleby Barwick, Billingham and Yarm.

Transportation

Roads

The town is served by the transpennine A66 and the A19. A link road has recently been completed which connects the A66 with the town centre and Ingleby Barwick. This road has been numbered the A135, replacing the old A135 route which was previously the A19. The old A135 has been renumbered the A1027, which continues on through the town to Billingham.

East of the town centre is the A1046 which runs through Portrack as Portrack Lane. This road is a major retail destination, mainly in home furnishings and DIY. The A1046 continues on to its norther terminus at Port Clarence.

The A139 connects the town centre with the northern suburb of Norton. This road was the original route for the A19 before a bypass was built to the east of the town.

The A177 runs from Stockton town centre to Durham, passing Sedgefield on the way. It acts as a major route to the town.

Several miles to the west is the A1(M).

Bus

Several bus services operate in Stockton. Most services pass through High Street. The services cover large areas of the region including Middlesbrough, Teesside Park, Thornaby, Billingham, Sedgefield, Durham, Sunderland, Peterlee and Newcastle upon Tyne. Among the companies operating bus services, Stagecoach on Teesside and Arriva North East are the major providers, while six minor providers also operate in the area.[7]

Rail

Stockton railway station serves the town, but more regular and distant services are operated from nearby Thornaby.

Air

Durham Tees Valley Airport, formerly Teesside Airport, is partially located within the borough, several miles west of the town. The airport offers domestic and international flights, the latter particularly to EU countries.

Economy

The Infinity Bridge, opened in 2009

Major industries in Stockton have included ship building and repairing, steel and chemicals.

The town is famous for its associations with the Stockton and Darlington Railway, which operated the world's first steam-hauled passenger train in 1825. The town also has the world's oldest passenger railway station building, and also contains much Georgian architecture, one notable example being the world's oldest Georgian theatre,[citation needed] constructed in 1766.

During the twentieth century the town's heavy industry declined dramatically, along with that of the surrounding Teesside area. Since the 1980s the town has seen an increase in service industries.[citation needed]

Today

Stockton Town Hall

The town's High Street is reputed to be the widest in England.[8]

Stockton borough has undergone many developments in recent years including Durham University's Queen's Campus and several acres of office buildings erected along the south bank of the River Tees within the Teesdale development in Thornaby-on-Tees, Wellington Square, a modern shopping arcade erected upon the old Wellington Street area of the town centre, the Teesquay Millennium Footbridge and the Infinity Bridge. At Castlegate Quay a full size replica of James Cook's Bark Endeavour is moored. HMS Kellington was also moored on the river in Stockton between 1993 and 2009, when she was broken up in situ. In 1995, after four years in the building, the Tees Barrage was commissioned. The Tees Barrage White Water Course is located there. In 2009, the Infinity Bridge was opened.

Stockton is also home to the multi-million pound ARC, which opened in 1999 and whose resident drama company is currently the Arden Theatre Company. Stockton F.C. existed from 1882 till 1975, with Thornaby F.C. and Norton & Stockton Ancients F.C. taking over as the local sides. The town also has a local rugby side, Stockton Rugby Club.

Stockton hosts an annual firework display on 5 November, which has grown in recent years. The 2007 display attracted around 100,000 people and played host to a giant Catherine wheel display.

Stockton hosts the annual Stockton International Riverside Festival. The 24th festival was on 3–7 August 2011.

Stockton also plays hosts to the Stockton Weekender music and comedy event (formerly Fringe Festival) which ran 5–7 August 2011.[9]

Stockton is the location of HMP Holme House, a Category B prison for adult men. The prison holds inmates from the Tees Valley, South West Durham, East Durham and North Yorkshire.

Dovecot Street in Stockton is home to the Corner House Youth Project,[10] a registered charity which works with people aged 8–25; the project's current director is Jacky Duncan.

Future

Work is underway to develop the north bank of the River Tees in Stockton with the £300 million Northshore scheme, which will include new offices, leisure facilities, housing, a 150-bedroom hotel and a new campus for Durham University.[11][12][13]

Plans have been announced to restore the Globe Theatre, located in the town centre, to use. The venue, famous for hosting acts such as The Beatles, Rolling Stones and Buddy Holly, has been closed since 1993 after being used as a bingo venue since 1977. The plans, announced by local developers Jomast and approved by Stockton Council, would resurrect the theatre as one of the North East's largest live entertainment and performance venues, with a capacity of 2,400.[14] Work started on the redevelopment in April 2011, and The Globe is expected to re-open in late 2012.

The Teesside White Water Course, located in the town, is undergoing a £4.6 million upgrade which will make it the first sustainable white water course, and one of the best, in the world. It is hoped that the facility will be used as a training venue for the 2012 Summer Olympics.[15][16]

The Stockton-Middlesbrough Initiative[17] is a 20-year vision for regenerating the urban core of the Tees Valley, the main focus being the 30 km² area along the banks of the River Tees between the two centres of Stockton and Middlesbrough. The master plan has been drawn up by environmental design specialists Gillespies,[18] the eventual aim being to bring distinctive high-quality city-scale assets to the centre of the Tees Valley, including the town centres of Stockton and Middlesbrough. The project will include the existing developments at North Shore,[19] Stockton and Middlesbrough,[20] with many others over a 15–20 year period.

Culture

Notable people

  • John Walker, who invented the friction match in 1826 was a Stockton resident. A statue originally stood in John Walker Square, at the south end of the High Street in the shadow of the Swallow Hotel. This was recently moved to a roundabout in the centre of Stockton, but the roundabout has since been demolished to make way for a new road system.

People born in Stockton include:

Other notable residents include:

  • Harold Macmillan was MP (1924–29, 1931–45), later Prime Minister (1957–63). He was created Earl of Stockton in 1984.
  • William Rodgers was Stockton MP (1962–83).
  • Hudson's Bay Company explorer and Norton native, Captain William Christopher, lived in Stockton for many years at 145 High Street. Under the employ of the HBC from 1760 through to 1783, he was charged with finding the Northwest Passage to China. His discoveries include Baker Lake in Nunavut, Canada.
  • Author George Orwell resided for a year (1944–45) in Greystones, near Carlton, a village in the borough.
  • Scottish entrepreneur Duncan Bannatyne moved to Stockton when he was 30, before he made his fortune. Whilst living in Stockton he bought his first ice cream van and founded a nursing home business. He also opened his first health club in Stockton, Bannatyne's in 1997. He married his second wife at St Mary's Church, Norton and still resides in the area; living in Wynyard and now Norton.
  • Michael Marks, founder of Marks & Spencer, started his business career in Stockton in 1883.
  • Musician Bruce Thomas,(b. 1948).
  • Musician Richard Anthony Hewson (b. 1943).
  • Musician Lesley Duncan (1943–2010).
  • Footballer Matthew Bates.
  • Footballer Lee Turnbull.
  • Footballer Lee Cattermole.
  • Actress Elizabeth Estensen.
  • Footballer Jonathan Franks.

Public services

Stockton-on-Tees falls within the jurisdiction of Cleveland Police. Prior to 1974, it was under the jurisdiction of Teesside Constabulary. The town is also served by the Cleveland Fire Brigade and the North East Ambulance Service.

The University Hospital of North Tees is located in the town and serves the town, the borough, and parts of County Durham. It is part of the North Tees and Hartlepool NHS Trust.

References

  1. ^ "www.teesvalleyunlimited.gov.uk/". http://www.teesvalleyunlimited.gov.uk/information-forecasting/documents/place/ward%20data.xls. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  2. ^ http://www.stockton.gov.uk/citizenservices/leisureandents/artsculture/32179/local_history/castle/
  3. ^ "Friends of Ropner Park website". Forp.org.uk. http://www.forp.org.uk. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  4. ^ "Stockton-on-Tees, Billingham and Norton". Englandsnortheast.co.uk. http://www.englandsnortheast.co.uk/Stockton.html. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Stockton-on-Tees, Billingham and Norton". Englandsnortheast.co.uk. http://www.englandsnortheast.co.uk/Stockton.html. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  6. ^ "www.whitechapelbellfoundry.co.uk". whitechapelbellfoundry.co.uk. http://www.whitechapelbellfoundry.co.uk/bigben.htm. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  7. ^ "Buses – Stockton Borough Council". Public Transport. Stockton-on-Tees Borough Council. 10 August 2007. http://www.stockton.gov.uk/citizenservices/transport/publictransport/buses/. Retrieved 27 October 2007. 
  8. ^ "Parishes – Stockton on Tees | British History Online". British-history.ac.uk. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=42640. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  9. ^ "SIRF Fringe Festival". Archived from the original on 31 July 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080731211139/http://www.sirf.co.uk/fringe.php. Retrieved 2 August 2008. 
  10. ^ "Corner House Youth Project website". Cornerhouseyouthproject.co.uk. http://www.cornerhouseyouthproject.co.uk. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  11. ^ "Northshore/Stockton Borough Council". Stockton.gov.uk. 26 September 2011. http://www.stockton.gov.uk/citizenservices/regeneration/regenerationschemes/stocktonregeneration/northshore/. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  12. ^ "Stockton – North Shore Redevelopment". Teesvalleyunlimited-investment.co.uk. http://www.teesvalleyunlimited-investment.co.uk/regeneration-projects/north-shore/. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  13. ^ "Northshore, Stockton-on-Tees Muse Developments". Musedevelopments.com. http://www.musedevelopments.com/projects/our-projects/northshore-stockton-on-tees.html. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "Revamp for music venue approved". BBC News. 9 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/tees/8505514.stm. 
  15. ^ http://www.smi-teesvalley.co.uk/documents/TWWC%20Course.pdf
  16. ^ "White water course's £4.6m revamp". BBC News. 28 March 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/tees/8591668.stm. 
  17. ^ "Stockton-Middlesbrough Initiative website". Smi-teesvalley.co.uk. 26 March 2010. http://www.smi-teesvalley.co.uk/. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  18. ^ "Gillespies website". Gillespies.co.uk. http://www.gillespies.co.uk/. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  19. ^ "North Shore website". Teesvalleyregeneration.co.uk. http://www.teesvalleyregeneration.co.uk/pages/project/project=northbank. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  20. ^ Middlehaven, Middlesbrough project website

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Stockton-on-Tees — Koordinaten …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Stockton-on-tees — (français : Stockton sur Tees) est une ville industrielle et un port dans le comté de Durham dans le nord est de l Angleterre. Elle possède 80 600 habitants. Géographie Stockton on Tees se trouve sur la côte est de l Angleterre, sur la rive… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Stockton-on-Tees — also Stockton a town in Cleveland, northeast England, near the point where the River Tees joins the sea. The first passenger railway in the world, running from Stockton to Darlington, was established in 1825 …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • Stockton on Tees — (spr. tīs), Stadt (municipal borough) in der engl. Grafschaft Durham, links am Tees, 6 km oberhalb Middlesbrough, mit South S. (im Nordbezirk von Yorkshire) durch zwei Brücken verbunden. Beide zusammen haben (1901) 51,478 Einw. S. hat mehrere… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Stockton upon Tees — (spr. stockt n öpp n tihs), Stadt in der engl. Grafsch. Durham, an der Mündung des Tees in die Teesbai, (1901) 51.478 E …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Stockton upon Tees — (Stoktn öp n Tihs), engl. Stadt 31/2 St. oberhalb der Mündung des Tees in die Nordsee, mit 16500 E, gutem Hafen, lebhafter Schiffahrt und Fabrikation …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Stockton-on-Tees — [stäk′tənän tēz′] city in Cleveland, N England, on the Tees: county district pop. 174,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Stockton-on-Tees — /stok teuhn on teez , awn /, n. a seaport in Cleveland, in NE England, near the mouth of the Tees River. 164,000. * * * ▪ town and unitary authority, England, United Kingdom       town and unitary authority, northeastern England. The unitary… …   Universalium

  • Stockton-on-Tees — 54° 34′ N 1° 19′ W / 54.57, 1.32 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Stockton-on-Tees — Original name in latin Stockton on Tees Name in other language Stockton, Stockton on Tees, Stockton on Tees, Stokton na Tizu, Stokton on Tis, Stoktun on Tijs, astaktwn an tyz, Стоктон на Тизу, Стоктон он Тис, Стоктън он Тийс, State code GB… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database


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