name = Phyllis Stewart Schlafly
image_size = 183px
caption = Phyllis Schlafly in 2007
birth_date = birth date and age|1924|8|15
birth_place = flagicon | USA
St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.cite web|title=Phyllis Schlafly|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5221/is_2005/ai_n19140122/print?tag=artBody;col1|work=UXL Newsmakers|publisher=FindArticles.com|date=2005|accessdate=2008-08-09
spouse = John Fred Schlafly, Jr. (deceased)
children = John, Bruce, Roger, Liza, Andrew, Anne
Web site = [http://www.eagleforum.org/ eagleforum.org]
Phyllis Stewart Schlafly (born
August 15, 1924, in St. Louis, Missouri) is an American conservative political activist known for her opposition to feminism and the Equal Rights Amendment. Her bestselling book, "A Choice, Not An Echo", was published in 1964 from her home in Alton, Illinois, across the Mississippi Riverfrom her native St. Louis. From this self-publication, she formed her Pere Marquette Publishers company. "A Choice, Not an Echo" decries the power of the "Eastern Establishment" in the Republican Party once exercised by New York Governors Thomas E. Deweyand Nelson A. Rockefeller. Schlafly supported U.S. Senator Barry M. Goldwaterin his unsuccessful race against Lyndon B. Johnson.
Schlafly has co-authored several books on
national defenseand was highly critical of arms-control agreements with the former Soviet Union. [Chip Berlet and Matthew N. Lyons. 2000. "Right–Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort". New York: Guilford Press, p. 202.] In 1961 she wrote that arms control "will not stop Red aggression any more than disarming our local police will stop murder, theft, and rape." [Phyllis Schlafly, "Communist Master Plan for 1961", "Cardinal Mindszenty Newsletter", February 15, 1961]
Schlafly also maintains an active presence on the lecture circuit. In 1972, she founded the
Eagle Forum, and was the founder and president of a sister organization known as the Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund, which also operates in the Eagle Forum's St. Louis office. As of 2007, she is still the president of both organizations. Since 1967, she has published her own political newsletter, the "Phyllis Schlafly Report".
Schlafly's great-grandfather Stewart, a
Presbyterian, came from Scotlandto New Yorkin 1851 and moved westward through Canadabefore settling in Michigan. [profile of Andrew F. Stewart, in "Men of West Virginia", Biographical Publishing Co., Chicago: 1903. pp. 157-158.] Her grandfather, Andrew F. Stewart, was a successful master mechanic with the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. [1902-03 City Directory, Huntington, WV and 1910 Federal Census (Virginia), Alleghany County, Clifton Forge, ED126, Sheet 9A and note 1.] Schlafly's father, John Bruce Stewart, was a machinistand salesman of industrial equipment, principally for Westinghouse. He became unemployed in 1932 during the Great Depressionand could not find permanent work until World War II.Critchlow, Donald. "Founding Mother-Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade." Princeton University Press. pp. 422] He was granted a patent in 1944 for a rotary engine.Felsenthal biography]
Schlafly's mother, Odile Dodge, was the daughter of the moderately successful attorney Ernest C. Dodge. Odile attended college through graduate school and, before her marriage, worked as a teacher at Hosmer Hall, a private school for girls in St. Louis. [1919 Gould’s St. Louis City Directory] With her father’s legal business suffering during the Great Depression and her husband out of work, Odile worked as a librarian and a school teacher to support both families.
John Fred Schlafly, Jr., came from a well-to-do St. Louis family. His grandfather, August, immigrated in 1854 from
Switzerlandas a child. Shortly after August’s arrival, his father died and the family resettled in Carlyle, Illinois. There August and two brothers worked as clerks in a local grocery store. In 1876, August’s older brother married Catharine Hubert, the daughter of a successful local businessman. [1870 Federal Census ( Illinois) Clinton Co. Carlyle, Series: M593 Roll: 196 Page: 265] Shortly thereafter, the three brothers founded the firm of Schlafly Bros., which dealt in groceries, Queensware (dishes made by Wedgwood), hardware, and agricultural implements. ["The 1881 History of Marion & Clinton Counties, Illinois"] They later sold that business and concentrated on banking and other businesses that made them wealthy.
Schlafly was christened Phyllis McAlpin Stewart and brought up as a
Roman Catholicin St. Louis. According to one report, during the Depression, Schlafly's father went into long-term unemployment, and her mother entered the labor market. Mrs. Stewart was able to keep the family afloat and maintained Phyllis in a Catholic girls' school. [ Ehrenreich, pp. 152-153] ). In one of her books, "Strike From Space" (1965), Schlafly notes that she was at one time "a ballisticsgunner and technician at the largest ammunitionplant in the world".
She began college early and worked as a model for a time. She earned her A.B.
Phi Beta Kappafrom Washington University in St. Louisin 1944 at the age of 19. She received a master of arts in Governmentfrom Radcliffe Collegein Massachusettsin 1945. In 1978, she earned a J.D. from Washington University Law Schoolin St. Louis.
In 1952, Schlafly ran unsuccessfully for Congress as a Republican in a Democratic district. It was another decade, however, before she came to national attention with "A Choice, Not an Echo", millions of copies of which were distributed in support of Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign. In it, Schlafly denounced the
Rockefeller Republicansin the Northeast, accusing them of corruption and globalism. Critics called the book a conspiracy theoryabout "secret kingmakers" controlling the Republican Party. [Berlet and Lyons. 2000. "Right–Wing Populism in America", pp. 180, 202.]
In 1967, Schlafly lost her bid for the presidency of the National Federation of Republican Women after a vigorous campaign against the more
moderatecandidate Gladys O'Donnellof California. Schlafly's own next-door neighbor in Alton, a housewife and active Republican, accused her at the time of being "an exponent of an extreme right-wingphilosophy — a propagandist who deals in emotion and personalities where it is not necessary to establish facts or prove charges." Outgoing NFRW president and future United States TreasurerDorothy Elston of Delawareworked against Schlafly in the campaign. [ [http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,945990,00.html Anti-ERA Evangelist Wins Again] ; Donald T. Critchlow, "Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism" (Princeton University Press, 2005), p. 138-159.]
She joined the
John Birch Society, but quit because she thought that the main Communist threats to the nation were external, rather than internal. In 1970, Schlafly again ran unsuccessfully for a House of Representatives seat in Illinois, losing to Democratic incumbent George E. Shipley.
Schlafly has been an outspoken critic of "
activist judges", particularly on the Supreme Court. In 2005, Schlafly made headlines at a conference for the Judeo-Christian Council for Constitutional Restorationby suggesting that "Congress ought to talk about impeachment" of certain Supreme Court justices [Dana Milbank, " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A38308-2005Apr8.html washingtonpost.com And the Verdict on Justice Kennedy Is: Guilty] ", "Washington Post, April 9, 2005, p. A03.] , Justice Anthony Kennedybeing the primary target.In 2006, Schlafly provided an interview which appeared in the March 30 " New York Times" in which she attributed improvement in women's lives during the last decades of the twentieth century to labor-saving devices such as the indoor clothes dryerand paper diapers.cite news|last=Bellafante|first=Ginia|title=A Feminine Mystique All Her Own|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/30/garden/30phyllis.html?sq=&pagewanted=all|work= The New York Times|date=2006-03-30|accessdate=2008-01-31]
May 1, 2008the Board of Trustees of Washington University in St. Louisannounced that Schlafly would be presented an honorary degreeat the school's 2008 commencement ceremony. This was immediately met with objection by some University students and faculty who accused her of being anti-feminist and criticized her work on defeating the equal rights amendment. [cite web |url=http://publicbroadcasting.net/kwmu/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1278560§ionID=1 |title=Wash-U chancellor apologizes for controversy, but Schlafly will still get honorary degree |accessdate=2008-05-16 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher=] . Fourteen university law professors wrote in a complaint letter that Schlafly's career demonstrated " anti-intellectualismin pursuit of a political agenda." [cite web |url=http://abajournal.com/news/phyllis_schlafly_hon_degree_sparks_wash_u_spat_law_prof_protests// |title=Phyllis Schlafly Hon. Degree Sparks Wash U Spat, Law Prof Protest |accessdate=2008-07-25 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher= UPI] While the Board of Trustees' honorary degree committee approved the honorees unanimously, five student members of the committee wrote to complain that they had to vote on the five honorees as a slate, in the final stage of the voting, and feel the selection of Schlafly was a mistake. cite web |url=http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Top_News/2008/05/16/students_faculty_protest_schlafly_honor/2016/ |title=Students, faculty protest Schlafly honor |accessdate=2008-05-16 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher= UPI] [ [http://leiterlawschool.typepad.com/leiter/2008/05/wash-u-alumni-c.html Brian Leiter's Law School Reports: Wash U Alumni Create Website to Oppose Award of Honorary Degree to Schafly ] ] .
In the days leading up to the commencement ceremony, Washington University Chancellor
Mark S. Wrightonexplained the University’s Board of Trustees decision to award Schlafly’s degree with the following statement:
May 16, 2008commencement ceremony, Schlafly was awarded a doctor of humane lettersdegree. A protest to rescind Schlafly's honorary degree received support from faculty and students. During the ceremony, hundreds of the 14,000 attendees, including one-third the graduating students and some faculty, silently stood and turned their backs to Schlafly in protest.cite web |url=http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/stories.nsf/education/story/D00F2F30B4689B3A8625744B00821014?OpenDocument|title=Schlafly honored — and dishonored|accessdate=2008-05-18 |last= |first= |author=Kavita Kumar |date=05-17-2008 |work= |publisher=St. Louis Post Dispatch] In the days leading up to the commencement there were several protests regarding her degree award; Schlafly described these protesters as "a bunch of losers." [cite web |url=http://publicbroadcasting.net/kwmu/news.newsmain?action=article&ARTICLE_ID=1278560§ionID=1|title=Wash-U chancellor apologizes for controversy, but Schlafly will still get honorary degree] In addition, she stated after the ceremony that the protesters were "juvenile" and that "I'm not sure they're mature enough to graduate." As planned, Schlafly did not give any speech during the commencement ceremony, nor did any of the other honorees except for commencement speaker Chris Matthews. [cite web |url=http://www.kansascity.com/115/story/623432.html |title=Students, faculty protest Schlafly at commencement|accessdate=2008-05-18 |last= |first= |coauthors= |date= |work= |publisher= UPI]
Schlafly became the most visible and effective opponent of the
Equal Rights Amendmentduring the 1970s as the organizer of the "Stop the ERA" movement, widely credited with stopping it from achieving passage by its legislative deadline. STOP has also been referred to as an acronym for "Stop Taking our Privileges", because Schlafly believes the amendment, if passed, would take away many Americans' privileges, especially those of women. [ Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Firebrand: Phyllis Schlafly and the Conservative Revolution." The New Yorker. Nov 7, 2005. pp. 134.]
By the time Schlafly began campaigning in 1972, the amendment had already been ratified by 30 of the necessary 38 states. However, Schlafly was successful in organizing a
grassrootscampaign to oppose further states' ratifications. Five more states ratified ERA after Schlafly launched her opposition campaign. The last was Indiana, where then State Senator Wayne Townsend, a Democrat, cast the tie-breaking vote for ratification in January 1977. In opposing ERA, Schlafly argued that "the ERA would lead to women being drafted by the military and to public unisex bathrooms." [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/27/AR2007032702357_pf.html New Drive Afoot to Pass Equal Rights Amendment - washingtonpost.com ] ] Her views were opposed by Pro-ERA groups, led by the National Organization for Women(NOW) and the ERAmerica coalition. [ [http://www.equalrightsamendment.org/era.htm History ] ] The amendment was narrowly defeated, having already been passed in 35 states.
Supporters of Schlafly argue that some of her claims have been confirmed by later state court rulings. [ [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/02/09/opinion/main1302801.shtml Phyllis Schlafly Was Right, NRO: Her Predictions While Fighting The ERA Are Still Accurate - CBS News ] ] Her arguments against the ERA included her opposition to including women in the military draft. In 1981, a highly publicized lawsuit attempted to end the all-male selective service system, claiming it encouraged gender discrimination. In the absence of the ERA, the Supreme Court held by a 6-3 margin that Congress could register only men for military service. (
Rostker v. Goldberg, 453 U.S. 57, 1981). Another case often cited by Schlafly supporters is the " Harris v. McRae" decision of 1980, in which, by a 5-4 vote, the Supreme Court held that Congress could provide funding for childbirth but not for abortion ("Harris v. McRae", 448 U.S. 297, 1980).
Some of Schlafly's critics have said that her work against the ERA, and its subsequent failure, resulted in government intervention in aspects of society such as
sexual discrimination, [http://www.opednews.com/articles/3/genera_melinda__070817_phyllis_schlafly_s_c.htm Phyllis Schlafly's career as a NeoCon ] ] and convinced many women that they should be satisfied to live through the state.
According to an article in the
March 28, 2007edition of the " Washington Post", "New Drive Afoot to Pass Equal Rights Amendment," Schlafly is working towards the defeat of a new version of the Equal Rights Amendment: "Today, she warns lawmakers that its passage would compel courts to approve same-sex marriages and deny Social Securitybenefits for housewives and widows".
The feminist activist
Gloria Steinemand the author Pia de Solenni, among others, have noted what they consider irony in Schlafly's role as an advocate for the full-time mother and wife, while being herself a lawyer, editor of a monthly newsletter, regular speaker at anti- liberalrallies, and political activist. [ [http://www.buzzflash.com/interviews/04/02/int04008.html Gloria Steinem: If Bush Wins in 2004, "Abortion Will Be Criminalized" - A BuzzFlash Interview ] ] [ [http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-solenni030403.asp Pia de Solenni on Phyllis Schlafly & Feminist Fantasies on National Review Online ] ] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,945990-1,00.html Anti-ERA Evangelist Wins Again - TIME ] ] In her review of Schlafly's "Feminist Fantasies", de Solenni writes that "Schlafly's discussion reveals a paradox. She was able to have it all: family and career. And she did it by fighting those who said they were trying to get it all for her... Happiness resulted from being a wife and mother and working with her husband to reach their goals."
Schlafly has been accused of dispersing
disinformationabout sex educationin public schools and working against federally funded day careand abortion. [ [http://www.theroc.org/roc-mag/textarch/roc-05/roc05-07.htm Phyllis Schlafly: Grand Dame Of Censorship ] ] She has described sex education classes as "in-home sales parties for abortions." [ [http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/p/phyllis_schlafly.html Brainyquote.com] ]
August 27, 1974, activist attorney Florynce Kennedyappeared on CBSradio in Miami to promote ratification of the stalled Equal Rights Amendment. During the conversation Kennedy denounced Schlafly as a "pigocrat. . . I just don't see why some people don't hit Phyllis Schlafly in the mouth. I don't think she would be damaged seriously, but I don't think it would hurt if somebody slapped her. We're arguing with people like Schlafly who obviously aren't speaking from a rational perspective. Instead of so much argument, people should slap." Similarly, author Harlan Ellison, another ERA booster, said that if Schlafly walked into the headlights of his car, he would "knock her into the next time zone." Ellison proclaimed Schlafly a "mischievous woman who does terrible things." [Donald T. Critchlow, "Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism", 2005, p. 253]
Several critics of Schlafly argue she sometimes veers off into conspiracy theories. [Drake Bennett, “The Amero Conspiracy,” "Boston Globe", November 25, 2007, [http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2007/11/25/the_amero_conspiracy/] .] [Katha Pollit, “Backlash Spectacular,” "The Nation", May 26, 2008, [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080526/pollitt] ]
Opponent of UN and WTO
As a college student in 1945, Schlafly applauded the establishment of the
United Nations. Over the years, however, she has long repudiated the UN. On the 50th anniversary of the group in 1995, Schlafly referred to "a cause for mourning, not celebration. It is a monument to foolish hopes, embarrassing compromises, betrayal of our servicemen, and a steady stream of insults to our nation. It is a Trojan Horsethat carries the enemy into our midst and lures Americans to ride under alien insignia to fight and die in faraway lands." Accordingly, she opposed U.S. President Bill Clinton's decision in 1996 to send 20,000 American troops to Bosnia. Schlafly noted that Balkannations have fought one another for 500 years and that the U.S. military should not be "policemen" of world trouble spots. [Donald T. Critchlow, "Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism", 2005, pp. 298-299]
Prior to the 1994 congressional elections, Schlafly condemned
globalizationthrough the World Trade Organizationas a "direct attack on American sovereignty, independence, jobs, and economy . . . any country that must change its laws to obey rulings of a world organization has sacrificed its sovereignty." [Donald T. Critchlow, "Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism", 2005, p. 298]
chlafly and the GOP
Schlafly continues to exert some influence within the Republican Party. She played a key role in writing some socially conservative language in the Republican National Convention's platform, most recently in 2004.
However, Schlafly has expressed dissatisfaction with the modern GOP. Though she has not been actively involved in the neoconservative/paleoconservative schism, her positions on many issues resemble those of a
paleoconservative. Like Patrick J. Buchanan, whom she supported for the 1996 GOP nomination, she contends that President George W. Bush"has muddied up the meaning of conservative." Schlafly writes, "Bush ran as a conservative, but he has been steadily (some might say stealthily) trying to remold the conservative movement and the Republican Party into the Bush Party. And the Bush Party stands for so many things alien to conservatism, namely, war as an instrument of foreign policy, nation-buildingoverseas, highly concentrated executive power, federal control of education, big increases in social entitlements, massive increases in legal and illegal immigration, forcing American workers to compete with low-wage foreigners (under deceptive enticements such as free tradeand global economy), and subordinating U.S. sovereignty to a North American community with open borders."
However, despite such criticisms, the Eagle Forum defended the party before the 2006 elections: "We cannot let our dissatisfaction and disappointment with some members of the Republican Party keep us from voting for the good guys — the ones who really are leaders for the conservative cause". [cite web|url=http://www.eagleforum.org/alert/2006/10-24-06.html |title=Mid-term Elections Are Just Around The Corner |accessdate=2007-03-30 |author=Eagle Forum |authorlink=Eagle Forum |date=
Schlafly has not endorsed a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination, but she has spoken out against
Mike Huckabee, whom she says as governor left the Republican Party in Arkansas"in shambles". She has hosted at the Eagle Forum U.S. Representative Tom Tancredoof Colorado, known for his opposition to illegal immigration.
Opinions on sexuality and public policy
Schlafly believes that sex should happen only between one man and a woman who is his wife. Based on this belief, Schlafly and her organizations promote abstinence-only curricula in schools, are against
contraceptionfor the unmarried, and against condomdistribution as an HIVprevention strategy.
Schlafly is the author of 21 books ranging from child care to
phonicseducation. She currently writes a weekly syndicated column that appears in over one hundred newspapers. [cite journal |last=Schlafly |first=Phyllis |date= 2006-08-26|title=What is Left? What is Right? Does it Matter? |journal= The American Conservative|url=http://www.amconmag.com/2006/2006_08_28/cover.html |accessdate=2007-03-30 |quotes= ] .
Schlafly's published works include:
*"Judicial Tyranny: The New Kings of America?" - contributing author (Amerisearch, 2005) ISBN 0-9753455-6-7
*"The Supremacists: The Tyranny Of Judges And How To Stop It" (Spence Publishing Company, 2004) ISBN 1-890626-55-4
*"Feminist Fantasies", foreword by
Ann Coulter(Spence Publishing Company, 2003) ISBN 1-890626-46-5
*"Turbo Reader" (Pere Marquette Press, 2001) ISBN 0-934640-16-5
*"First Reader" (Pere Marquette Press, 1994) ISBN 0-934640-24-6
*"Pornography's Victims" (Crossway Books, 1987) ISBN 0-89107-423-6
*"Child Abuse in the Classroom" (Crossway Books, 1984) ISBN 0-89107-365-5
*"Equal Pay for UNequal Work" (Eagle Forum, 1984) ISBN 99950-3-143-4
*"The End of an Era" (Regnery Publishing, 1982) ISBN 0-89526-659-8
*"The Power of the Christian Woman" (Standard Pub, 1981) ISBN B0006E4X12
*"The Power of the Positive Woman" (Crown Pub, 1977) ISBN 0-87000-373-9
*"Ambush at Vladivostok", with Chester Ward (Pere Marquette Press, 1976) ISBN 0-934640-00-9
*"Kissinger on the Couch" (Arlington House Publishers, 1974) ISBN 0-87000-216-3
*"Mindszenty the Man" (with Josef Vecsey) (Cardinal Mindszenty Foundation, 1972) ISBN B00005WGD6
*"The Betrayers" (Pere Marquette Press, 1968) ISBN B0006CY0CQ
*"Safe Not Sorry" (Pere Marquette Press, 1967) ISBN 0-934640-06-8
*"Strike From Space: A Megadeath Mystery" (Pere Marquette Press, 1965) ISBN 80-7507-634-6
*"Grave Diggers" (with Chester Ward) (Pere Marquette Press, 1964) ISBN 0-934640-03-3
*"A Choice Not An Echo" (Pere Marquette Press, 1964) ISBN 0-686-11486-8
She was married to attorney John Fred Schlafly, Jr., (1909–1993) for 44 years until his death. They had six children: John, Bruce, Roger, Liza, Andrew, and Anne.
In 1992, her eldest son, John, was outed as
homosexualby "Queer Week" magazine. [ [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2004/09/02/at_80_schlafly_is_still_a_conservative_force/ At 80, Schlafly is still a conservative force - The Boston Globe ] ] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_n20_v44/ai_12925575 The gay vice squad - QW's outing article about homosexuality of John Schlafly, son of pro-life advocate Phyllis Schlafly - Editorial] ] Schlafly has declined to comment on the matter in interviews.
*Critchlow, Donald T. "Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade" Princeton University Press, 2005. 422 pp. ISBN 0-691-07002-4.
*Ehrenreich, Barbara. 1983. The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight from Commitment. New York: Anchor Books.
*Felsenthal, Carol. "The Biography of Phyllis Schlafly: The Sweetheart of the Silent Majority" Doubleday & Co., 1981. 337pp. ISBN 0-89526-873-6.
*Kolbert, Elizabeth. "Firebrand: Phyllis Schlafly and the Conservative Revolution." The New Yorker. Nov 7, 2005. pp. 134.
* [http://www.phyllisschlafly.com/ Phyllis Schlafly official site]
* [http://www.eagleforum.org/ Eagle Forum official site]
* [http://washingtontimes.com/national/20051007-120157-1091r.htm Conservatives' first lady sparked pro-family effort]
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/29/books/review/29warner.html Review: 'Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism: A Woman's Crusade,'] (by Donald T. Critchlow)
* [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/29/books/chapters/0129-1st-critc.html First Chapter: 'Phyllis Schlafly and Grassroots Conservatism'] (by Donald T. Crichtlow)
* [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2004/09/02/at_80_schlafly_is_still_a_conservative_force/ Article on Phyllis Schlafly from September 2, 2004 Boston Globe]
* [http://www.mtholyoke.edu/offices/comm/news/newsfull.shtml?nomy=1&node=5202876&full=1/ Phyllis Schlafly speaks about feminism at Mount Holyoke College]
* [http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060512/news_lz1e12schlafl.html Domestic violence law abuses rights of men - by Phyllis Schlafly]
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