- Clericis laicos
Clericis laicos was a Papal bull issued on February 5, 1296 by Pope Boniface VIII in an attempt to prevent the secular states of Europe, in particular France and England, from appropriating church revenues without the express prior permission of the pope. The two expansionist monarchies had come to blows, and the precedents for taxation of the clergy for a "just war" if declared a crusade and authorized by the Papacy had been well established. The position of Boniface was that prior authorization had always been required, and the clergy had not been taxed for purely secular and dynastic warfare.
The bull's wording decreed that all prelates or other ecclesiastical superiors who under whatsoever pretext or color shall, without authority from the Holy See, pay to laymen any part of their income or of the revenue of the Church, likewise all emperors, kings, dukes, counts, etc. who shall exact or receive such payments, incur eo ipso the sentence of excommunication.
James F. Loughlin, writing in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1903), interpreted this wording as expressing two underlying principles of this Bull:
- That the clergy should enjoy equally with the laity the right of determining the need and the amount of their subsidies to the Crown;
- That the head of the Church ought to be consulted when there was question of diverting the revenues of the Church to secular purposes.
Catholic writers have claimed that these were by no means strange or novel at the time. Outside of France and England there was no secular authority strong enough to resist these Papal claims, and the bull was generally accepted. But what excited the wrath of its two main groups of antagonists, the ministers of Philip IV of France and of Edward I of England, was that by its aggressive tone, from the express mention of sovereigns, and the grave penalties attached, they felt that behind the decree there stood a new Pope Gregory VII, resolved to enforce it to the letter.
The Bull was criticized for the unprecedented vehemence of its tone, for its exaggerated indictment of the hostile attitude of the laity of all ages towards the clergy, and for its failure to make clear the distinction between the revenues of the purely ecclesiastical benefices and the "lay fees" held by the clergy on feudal tenure. The unscrupulous advisers of Philip were quick to take advantage of the Pope's hasty language and, by forcing him to make explanations, put him on the defensive and weakened his prestige.
Clericis laicos was essentially revoked by the bull Etsi de statu issued in July 1297, which allowed lay taxation of clergy without papal consent in cases of emergency.
- ^ Medieval Sourcebook: Clericis laicos
- ^ Its opening statement asserted that "the laity have been from the most ancient times hostile to the clergy", "a palpable untruth" observed Norman F. Cantor, in The Civilization of the Middle Ages (1993:493), citing the enormous enthusiasm and devotion of most laymenwere still showing to many of the clergy.
- ^ Canning, Joseph (1996). A History of Medieval Political Thought, 300-1450. London: Routledge. p. 138. ISBN 0415013496.
Tax resistance Topics Methods OrganizationsAddiopizzo · Aide-toi, le ciel t'aidera · All Britain Anti-Poll Tax Federation · Anti-Poll Tax Unions · Association of Real Estate Taxpayers · Committee for Non-Violent Action · Irish National Land League · National Campaign for a Peace Tax Fund · National War Tax Resistance Coordinating Committee · Northern California War Tax Resistance · Pagal Panthis · Peacemakers · Women's Tax Resistance League Media Campaigns1300s1500sRappenkrieg1600sRevolt of the va-nu-pieds · Revolt of the papier timbré1700s1800s1900s Related topics
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Clericis laicos — ist der Titel der Päpstlichen Bulle, die Papst Bonifatius VIII. am 25. Februar 1296 veröffentlichte. Das Leitthema dieser Bulle lautete, „dass die Laien Feinde des Klerus sind“, inhaltlich handelte es sich um einen Investiturstreit und eine… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Clericis laicos — est une bulle du pape Boniface VIII (datée du 25 février 1296), qui interdisait, sous peine d excommunication, toute levée d impôts nouveaux sans l autorisation du pape. Cette bulle a été à l origine d un conflit violent entre Philippe le Bel et… … Wikipédia en Français
Clerĭcis laĭcos — Clerĭcis laĭcos, Bulle des Papstes Bonifacius VIII. von 1296, bei Gelegenheit, da König Philipp von Frankreich zur Bestreitung der Kriegskosten von dem französischen Clerus eine bedeutende Beisteuer erpreßt hatte; sie drohte Jedem den Bann, der… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Clericis Laicos — • The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable exactions of the civil power Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 … Catholic encyclopedia
Clericis laicos — La bula Clericis laicos fue promulgada por el papa Bonifacio VIII el 24 de febrero de 1296. Para poner fin al conflicto que mantenía en guerra al reino de Inglaterra con el de Francia, Bonifacio VIII envió dos legados con la indicación de… … Wikipedia Español
Clericis laicos — Герб римского папы Бонифация VIII Clericis laicos (лат. духовники миряне) бу … Википедия
Clericos Laicos — Clericis Laicos † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Clericis Laicos The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable… … Catholic encyclopedia
Boniface VIII — (Benedetto Caetani) c1235 1303, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1294 1303. * * * orig. Benedict Caetani born с 1235, Anagni, Papal States died Oct. 11, 1303, Rome Pope (1294–1303). Born into an influential Roman family, Caetani studied law in Bologna… … Universalium
Boniface VIII — Pope Boniface VIII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Boniface VIII (BENEDETTO GAETANO) Born at Anagni about 1235; died at Rome, 11 October, 1303. He was the son of Loffred, a descendant of a noble family originally Spanish, but long… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Boniface VIII — Pope Boniface VIII † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Boniface VIII (BENEDETTO GAETANO) Born at Anagni about 1235; died at Rome, 11 October, 1303. He was the son of Loffred, a descendant of a noble family originally Spanish, but long… … Catholic encyclopedia