- Ulster Volunteers
The Ulster Volunteers were a unionist militia founded in 1912 to block Home Rule for Ireland. In 1913 they were organised into the Ulster Volunteer Force. A modern loyalist paramilitary group founded in 1966 shares the same name (
Ulster Volunteer Forceor UVF), and lays claims to a direct descendancy from the older organisation, but there were no organisational links between the two.
The original Ulster Volunteers were formed by
Edward Carsonand James Craig as Unionist militias in the tensions surrounding the potential success of the third Irish Home Rule Bill. At the start of 1912, Unionists and members of the Orange Order started drilling and on 9 April(Easter Tuesday) Carson and Conservative Andrew Bonar Lawreviewed 100,000 Ulster Volunteers marching in columns. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/ashorthistory/archive/intro210.shtml BBC Short History of Ireland: Home Rule promised] ] On 28 September237,368 men signed the Ulster Covenantpledged to "using all means which may be found necessary to defeat the present conspiracy to set up a Home Rule Parliament in Ireland", with the support of 234,046 women. [ [http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=1169&HistoryID=ab07#1170 Historyworld: Ulster volunteers and Irish volunteers: AD 1911-1914] ]
13 January 1913, the Ulster Volunteer Force was formally established by the Ulster Unionist Council. Recruitment was to be limited to 100,000 men aged from 17 to 65 who had signed the Covenant, under the charge of Lieutenant-General Sir George Richardson KCB. [ [http://www.belfastsomme.com/uvf.htm South Belfast Friends of the Somme Association] The UVF was formed in 1913 although commonly referred to being formed in 1912.]
During this time the unionists enjoyed the wholehearted support of the British Conservative Party, even when threatening rebellion against the
British government. On 23 September 1913the 500 delegates of the Ulster Unionist Council met to discuss the practicalities of setting up a provisional government for Ulster. [HM Hyde; Carson. p340-341.]
Carson and Craig, supported by some British Conservative politicians, threatened to establish a Provisional government in
Ulstershould the province be included in any Home Rule settlement. In April 1914 30,000 German rifles with 3,000,000 rounds were landed at Larne, with the authorities blockaded by the UVF (see Larne gunrunning). The Curragh Incidentshowed it would be difficult to use the British army to coerce Ulster into home rule from Dublin. These developments led to the formation of the Irish Volunteersby southern nationalists to ensure enactment of the proposed home rule act.
Home Rule Act 1914was eventually passed despite the objections of the House of Lordswhose power of veto had been abolished under the Parliament Act, though Carson managed to force through a provision exempting part or all of Ulster; however the home rule issue was temporarily suspended by the outbreak of World War I. Many UVF men enlisted, mostly with the British 36th (Ulster) Division[Fisk says 35,000 enlisted. 5,000 being killed during the attack on German lines at Thiepvalon the Somme. P.15.] of the New British Army. Others joined Irish regiments of the United Kingdom's 10th and 16th (Irish) Divisions. By the Summer 1916, only the Ulster and 16th divisions remained, the 10th amalgamated into both following severe losses in Gallipoli. Both of the remaining divisions suffered heavy casualties in July 1916 during the Battle of the Somme, to be largely decimated in 1918 during the German Spring Offensive.
Government of Ireland Act 1920provided Home Rule for Northern Irelandand Southern Ireland, giving Northern Ireland the option of Irish unity or Irish partition; the Unionist dominated Parliament of Northern Ireland chose partition, while in the south Irish republicans launched the Anglo-Irish Warwhich led to the creation of the Irish Free State. Many Ulstermen saw this as a reward for their loyal service during the war; others preferred to retain direct rule from London.
Certain remnants of the group reformed in 1920 and were used as
special constables (B-Specials). They were widely accused on attacks on the Catholic/ Irish nationalistpopulation of Northern Ireland during the Anglo-Irish War 1919-1921, in reprisal for Irish Republican Armyattacks on civilian, police, and military targets.
Battle of the Somme
* Proclamation by the UVF in the
Larne Timesnewspaper January 1914 [http://members.lycos.co.uk/UVF_YCV_RHC/history.htm here] .
* Mont gomery Hyde, H. Carson. Constable, London 1974. ISBN 0-09-459510-0.
* Details on UVF links to the 36th Ulster Division which fought at the
* Fisk, Robert "In time of War: Ireland, Ulster, and the price of neutrality 1939 - 1945" (Gill & Macmillan) 1983 ISBN 0-7171-2411-8
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