Tripura


Tripura

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type=state
state_name=Tripura
native_name=Tripura
locator_position=left
capital=Agartala
latd = 23.84
longd = 91.28
base_



base_map_label=no
largest_city=Agartala
abbreviation=IN-TR
official_languages=Bengali, Kokborok (Tripuri)
legislature_type=Unicameral
legislature_strength=60
leader_title_1=Governor
leader_name_1=D. N. Sahay
leader_title_2=Chief Minister
leader_name_2=Manik Sarkar
established_date=1972-01-21
area_total=10453
area_rank=26th
area_magnitude=10
population_year=2001
population_total=3191168
population_rank=21st
districts=4
website=tripura.nic.in

audio|Tripura.ogg|Tripura (Bengali script: ত্রিপুরা) is a state in North-East India. Tripura is surrounded by Bangladesh on the north, south and west. The Indian states of Assam and Mizoram lie to the east. The capital is Agartala and the main languages spoken are Bengali and Kokborok (also known as Tripuri). It was formerly an independent Tripuri kingdom [ [http://tripura.nic.in/kt3.htm Govt. of Tripura] ] and was merged with independent India on 15 October 1949 by the Tripura Merger Agreement. It was also known as Hill Tippera (anglicized version of Tipra) during the British Raj period [ [http://dsal.uchicago.edu/reference/gazetteer/pager.html?objectid=DS405.1.I34_V13_124.gifHill Tippera - History] "The Imperial Gazetteer of India", 1909, v. 13, p. 118.] [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Hill_Tippera Hill Tippera] , from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition.] and has a history of over 2500 years and 186 Kings. With an area of 4,036 sq mi or 10,453 km². [ [http://www.north-east-india.com/tripura/tripura-history.html Tripura History] ] .

Origin of name

Several theories exist pertaining to the origin of Tripura's name:

*The origin of the word "Tripura" is attributed to the legendary tyrant king of Tripura, "Tripur". According to legend, Tripur was the 39th descendant of Druhya, who was a descendant of Yayati, one of the lunar race kings. He was so powerful that he ordered his subjects to worship him as the sole God. People fled to escape his tyranny to the nearby state of Hiramba (Cachar).

*The word "Tripura" may have originated from "Tripura Sundari" - the presiding deity of the land which is famous as one of the 51 Shakti Peethas, pilgrimage centres of Shakti worshippers of Hinduism. [ [http://tripura.nic.in/kt3.htm Tripura] ]

*According to another school of thought the name Tripura was probably given to the state in honour of the temple at Udaipur, Tripureshwari, the wife of lord Shiva.

*According to historian Kailash Chandra Singha, the word Tripura is a derivative from two different Kokborok words "twi" and "pra". "Twi" means "water", "pra" means "near". It is likely that the state bears the name Tripura from this fact that in ancient time the boundaries of Tripura extended up to the Bay of Bengal when its ruler held sway from the Garo Hills to the Arakan.

*According to another belief, Tripura is a corruption of "Twi-bupra". The meaning of "twi" is "water" and that of "bupra" is "confluence". Several villages in Tripura are named after the confluence of various rivers, "e.g." Twikormo, Twirisa, Twisarangchak, and Twimudul.

History

Tripura finds mention in the Mahabharata, the Puranas and pillar inscriptions of Emperor Ashoka.Tripura has a long historic past, its unique tribal culture and a fascinating folklore.In the distant past Tripura was known as Kirat Desh. There are references of Tripura in the Mahabharat and the Puranas. Tripura, the descendent of King Druya and Bhabru, contemporary of Yudhishtara, was the ruler on whose name Tripura is named. One more explanation says that the territory is named after the temple of Tripuri Sundari, located at Radhakrishnapur.

Tripura was a princely state before its merger with the Indian Union. The Tripuri Kings ("Habugra") held the title of Manikya and ruled Tripura for 3000 years until its merger. Udaipur, in South Tripura district, was the capital of the Kingdom. The capital was shifted to Old Agartala by King Krishna Manikya in the eighteenth century, and then to the present Agartala in the 19th Century. The 19th century marked the beginning of Tripura's modern era, when King Bir Chandra Manikya Bahadur Debbarma modeled his administration on the pattern of British India and enacted various reforms.

The "Ganamukti Parishad" movement led to the integration of the kingdom with India in 1949. Tripura was heavily affected by the partition of India and the majority of the population now comprises Hindu Bengalis, many of whom came as refugees from East Pakistan after independence in 1947. Tripura became a centrally administered Union Territory on July 1, 1963 and attained the status of a full-fledged state on January 21, 1972.

Armed conflict in Tripura has been a problem since the end of the 1970s as an aftermath of 1971 Indo-Pak war. Mass migration of Bengalis from Bangladesh during this time has resulted in wide-spread insurgency and militancy in the state with groups such as the Tripura National Volunteers, the National Liberation Front of Tripura and the All Tripura Tiger Force aiming to drive away the Bengali people.

Geography and climate

Tripura is a landlocked hilly state in northeastern India with altitudes varying from 50 to 3080 ft above sea level, though the majority of the population lives in the plains. Tripura has a tropical climate and receives rainfall during the monsoons. It is surrounded on the north, west, and south by Bangladesh and is accessible to the rest of India through the Karimganj district of Assam and Aizawl district of Mizoram in the east. The state extends between 22°56'N and 24°32'N and 90°09'E and 92°10'E. Its maximum stretch measures about 184 km from north to south and 113 km from east to west with an area of 10,492 km². Tripura is the third smallest state of the country.

Although landlocked, Tripura has many rivers including the Manu River which originates here. [cite web
url=http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/M_0150.htm
title=Manu River
publisher=banglapedia
accessdate=2007-07-07
]

Economy

Tripura is the second most populous state in North-East India, after Assam. According to the census of 2001, Tripura has a total population of 3,191,168, with a density of 304 persons per square kilometer, and ranks 22nd among Indian states. It constitutes 0.31% population of India and 8.18% of the Northeast. In the 2001 census of India, Bengalis represent almost 70% of Tripura's population and the native tribal populations represent 30% of Tripura's population. The tribal population comprises several different tribes and ethnic groups with diverse languages and cultures with the largest tribal group being the Kokborok-speaking tribes of the Tripuri (16% of the state's population), the Jamatia, the Reang and the Noatia tribal communities. There is some tension between these native tribal populations and Bengali settlers in tribal areas.

Tripura ranks 22nd in the human resource development index and 24th in the poverty index in India according to 1991 sources. The literacy rate of Tripura is 73.66%, higher than the national rate of 65.20%.

Hinduism is the majority religion in the state, with 85.6% of the population following the religion. [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ] Muslims make up 8.0% of the population, Christians 3.2%, and Buddhists 3.1%. [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ]

This represents a major change in the religious composition of the state over time. In 1941 the population was 70% Hindu, 23% Muslim and 6% followers of tribal religions. [Columbia-Lippincott Gazeteer. p. 1947] It should be noted that in 1951 Tripura had 649,930 inhabitants, and the number was even less in 1941 because the Hindu exodus had not begun from East Bengal, although that would not really become a factor in the state's population until the 1970s.

Today most of the Hindus in Tripura, both those who are Bengali and the Tripuri and numerous tribes, are adherents of an animist-Shaktism hybrid of Hinduism, which was the state religion under the Tripuri kings. Brahmin priests (called "chantais") are regarded as custodians of "dharma" and occupy an exalted position in Tripura society. Important gods are Shiva and Tripureshwari (patron goddess of Tripura and an aspect of Shakti). Several fertility gods are also worshipped, such as Lam-Pra (the twin deities of sky and sea), Mailu-ma (goddess of corn, identified with Lakshmi), Khulu-ma (goddess of the cotton plant) and Burha-cha (god of healing). Durga Puja, Navaratri, Vijayadashami and the worship of the "Chaturdasha" deities are important festivals.

Culture

Tripura has several diverse ethno-linguistic groups, which has given rise to a composite culture. The dominant culture is Bengali, while minority cultures are those of the Tripuris,Jamatia, Reang, Noatia, Koloi, Murasing, Chakma, Halam, Garo, Kuki, Lushai, Mogh, Munda, Oraon, Santhal and Uchoi. Tripura has a rich cultural heritage of music, fine arts, handicrafts and dance. Music is an integral part of the tribal people of Tripura. Some of their indigenous instruments are the "sarinda", "chongpreng" and "sumui" (a kind of flute). Songs are sung during religious occasions, marriages and other festivals. Agricultural festivals are integral to the culture of the state.

Dance is important to the tribal way of life. Dances are performed during Goria Puja. Hojagiri dance is performed by standing on a pitcher and is performed by the Reang clans. The Bihu dance is performed by the Chakmas during Chaitra Sankranti (the last day of the month of "Chaitra").

Flora and fauna

The state is located in the bio-geographic zone of 9B-North-East Hills and possesses an extremely rich bio-diversity. The local flora and faunal components of Indo-Malayan and Indo-Chinese sub-regions. There are 379 species of trees, 320 shrubs, 581 herbs, 165 climbers, 16-climbing shrubs, 35 ferns and 45 epiphytes.Fact|date=April 2007

Wildlife sanctuaries of the state include Sipahijola Wildlife Sanctuary, Gumti Wildlife sanctuary, Roa Wildlife Sanctuary and Trishna Wildlife Sanctuary.National Park of India|National Park of the state include Clouded Leopard National Park, Sepahijola and Rajbari National Park, Trishna.

Education

Tripura schools are run by the state government or by private organisations, including religious institutions. Instruction is mainly in English or Bengali, though Kokborok and other tribal languages are also used. Secondary schools are affiliated with the CISCE, the CBSE, or the Tripura Board of Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for 2 years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility. Notable higher education institutions of Tripura are MBB College, National Institute of Technology, Tripura Institute of Technology, Tripura University and ICFAI University all located in Agartala.

ports

Football and cricket are the most popular sports in the state. The state capital Agartala has its own club football championships every year where many local clubs compete in a league and knockout format.

Tripura participates as an Eastern state team in the Ranji Trophy, the Indian domestic Cricket competition. The state also is a regular participant of the Indian National Games and the North Eastern Games.

ee also

* Kokborok
* Bengal
* Agartala
* Tipra
* Tripuri
* Tripura Police
* Acharya Gour Ganguly, leader of Agartala's satyagraha movement in the 1970s against atrocities on women

Places of interest

*Amarpur
*Chaturdasha Temple
*Hwlwighati
*Jampui Hills
*Kamalasagar
*Khumulwng
*Neermahal
*Rasu Kami
*Tripura Sundari temple

Notes


* [http://nativene.com Native-NE: The Community Website of North East India]

Further reading

* Jagadis Gan-Chaudhuri (1985), "An Anthology of Tripura", Inter India Publications ISBN 8121000750
* Roychoudhury, N.R. (1977), "Tripura Through the Ages: A Short History of Tripura from the Earliest Times to 1947 A.D.", Bureau of Research & Publications on Tripura.
* Bhattacharjee, P.R. (1994), "Economic Transition in Tripura" (Hardcover), Vikas Publishing House ISBN 978-0706971712
* Palit, P.K. (2004), "History of Religion in Tripura " (Hardcover) Kaveri Books ISBN 978-8174790644
* Debbarma, Chandramani (2006), "Glory of Tripura Civilisation" Parul Prakashani, Agartala

External links


*wikitravel
* [http://tripura.nic.in Official website of the government of Tripura.]
*dmoz|Regional/Asia/India/Tripura
* [http://53.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HI/HILL_TIPPERA.htm Tripura from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica]
* [http://ignca.nic.in/craft057.htm Introduction to Tripura by Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts (IGNCA)]
* [http://www.tripurasociety.org Tripura Society's website]
* [http://www.twipra.com/tprofile/default.asp Profile of Twipra (Tripura)]
* [http://www.tripura.org.in Tripuri Peoples' Website]
* [http://www.tripurauniversity.org/ A Cyber Joint for Tripura University Alumni]
* [http://indiarail.info/faq/7-faqs/19-indian-railways-history-from-1947-to-today.html Indian Railways History in North East of India]
* [http://www.tripurainfo.com Biggest News and Information Portal of Tripura]


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