Symphony No. 45 (Haydn)


Symphony No. 45 (Haydn)

Symphony No. 45 in F-sharp minor, known as the "Farewell" Symphony (in German: "Abschieds-Symphonie"), was composed by Joseph Haydn in 1772.

It was written for Haydn's patron, Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, while he, Haydn and the court orchestra were at the Prince's summer palace in Eszterhaza. The stay there had been longer than expected, and most of the musicians had been forced to leave their wives back at home in Eisenstadt, so in the last movement of the symphony, Haydn subtly hinted to his patron that perhaps he might like to allow the musicians to return home: during the final "adagio" each musician stops playing, snuffs out the candle on his music stand, and leaves in turn, so that at the end, there are just two muted violins left (played by Haydn himself and the concertmaster, Alois Luigi Tomasini). Esterházy seems to have understood the message: the court returned to Eisenstadt the day following the performance. [Ethan Mordden, "A Guide to Orchestral Music: The Handbook for Non-Musicians". New York: Oxford University Press (1980): 81 - 82]

The first movement of Symphony No. 85 contains a reference to this symphony. [Bernard Harrison, "Haydn: The 'Paris' Symphonies". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1998): 88]

Movements

The piece is written for two oboes, a bassoon, two horns, and strings (violins divided into two, violas, cellos and double basses).

*I. Allegro assai
*II. Adagio
*III. Menuet: Allegretto
*IV. Finale: Presto - Adagio

The first movement of the work is a turbulent affair in F-sharp minor, an extremely unusual key to use at the time of the work. It opens in a manner typical of Haydn's "Sturm und Drang" period, with descending minor arpeggios in the first violins against syncopated notes in the second violins and held chords in the winds. The movement can be explained structurally in terms of sonata form, but it departs from the standard model in a number of ways (just before the recapitulation, for example, new material is introduced, which might have been used as the second subject in the exposition in a more conventional work). Aside from these departures from the norm, the first movement is "hardly able to be perceived as revolutionary" and "is not at all that adventurous, containing a development that ventures only to the levels of IV, II♭, and VI in addition to the mediant and tonic." [William E. Grim, "Haydn's "Sturm und Drang" Symphonies: Form and Meaning". Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press (1990): 109]

The second, slow, movement in A major is also in sonata form. It begins with a relaxed melody played by muted violins, featuring a repeated "hiccuping" motif. The mood gradually becomes more somber and meditative with an alternation between major and minor modes, resembling many similar passages in the later work of Schubert. There follows a series of dissonant suspensions carried across the bar line, which are extended to extraordinary lengths by Haydn when the same material appears in the recapitulation. James Webster (see reference below) hears this music as programmatic, expressing the yearning for home.

The following minuet is in the key of F-sharp major; its main peculiarity is that the final cadence of each section is made very weak (falling on the third beat), creating a sense of incompleteness.

The last movement begins as a characteristic Haydn finale in fast tempo, written in sonata form in the home key of F-sharp minor. The rhythmic intensity is increased at one point through the use of unison bariolage in the first violin part. The music eventually reaches the end of the recapitulation in a passage that sounds very much as if it were the end of the symphony, but suddenly breaks off in a dominant cadence.

What follows is a long "coda" — essentially a second slow movement — which is extremely unusual in Classical symphonies and probably sounded very surprising to the Prince. This is written in 3/8 time and modulates from A major to F-sharp major, during which time the musicians take their leave. The ending is a kind of deliberate anticlimax and is usually performed as a very soft "pianissimo".

This final "adagio" includes a bit of stage business that may not be obvious to a listener hearing a recorded performance: several of the musicians are given little solos to play just before departing. The order of departure is: first oboe and second horn (solos), bassoon (no solo), second oboe and first horn (solos), double bass (solo), cello (no solo), orchestral violins (solos; first chair players silent), viola (no solo). The first chair violinists remain to complete the work.

A typical performance of the Farewell Symphony lasts around twenty-five minutes.

References

*James Webster, "Haydn's "Farewell" Symphony and the Idea of Classical Style" (Cambridge University Press, 1991, ISBN 0-521-38520-2) includes an extensive analysis of the work.

See also

*List of symphonies by name


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Symphony No. 94 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 94 in G major (Hoboken 1/94) is the second of the twelve so called London symphonies (numbers 93 104) written by Joseph Haydn. It is usually called by its nickname, the Surprise Symphony, although in German it is more often… …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 103 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 103 in E flat major, Hoboken 1/103, is the eleventh of the twelve so called London Symphonies written by Joseph Haydn. This symphony is nicknamed The Drumroll , after the long roll on the timpani with which it begins. Contents 1… …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 48 (Haydn) — Maria Theresa of Austria, for whom the 48th Symphony is nicknamed The Symphony No. 48 in C major, Hoboken I/48, is a symphony by Joseph Haydn written in 1768 or 1769. The work has the nickname Maria Theresia as it was long thought to have been… …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 101 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 101 in D major (Hoboken 1/101) is the ninth of the twelve so called London Symphonies written by Joseph Haydn. It is popularly known as The Clock because of the ticking rhythm throughout the second movement. Contents 1… …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 59 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 59 in A major is a relatively early work by Joseph Haydn that is known popularly as the Fire Symphony. [HC Robbins Landon, Haydn: Chronicle and Works, 5 vols, (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1976 ) v. 2, Haydn… …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 100 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 100 in G major, Hoboken I/100, is the eighth of the twelve so called London Symphonies written by Joseph Haydn and completed in 1793 or 1794. It is popularly known as the Military Symphony. Contents 1 Nickname (Military) 2… …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 7 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 7 in C major (Hoboken I/7) is a symphony by Joseph Haydn, sometimes called Le midi. The symphony was most likely composed in 1761, together with the other two of the Day Trilogy, No.s 6 and 8. [Antony Hodgson, The Music of Joseph …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 73 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 73 in D major (Hoboken 1/73) is a symphony by Joseph Haydn. It is often known by the subtitle La chasse (The Hunt).HC Robbins Landon, Haydn: Chronicle and Works, 5 vols, (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1976 ) v …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 43 (Haydn) — The Roman god Mercury as depicted by Hendrick Goltzius The Symphony No. 43 in E flat major, Hoboken I/43, is a symphony by Joseph Haydn. Since the nineteenth century it has been referred to by the subtitle Mercury .[1] The symphony was composed b …   Wikipedia

  • Symphony No. 63 (Haydn) — The Symphony No. 63 in C major (Hoboken I/63) is a symphony by Joseph Haydn. It is often known by the title of the second movement, La Roxelane , named for Roxelana, the influential wife of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire. This… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.