- Native state
In biochemistry, the native state of a protein is its operative or functional form. While all protein molecules begin as simple unbranched chains of amino acids, once completed they assume highly specific three-dimensional shapes; that ultimate shape, known as tertiary structure, is the folded shape that possesses a minimum of free energy. It is a protein's tertiary, folded structure that makes it capable of performing its biological function. In fact, shape changes in proteins are the primary cause of several neurodegenerative diseases, including those caused by prions and amyloid (ie. mad cow disease, kuru, Creutzfeld-Jakob disease).
Many enzymes and other non-structural proteins have more than one native state, and they operate or undergo regulation by transitioning between these states. However, "native state" is used almost exclusively in the singular, typically to distinguish properly folded proteins from denatured or unfolded ones. In other contexts, the folded shape of a protein is most often referred to as its native "conformation" or "structure."
Folded and unfolded proteins are often easily distinguished by virtue of their water solubilities, as many proteins become insoluble on denaturation. Proteins in the native state will have defined secondary structure, which can be detected spectroscopically, by circular dichroism and by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
The native state of a protein can be distinguished from a molten globule, by among other things, distances measured by NMR. Amino acids widely separated in a protein's sequence may touch or lie very close to one another within a stably folded protein. In a molten globule, on the other hand, their time-averaged distances are liable to be greater.
Learning how native state proteins can be manufactured is important, as attempts to create proteins from scratch have resulted in molten globules and not true native state products. Therefore, an understanding of the native state is crucial in protein engineering.
With respect to metals: the term native state refers to metals which are found chemically uncombined in nature. Most usable metallic ores in the Earth's crust are oxides or sulfides, and as such do not manifest the properties of refined metals. Occasionally, however, metals are found in uncombined metallic forms, in varying degrees of purity. These "metals found as metals" are referred to as being in their "native state". For example, Native copper.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
native state — /neɪtɪv ˈsteɪt/ (say naytiv stayt) noun (formerly) a territorial division administered by a local ruler or government and therefore semi independent, while being part of a larger area under the control of an imperial power … Australian English dictionary
native state — noun : a former territorial division of India not constituting an integral part of British India but ruled by its own prince with British advice and supervision … Useful english dictionary
State and Church — • The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all… … Catholic encyclopedia
Native Gel Electrophoresis — is a technique used mainly in protein electrophoresis where the proteins are not denatured and therefore separated based on their charge to mass ratio.The two main types of native gels used in protein electrophoresis are polyacrlylamide gels and… … Wikipedia
Native metal — Kondyor Mine Region Chabarowsk: native platinum nugget A native metal is any metal that is found in its metallic form, either pure or as an alloy, in nature. Metals that can be found as native deposits singly and/or in alloys include aluminium,… … Wikipedia
Native contact — In protein folding, a native contact is a contact between the side chains of two amino acids that are not neighboring in the amino acid sequence (i.e., they are more than three residues apart in the primary sequence) but are spatially close in… … Wikipedia
native American — native American, adj. a person born in the United States. [1835 45, Amer.] * * * ▪ indigenous peoples of Canada and United States Introduction also called American Indian, Amerindian, Amerind, Indian, Aboriginal American, or First Nation… … Universalium
State recognized tribes — are Native American Indian Tribes and Heritage Groups that are recognized by individual states for their various internal government purposes.DescriptionAbout 20 states have found that they have purpose to recognize Native American tribes outside … Wikipedia
Native American civil rights — are the civil rights of Native Americans in the United States. Although indigenous to the Americas, American Indians became one of many minorities and the movement for American Indian civil rights began almost as soon as Europeans started to… … Wikipedia
Native American gaming — enterprises are gaming businesses operated on Indian reservations or tribal land in the United States. Indian tribes have limited sovereignty over these businesses and therefore are granted the ability to establish gambling enterprises outside of … Wikipedia