:"For Polish place-names, see
The Lugii, Lugi, Lygii, Ligii, Lugiones, Lygians, Ligians, Lugians, or Lougoi were a tribe of Indo-European origin. They lived in ca. 400 BC–300 AD in Central Europe, north of the
Sudetesmountains in the basin of upper Odra and Vistularivers, covering most of modern south and middle Poland(regions of Silesia, Greater Poland, Mazoviaand Little Poland). Most of archaeologists identify the Lugians with the Przeworsk culture. The source of their power was control of the most important middle part of the Amber Roadfrom Sambiaat the Baltic Seato the provinces of Roman Empire: Pannonia, Noricumand Raetia. An unrelated tribe of the same name, usually spelled as "Lugi", inhabited the southern part of Sutherlandin Scotland.
Tacitus("Germania" 43:3) the Lugii were divided into many tribes ('civitates'), of which he mentions the five most powerful: Harii, Helveconae, Manimi, Helisiiand Naharvali. Claudius Ptolemeus mentions the Lugi Omani, the Lugi Diduni and the Lugi Buri located on or near the upper Vistula in Germania Magna in what is now south Poland (Book 2, Chapter 10, 4th map of Europe). The forms of the names imply that the Lugii of that time were divided into the Omani, the Diduni and the Buri. In Tacitus the Buri are a separate tribe, so it's possible that they entered the Lugian federation a bit later.
The Lugian federation was probably formed long before it was first recorded, in the works of
According to Strabo the Lugians were 'a great people' and—together with other peoples like
Semnonesand the otherwise unknown Zumi, Butones, Mugilones and Sibini—were part of a federation subjected to the rule of Marbod, ruler of the Marcomanniwith their centre in modern Bohemia 9 BC–19 AD. The next mention of Lugii are the times of the Roman emperor Claudius( 41– 54). According to the Tacitus's Annales, in 50'a great multitude' of Lugians allied with Romans took part in the fall of the Wanniusstate of Quadi, located in present Moravia– Slovakia.
The next information about the Lugians comes from Cassius Dio's work "Roman History", in which he mentions events of
91– 92during the reign of emperor Domitian. The Lugii allied themselves with the Romans and asked them for help against their western neighbours, the Germanic Suebitribe. Domitian sent 100 horsemen to support the Lugians. It is not known if these horsemen really arrived at their destination; if they did, it would be the first recorded presence of Roman soldiers on what is now Polish soil.
Polish records confirm alliance with Romans. [
Chronica seu originale regum et principum Poloniae; by Wincenty Kadlubek; 1190]
The Buri, who according to Ptolemy were part of the Lugians, took an important role during the
Marcomannic Wars( 166– 180): the Romans were forced to organize a separate military campaign against them called 'Expeditio Burica' in 182-183 during the reign of emperor Commodus
The later history of the Lugians is uncertain, but some historians assume that the Lugians can be indentified with the 'Longiones' tribe mentioned in
Zosimus's "New History" ("Historia Nova"), as being defeated by the Emperor Probusin year 279in the province of Raetianear the Lygis river (usually identified with Lech riverin modern Austriaand Bavaria). Another mention might be a great people of 'Lupiones-Sarmatae' shown on a Latin map Tabula Peutingerianagenerally dated to 2nd-4th century AD.
Ethnic background disputed
The ethnic afilition was subject of auto/allochtonic debate between German and mostly Polish historians. The word "Lugi" may be a spelling for Slavonic "лю΄дїе", meaning "people". In modern Serbian, the word "луг" means "small forest". Thus the word "Lugii" could indicate "forest people".
Serbshave many versions of this word in use today, and all relate to forest, wood and swamp land.
Ancient writers associated them with Germans [
De origine et situ Germanorum; by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus; 98] . Others claim that they were a compound tribe, or confederation of tribes of different ethnicity. Most scholars though agree that they could perhaps consist of a mixture of the two groups.
There is a possibility that the Lusatian
Sorbs, whose land in their own language and in Polish bears the name "Łużyce", adjective"łużycki", are among their descendants. The term "Łużyce/łużycki" is probably akin to Lugii.Other derivative names from the same region recorded in historical sources: (the Latin/Italian 'g' sounding like 'dz' in other systems)
* Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ Πορφυρογέννητος litzike, linzike, lenzeninov or lenzaniniov
* Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn al-Masudi "landzaneh"'
* Nestor: "Вълхѡ´мъ бо наше´дшемъ на словѣ´ни на дуна´искїя, и҄ сѣ´дшемъ въ ни´хъ и҄ насилѩ´щемъ и҆´мъ, словѣ´ни же о҆´ви прише´дше сѣдо´шѫ на Ви´слѣ, и҄ прозва´шѫсѩ ля´хове, а҆ ѡ҆тъ тѣ´хъ ля´ховъ прозва´шѫсѩ поля´не, ля´хове друзї´и лути´чи, и҆´ни мазовша´не, и҆´ни поморя´не."
* Hungarian common word Lengyel
* The racial slur for Lithuanians;
Luganpossibly comes from this word.
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