Simple Magnetic Overunity Toy

Perpetual motion machine

caption=Emil T. Hartman's patent diagram.
name=Simple Magnetic Overunity Toy
topics=physics and mechanical engineering
claims= Magnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy in a process that allows the cycle to be repeated without the application of outside energy.
origyear= 1985
origprop=Greg Watson
lawviolation=First law of thermodynamics

The Simple Magnetic Overunity Toy (SMOT) is 1985 invention by Greg Watson from Australia that claims to show "over-unity" energy — a route to purported perpetual motion.


In the theoretical SMOT design, a steel ball is pulled up a ramp by an array of permanent magnets. At the top of the ramp it falls, converting magnetic attraction into kinetic energy. A SMOT-like structure is shown in Emil T. Hartman's patent. [Hartman, Emil T., "US patent|4215330". USPTO.] Watson claims that a mechanism called "regauging" happens that allows the cycle to be repeated without the application of outside energy.Fact|date=May 2007

Perpetual Motion/Overunity has never been achieved with a SMOT. While it has been demonstrated that the ball can be cycled from the starting point of one SMOT to the starting point of a second SMOT (and third and fourth) [] nobody has yet cycled the ball back to the first SMOT, which would allow the system to run almost indefinitely (at least, until the magnets, ball or track wore out)


The SMOT consists of a non-metallic inclined plane, a series of permanent magnets, a steel ball and a non-metallic track. Some version have a pair of long bar magnets in place of the series of permanent magnets. The inclined plane has a very low grade, but still enough to provide a gain in height.

The track is positioned so that it is directly in the centre of the inclined plane. Usually, the surface of the track is almost flush with the inclined plane's surface. The two permanent magnets are long bar magnets, polarized with their poles being at the long side, that are placed almost parallel to the track, but the poles nearest to the top of the inclined plane are closer to the track than they are at the bottom. The SMOT works because the magnetic field is stronger when the magnets are closer to the steel ball and each other, and since the net force is towards the top of the ramp, the motion of the ball is also that direction, making the ball move up the track. This is why it is imperative that the magnets are constantly getting closer to the ball, in order to create a net force upwards. The track serves to keep the ball away from the magnets. If the track is not constructed carefully a slight imbalance can send the steel ball off of the track into one of the magnets.

Analysis of operation

The device converts potential energy in the form of the steel ball's distance from the magnetic source to kinetic energy as it rolls towards it - just as is done by any object when it falls. There has been no evidence of any additional energy beyond the initial potential energy.

External articles and references


;Physical views
* Simanek, Donald E., " [ Testing a SMOT] ". LHUP, June 23 2004.

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