- Union for a Popular Movement
Infobox French Political Party
party_name = Union pour un Mouvement Populaire
party_wikicolourid = UMP
leader = Collegial leadership composed of
Patrick Devedjian, Jean-Claude Gaudin, Jean-Pierre Raffarinand Pierre Méhaignerie
November 17, 2002
Liberal conservatism[ [http://www.parties-and-elections.de/france.html Parties and Elections in Europe ] ] , Gaullism, Christian democracy, Liberalism
European People's Party
European People's Party - European Democrats
Centrist Democrat International, International Democrat Union
headquarters = 55, rue La Boétie
75384 Paris Cedex 08
website = [http://www.u-m-p.org www.u-m-p.org]
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The Union for a Popular Movement ("Union pour un Mouvement Populaire", UMP) is a
centre-rightFrench political party.
Founded in 2002, the party has an
absolute majorityin the National Assembly and a plurality in the Senate. Its candidate Nicolas Sarkozywas elected President of Francein 2007. The UMP is a member of the European People's Party(EPP), of the Centrist Democrat International(CDI) and of the International Democrat Union(IDU).
Since the 1980s, the political groups of the parliamentary right joined forces around the values of economic liberalism and the building of Europe. Their rivalries had contributed to their defeat in the 1981 and 1988 elections. Some politicians advocated the formation of a united right-wing party. Before the 1993 legislative election, the Gaullist-conservative
Rally for the Republic(RPR) and the centrist Union for French Democracy(UDF) formed an electoral alliance, the Union for France. But it was divided between the followers of Jacques Chiracand the supporters of Edouard Balladur. After their defeat in the 1997 legislative election, the right-wing parties created the Alliance for France.
Before the 2002 presidential campaign, the supporters of President
Chiracwho were divided in three right-wing parliamentary parties, founded an association, named Union on the Move ("Union en mouvement") [http://www.france-politique.fr/histoire-ump.htm France politique - chronologie UMP] ] . After Chirac's re-election, in order to prepare the legislative election, the Union for the Presidential Majority ("Union pour la majorité présidentielle") was created. It was re-named Union for a Popular Movement some months later, establishing the UMP as a permanent organization rather than simply as the umbrella organization for Jacques Chirac's supporters. The UMP was founded as a merger of the Gaullist-conservative Rally for the Republic(RPR), the conservative-liberal Liberal Democracy (DL), a sizeable portion of the centrist Union for French Democracy(UDF), more precisely the UDF's Christian Democrats (such as Philippe Douste-Blazyand Jacques Barrot), the social-liberal Radical Party and the centrist Popular Party for French Democracy(both associate parties of the UDF until 2002).
The party was thus born out of the meeting of four major French political traditions:
Gaullism, Liberalism(also known as "Republicanism" in France), Christian Democracy("Popularism") and Radicalism.
As indicated by its initial name, the UMP generally supported the policies of President
Jacques Chirac. However, in 2004, the party showed increasing signs of independence. The unpopularity with the electorate of Jacques Chirac and Jean-Pierre Raffarin's government led most members of the UMP to support Nicolas Sarkozy, a rival of Chirac. The party also publicly disapproved of Turkey's proposed membership in the European Union, which Chirac had previously endorsed several times publicly.
The first president of the UMP,
Alain Juppé, a close associate of Jacques Chirac, resigned on 15 July 2004after being convicted of political corruptionin January of the same year. On 29 November 2004, Nicolas Sarkozyannounced that he would officially take over the presidency of the UMP and resign his position as finance minister, ending months of speculation.
In the 2004 French regional elections the UMP suffered a heavy blow, winning the presidencies of only 2 out of 22 regions in Metropolitan France and only half of the departments (the right had previously won numerous departmental presidencies). The failure of the referendum on the European Constitution of
25 May 2005led to the fall of the government of Jean-Pierre Raffarin and to the formation of a new cabinet, presided by another UMP politician, Dominique de Villepin.
22 April 2007 Nicolas Sarkozywon the plurality of votes in the first round of the 2007 presidential election. In the second round he faced Socialist Candidate Ségolène Royal. On May 6, 2007he won the presidential election, garnering 53.06% of the vote. As a consequence, he resigned from the presidency of the UMP on 14 May 2007, two days before becoming President of the French Republic. On 17 June, in the legislative election, UMP again gained a majority in the National Assembly with 313 out of 577 seats, though it was less than expected following opinion polls and lost about 40 to 60 seats.
In the municipal and cantonal elections held in March 2008, the party suffered a blow, as a result of the unpopularity of
Nicolas Sarkozy. It lost numerous cities, such as Toulouseand Strasbourgand also lost 8 departmental presidencies to the left.
*Liberal Conservatives (conservatives, liberal-conservatives, conservative-liberals):
Nicolas Sarkozy, Jean-Claude Gaudin, Jean-Pierre Raffarin, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, Édouard Balladur, Dominique Bussereau, Michel Barnier, Dominique Perben, Jean-François Mattei, Renaud Donnedieu de Vabres, Charles Millon, Alain Lamassoure, Brice Hortefeux, François Baroin, Rachida Dati, Joseph Daul, Rama Yade, Bernard Accoyer, Margie Sudre, Marie-Hélène Descamps
The Reformers(classical liberals, libertarians ): Hervé Novelli, Gérard Longuet, Alain Madelin, Patrick Devedjian, Philippe Cochet, Jean-Pierre Soisson, Jean-Pierre Gorges, Claude Goasguen, Pierre Lellouche, Luc Chatel, Louis Giscard d'Estaing, Jean-Jacques Descamps
Democratic and Popular(christian democrats, centrists): Philippe Douste-Blazy, Pierre Méhaignerie, Adrien Zeller, Jacques Barrot, Nicole Fontaine, Pierre-André Wiltzer, Marc-Philippe Daubresse, Alain Joyandet, Antoine Herth
*Neo-Gaullistes (rightish Gaullistes, secular-minded conservatives):
Jacques Chirac, Dominique de Villepin, Alain Juppé, Jean-Louis Debré, Michèle Alliot-Marie, Patrick Ollier, François Baroin, Jean Tiberi, Xavier Bertrand, Xavier Darcos, Valérie Pécresse, Christine Albanel, Éric Wœrth, Roger Karoutchi, Josselin de Rohan, Adrien Gouteyron, Yves Jego
*Social-Gaullistes (leftish Gaullistes, social-democrats):
François Fillon, Roselyne Bachelot, Jean-Jacques Aillagon, Hamlaoui Mekachera, Philippe Dechartre, Jean Mattéoli, Bernard Reygrobellet, Yves Guéna, Alain Terrenoire, Jean Peyrelevade
*Democratic Convention (centrists, christian-democrats, liberals):
Hervé de Charette
The Free Right(conservative liberals, libertarians, souverainists): Rachid Kaci, Alexandre Del Valle, Étienne Blanc, François d'Aubert
Forum of Social Republicans(social-conservatives, christian-democrats): Christine Boutin, Jean-Frédéric Poisson, Charles de Champeaux
*National Centre of Independents (conservative-liberals, national-conservatives, souverainists):
Philippe Dominati, Christian Vanneste
Rally for France(national-conservatives, souverainists): Charles Pasqua, Lionnel Luca, Jacques Myard, Jean-Jacques Guillet, Philippe Pemezec
Blue Ecologie(centrist-ecologists): Nathalie Kosciusko-Morizet, Patrice Hernu
The Radical Party (whose members are divided between UMP and UDF [ [http://www.france-politique.fr/histoire-parti-radical.htm France politique - chronologie Parti Radical] ] ), the
Forum of Social Republicans, Arise the Republic, the National Centre of Independents, the Rally for Franceand Blue Ecologieare associate parties to UMP.
Nicolas Sarkozy(President of the Republic)
François Fillon(Prime Minister)
Bernard Accoyer(President of the National Assembly)
Christian Poncelet(President of Senate)
Jean-Louis Debré(President of the Constitutional Council)
*collegial leadership [In July 2007 Jean-Claude Gaudin, acting President, declared that "Nicolas Sarkozy remains, morally, President of the UMP" and the party endorsed this statement by not chosing a nominal leader as replacement for Sarkozy. The is composed of General Secretary Patrick Devedjian and Vice Presidents Jean-Claude Gaudin, Pierre Méhaignerie and Jean-Pierre Raffarin.] (2007− )
Jean-Claude Gaudin(2002− )
Jean-Pierre Raffarin(2007− )
Pierre Méhaignerie(2007− )
Patrick Devedjian(2007− )
Politics of France
List of political parties in France
* [http://www.u-m-p.org Official website]
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