Bulgarian Empire

"Bulgarian Empire" ( _bg. Българско царство, "Balgarsko tsarstvo" IPA| [ˈbɤl.gɐr.skʊ ˈʦar.stvʊ] ) is a term used to describe two periods in the medieval history of Bulgaria, during which it acted as a key regional power in Europe in general and in Southeastern Europe in particular, often rivalling Byzantium. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory.

First Bulgarian Empire

The First Bulgarian Empire was established as a result of an expansion of Old Great Bulgaria to the territory south of Danube River, and is usually described as having lasted between 681 (when its existence was acknowledged by Byzantium by means of a peace treaty) and 1018, when it was subjugated by the Byzantine Empire despite Samuil's fierce resistance. It gradually reached its cultural and territorial apogee in the 9th century and early 10th century under Boris I and Simeon the Great, when it developed into the cultural and literary centre of Slavic Europe, as well as one of the largest states in Europe.

econd Bulgarian Empire

The medieval Bulgarian state was restored as the Second Bulgarian Empire after a successful uprising of two nobles from Tarnovo, Asen and Peter, in 1185, and existed until it was conquered during the Ottoman invasion of the Balkans in the late 14th century, with the date of its subjugation usually given as 1396 or 1422. Under Ivan Asen II in the first half of the 13th century it gradually recovered much of its former power, though this did not last long due to internal problems and foreign invasions.

In 1878 the Bulgarian state was restored as the Ottoman vassal Principality of Bulgaria. The independence of Bulgaria and its promotion to a Kingdom of Bulgaria was recognized by the Ottomans in 1908.


ee also

*First Bulgarian Empire
*Second Bulgarian Empire


* cite book
last = Zlatarski
first = Vasil N.
authorlink = Vasil Zlatarski
title = Medieval History of the Bulgarian State
publisher = Science and Arts Publishers, 2nd Edition (Petar Petrov, Ed.), Zahari Stoyanov Publishers, 4th Edition, 2006
year = 1918
location = Sofia
language = Bulgarian
isbn = 9547366284

* cite book
last = Бакалов
first = Георги
coauthors = Милен Куманов
title = Електронна издание – История на България
publisher = Труд, Сирма
year = 2003
location = София
id =
isbn = 9844830679

* cite book
title = История и цивилизация за 11. клас
last = Делев
first = Петър
coauthors = Валери Кацунов, Пламен Митев, Евгения Калинова, Искра Баева, Боян Добрев
year = 2006
language = Bulgarian
publisher = Труд, Сирма

* cite book
url = http://www.mfa.government.bg/history_of_Bulgaria/
title = Българите и България
publisher = Министерство на външните работи на България, Труд, Сирма
year = 2005
language = Bulgarian

* cite book
last = Fine, Jr.
first = John V.A.
year = 1991
title = The Early Medieval Balkans
publisher = University of Michigan Press
location = Ann Arbor
id = ISBN 978-0472081493

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