- Baseball statistics
Statistics play an important role in summarizing
baseballperformance and evaluating players in the sport. Since the flow of baseball has natural breaks to it, the game lends itself to easy record keeping and statistics. This makes comparisons between players' on field performance relatively easy, and therefore gives statistics more importance in baseball than in most other sports. Statistics have been kept for professional baseballsince the creation of each league. Many statistics are also available from outside of Major League Baseball, from leagues such as the National Association and the Negro Leagues.
Development of statistics
The practice of keeping records of player achievements was started in the 19th century by
Henry Chadwick. [cite book
last = Palmer
first = Petebung
authorlink = Pete Palmer
coauthors = Paul Adomites, David Nemec, Matthew D. Greenberger, Dan Schlossberg, Dick Johnson, Mike Tully
title = Cooperstown: Hall of Fame Players
origyear = 2001
publisher = Publications International
location = Lincolnwood, Illinois
id = ISBN 0-7853-4530-2
pages = pg. 21
chapter = Birth of the Game ] Based on his experience with
cricket, Chadwick devised the predecessors to modern day statisticsincluding batting average, runs scored, and runs allowed.
Traditionally, statistics such as batting average (the number of hits divided by the number of at bats) and earned run average (approximately the number of runs allowed by a pitcher per nine innings) have dominated attention in the statistical world of baseball. However, the recent advent of
sabermetricshas created statistics drawing from a breadth of player performance measures and playing field variables. Sabermetrics and comparative statistics attempt to provide an improved measure of a player's performance and contributions to his team from year to year, frequently against a statistical performance average.
Comprehensive, historical baseball statistics were difficult for the average fan to access until 1951, when researcher
Hy Turkinpublished "The Complete Encyclopedia of Baseball". In 1969, Macmillan Publishingprinted its first " Baseball Encyclopedia", using a computerto compile statistics for the first time. Known as "Big Mac", the encyclopedia became the standard baseball reference until 1988, when " Total Baseball" was released by Warner Books using more sophisticated technology. The publication of "Total Baseball" led to the discovery of several "phantom ballplayers", including Lou Proctor, who did not belong in official record books and were removed.cite encyclopedia
Pete Palmerand Gary Gillette
encyclopedia = The 2005 ESPN Baseball Encyclopedia
title = Introduction
edition = 1st Edition
year = 2005
publisher = Sterling
location = New York
id = ISBN 1-4027-2568-X]
Use of statistics
Throughout much of modern baseball, several core statistics have been traditionally referenced—batting average, RBIs, and
home runs. To this day, a player who leads the league in these three statistics is referred to as the "Triple Crown" winner. For pitchers, wins, ERA, and strikeoutsare the most often cited traditional statistics, with a pitcher leading a league in these statistics referred to as a "Triple Crown" winner. General managers and baseball scouts have long used the major statistics, among other factors and opinions, to understand player ability. Managers, catchers and pitchers use statistics of batters against opposing teams to develop pitching strategies and set defensive positioning on the field. Managers and batters study opposing pitcher performance and motion in attempts to improve hitting. Managers often base personnel decisions for a game on statistics, such starting lineups or relief pitchersubstitutions.Fact|date=June 2008
sabermetricstatistics have entered the mainstream baseball world that measure a batter's overall performance including On-base plus slugging, commonly referred to as OPS. OPS adds the hitter's on base percentage(number of times reached base by any means divided by total plate appearances) to his slugging percentage( total basesdivided by at bats). Some argue that the OPS formula is flawed and that more weight should be shifted towards OBP (on base percentage).
OPS is also useful when determining a pitcher's level of success. "Opponent On-base Plus Slugging" (OOPS) is becoming a popular way to evaluating a pitcher's actual performance. When analyzing a pitcher's statistics, some useful categories to consider include
K/9IP(strikeouts per nine innings), K/BB (strikeouts per walk), HR/9, WHIP (walks plus hits per inning pitched) and OOPS (opponent on-base plus slugging).
However, since 2001, more emphasis has been placed on Defense-Independent Pitching Statistics, including Defense-Independent ERA (dERA), in an attempt to evaluate a pitcher performance regardless of the strength of the defensive players behind him.
Also important are all of the above statistics in certain in-game situations. For example, a certain hitter's ability to hit left-handed pitchers might incline a manager to provide increased opportunities to face left-handed pitchers. Other hitters may have a history of success against a given pitcher (or vice versa), and the manager may use this information to create a favorable match up.
The use of performance-enhancing
anabolic steroids in Major League Baseball has affected the value of statistics, according to the Mitchell Report, released 13 December 2007, which concluded, in part
The illegal use of performance enhancing substances poses a serious threat to the integrity of the game. Widespread use by players of such substances unfairly disadvantages the honest athletes who refuse to use them and raises questions about the validity of baseball records. [ [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119758126963927545.html?mod=googlenews_wsj "Excerpts from the Mitchell Report"] , "
The Wall Street Journal", 13 December 2007.]
Commonly used statistics
Most of these terms also apply to
softball. Commonly used statistics with their abbreviations are explained here. The explanations below are for quick reference and do not fully or completely define the statistic; for the strict definition, see the corresponding article for each statistic.
* 1B—Single: hits on which the batter reached first base safely without the contribution of a fielding error.
* 2B—Double: hits on which the batter reached second base safely without the contribution of a fielding error.
* 3B—Triple: hits on which the batter reached third base safely without the contribution of a fielding error.
At bat: Batting appearances, not including bases on balls, hit by pitch, sacrifices, interference, or obstruction
At bats per home run: at bats divided by home runs
Batting average(also abbreviated "AVG"): hits divided by at bats
Base on balls(also called a "walk"): times receiving four balls and advancing to first base
Batting average on balls in play: frequency of which a batter reaches a base after putting the ball in the field of play. Also a pitching category.
Walk-to-strikeout ratio: number of base on balls divided by number of strikeouts
Extra base hits: doubles plus triples plus home runs
Fielder's choice: times reaching base when a fielder chose to try for an out on another runner
Ground ball fly ball ratio: number of ground ball outs divided by number of fly ball outs
* GDP or GIDP—Ground into double play: number of ground balls hit that became double plays
Gross Production Average: 1.8 times on-base percentage plus slugging percentage, divided by four
* GS—Grand Slam: a
home runwith the bases loaded, resulting in four runs scoring, and four RBI credited to the batter.
* H—Hits: times reached base because of a batted, fair ball without error by the defense
Hit by pitch: times touched by a pitch and awarded first base as a result
Home runs: hits on which the batter successfully touched all four bases, without the contribution of a fielding error.
Intentional base on balls: times awarded first base on balls (see BB above) deliberately thrown by the pitcher. Also known as IW (intentional walk).
Strike out: number of times that strike three is taken or swung at and missed, or bunted foul
Left on base: number of runners not out nor scored at the end of an inning.
On base percentage: times reached base (H + BB + HBP) divided by at bats plus walks plus hit by pitch plus sacrifice flies (AB + BB + HBP + SF).
On-base plus slugging: on-base percentage plus slugging average
Plate appearance: number of completed batting appearances
Runs created: statistic that attempts to measure how many runs a player has contributed to his team
Runs produced: statistic that attempts to measure how many runs a player has contributed
Run batted in: number of runners who scored due to a batters' action, except when batter grounded into double play or reached on an error
Runner In Scoring Position: the batter's batting average with runners in scoring position
Sacrifice fly: number of fly ball outs to the outfield which allow a runner already on base to score
Sacrifice hit: number of sacrifice bunts which allows another runner to advance on the basepaths or score
Slugging average: total bases divided by at-bats
Total average: total bases, plus walks, plus hit by pitch, plus steals, minus caught stealing divided by at bats, minus hits, plus caught stealing, plus grounded into double play
Total bases: one for each single, two for each double, three for each triple, and four for each home run
Times on base: times reaching base as a result of hits, walks, and hit-by-pitches
Base Runs: Another run estimator, like Runs Created; a favorite of writer Tom Tango
Extrapolated Runs: A linear run estimator developed by Jim Furtado
Caught stealing: times tagged out while attempting to steal a base
Stolen base: number of bases advanced other than on batted balls, walks, or hits by pitch
Defensive Indifference: if the catcher does not attempt to throw out a runner (usually because the run would be insignificant), the runner is not awarded a steal
* R—Runs scored: times reached home base legally and safely
Base on balls(also called a "walk"): times pitching four balls, allowing the batter-runner to advance to first base
* BB/9: Base on balls times nine divided by innings pitched (
Bases on balls per 9 innings pitched)
Total batters faced: opponent's total plate appearances
Balk: number of times pitcher commits an illegal pitching action or other illegal action while in contact with the pitching rubber, thus allowing baserunners to advance
Blown save: number of times entering the game in a save situation, and being charged the run (earned or not) which eliminates his team's lead
Component ERA: an estimate of a pitcher's ERA based upon the individual components of his statistical line (K, H, 2B, 3B, HR, BB, HBP)
Complete game: number of games where player was the only pitcher for his team
Defense-Independent Component ERA: an estimate of a pitcher's ERA based upon the defense-independent components of his statistical line (K, HR, BB, HBP)
Earned run: number of runs that did not occur as a result of errors or passed balls
Earned run average: total number of earned runs (see "ER" above), multiplied by 9, divided by innings pitched
Adjusted ERA+: earned run average adjusted for the ballpark and the league average
* G—Games (AKA "appearances"): number of times a pitcher pitches in a season
Games finished: number of games pitched where player was the final pitcher for his team
Ground ball fly ball ratio: ground balls allowed divided by fly balls allowed
* GS—Starts: number of games pitched where player was the first pitcher for his team
Hits per nine innings: hits allowed times nine divided by innings pitched (also known as H/9IP— Hits allowed per 9 innings pitched)
Hits Allowed: total hits allowed
* HB—Hit batsman: times hit a batter with pitch, allowing runner to advance to first base
* HLD (or H)—Hold: number of games entered in a save situation, recorded at least one out, did not surrender the lead, and did not complete the game
Home runs allowed: total home runs allowed
Intentional base on ballsallowed
Innings pitched: number of outs recorded while pitching divided by three
* IP/GS: Average number of innings pitched per game
Inherited runners: number of runners on base when the pitcher enters the game
Inherited runs allowed: number of inherited runners allowed to score
Strikeout: number of batters who received strike three
Strikeouts per nine innings: strikeouts times nine divided by innings pitched ( Strikeouts per 9 innings pitched)
Strikeout-to-walk ratio: number of strikeouts divided by number of base on balls
* L—Loss: number of games where pitcher was pitching while the opposing team took the lead, never lost the lead, and went on to win
Opponents batting average: hits allowed divided by at-bats faced
* PIT: Pitches thrown (
Quality start: a game in which a starting pitcher completes at least six innings and permits no more than three runs
Run average: number of runs allowed times nine divided by innings pitched
Relief Run Average: A function of how many inherited base runners a relief pitcher allowed to score.
Shutout: number of complete games pitched with no runs allowed
StrikeoutAlso may be notated as "K".
* SV—Save: number of games where the pitcher enters a game led by the pitcher's team, finishes the game without surrendering the lead, is not the winning pitcher, and either (a) the lead was three runs or less when the pitcher entered the game; (b) the potential tying run was on base, at bat, or on deck; or (c) the pitcher pitched three or more innings
* W—Win: number of games where pitcher was pitching while his team took the lead and went on to win (also related:
* WHIP—Walks and hits per inning pitched: average number of walks and hits allowed by the pitcher per inning
Wild pitches: charged when a pitch is too high, low, or wide of home plate for the catcher to field, thereby allowing one or more runners to advance or score
* A—Assists: number of outs recorded on a play where a fielder touched the ball, except if such touching is the putout
Double plays: one for each double play during which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist.
* E—Errors: number of times a fielder fails to make a play he should have made with common effort, and the offense benefits as a result
Fielding percentage: total plays (chances minus errors) divided by the number of total chances
Innings: number of innings that a player is at one certain position
Passed ball: charged to the catcher when the ball is dropped and one or more runners advance
Putout: number of times the fielder tags, forces, or appeals a runner and he is called out as a result
Range factor: ( [putouts + assists] *9)/innings played. Used to determine the amount of field that the player can cover
Total chances: assists plus putouts plus errors
* TP—Triple play: one for each triple play during which the fielder recorded a putout or an assist
Games played: number of games where the player played, in whole or in part
Games behind: number of games a team is behind the division leader
Pythagorean expectation: estimates a team's expected winning percentage based on runs scored and runs allowed.
MLB statistical standards
It is difficult to determine quantitatively what is considered to be a "good" value in a certain statistical category, and qualitative assessments may lead to arguments. It is interesting to look at recent results for some typical statistics and let the reader draw their own conclusions. Using full-season statistics available at the Official Site of Major League Baseball [ [http://mlb.mlb.com/stats/historical/leaders.jsp?c_id=mlb&baseballScope=mlb&statType=1&sortByStat=All&timeFrame=1&timeSubFrame=2004 Major League Baseball Historical Statistics] ] for the by|2000 through by|2006 seasons, the following tables show top ranges in various statistics, in alphabetical order. For each statistic, two values are given:
*Top5: the top five players bettered this value in all of the reported seasons
*Best: this is the best of all of the players for all of the reported seasonsArguably, a statistic that falls within the range shown might be considered as "good".
Cy Young Awardwinners
Evolution of baseball player evaluation
Gold Glove Awardwinners
MLB Most Valuable Player Awardwinners
MLB Rookie of the Year Awardwinners
Official Baseball Rules(OBR)
* List of pitches
* Triple Crown in Major League Baseball
* Albert, Jim, and Jay M. Bennett. "Curve Ball: Baseball, Statistics, and the Role of Chance in the Game". New York: Copernicus Books, 2001. ISBN 0-387-98816-5. A book on new statistics for baseball.
Alan Schwarz, "The Numbers Game: Baseball’s Lifelong Fascination with Statistics" (New York: St. Martin's, 2005). ISBN 0-312-32223-2.
* [http://mlb.mlb.com/mlb/official_info/baseball_basics/abbreviations.jsp The Official Site of Major League baseball - Baseball Basics: Abbreviations]
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