"This article is about the Malaysian state. For the computer scientist, see Alan Perlis."Subdivisions of Malaysia
native_name= ﭬﺮليس دارالسنة‎
conventional_long_name=Perlis Darul Sunnah

state_anthem="Amin amin ya Rabaljalil"

ruling_party=Barisan Nasional
leader_name1=Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin
leader_title2=Menteri Besar
leader_name2=Datuk Seri Dr Md Isa Sabu

Perlis in full "Perlis Darul Sunnah" (Jawi ﭬﺮليس دارالسنة‎‎) ("Abode of trodden path") [ Jabatan Penerangan Malaysia] ] , is the smallest state in Malaysia. It lies at the northern part of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and has Satun and Songkhla Provinces of Thailand on its northern border.

Perlis has a population of 210,000. The ethnic composition for the year 2000 in Perlis was: Malay (174,805 or 79.74%), Chinese (21,058 or 9.6%), Indian (2,658 or 1.21%) and others (20,690 or 9.45%).

The capital of Perlis is Kangar and the royal capital is Arau. Another important town is Padang Besar, at the Malaysian-Thailand border. The main port is the small village of Kuala Perlis, linking mostly to Langkawi Island. Perlis has a snake farm and Gua Kelam as tourist attractions, as well as the small yet beautiful Perlis State Park.


Perlis was originally part of Kedah, although it occasionally came under rule by Siam or Aceh. After the Siamese conquered Kedah in 1821, the British felt their interests in Perak to be threatened. This resulted in the 1826 Burney and Low Treaties formalising relations between the two Malay states and Siam, their nominal overlord. In the Burney Treaty, the exiled Kedah sultan Ahmad Tajuddin was not restored to his throne. Sultan Ahmad and his armed supporters then fought unsuccessfully for his restoration over twelve years (1830-1842).

In 1842, the Sultan finally agreed to accept Siamese terms, and was restored to his throne of Kedah. However, Siam separated Perlis into a separate principality directly vassal to Bangkok. Syed Hussain Jamalulail, the paternal grandson of a Hadhrami Arab immigrant and maternal grandson of the Sultan of Kedah, became the first Raja of Perlis. [cite book|title=Power Hadhrami Traders, Scholars, and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s
author=Ulrike Freitag, W. G. Clarence-Smith|publisher=BRILL|pages=85-7|year=1997|isbn=9004107711
] His descendants still rule Perlis, but as rajas, instead of as sultans.

As with Kedah, the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 forced Siam to relinquish its southern Malay vassal states to Great Britain. The British installed a Resident in the Perlis royal capital of Arau. Perlis was returned to Siam by the Japanese in World War II as a reward for Siam's alliance with Japan, but this brief annexation ended with the Japanese surrender. After World War II, Perlis returned to British rule until it became part of the Malayan Union, then Federation of Malaya in 1957 and lastly Federation of Malaysia in 1963.

Since 2000, the Raja or hereditary monarch has been Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin. He was the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia from 2001 to 2006. Tuanku Syed Faizuddin Putra was the Regent of Perlis during the five-year period when Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin was Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Chief Executive or "Menteri Besar" is Datuk Seri Dr Md Isa Sabu of Barisan Nasional.

In recent years, the state government's conservative Islamic policies on numerous social issues have created controversy.


The state economy is dominated by agriculture, with rice, sugar and fruits predominating. Forestry and fishery is also important, and the state is making efforts to attract small and medium scale manufacturing industries.During the Japanese occupation of Malaya, the raja of Perlis was Syed Hamzah Jamalullail but the Siamese Government also appointed their own Governor in Perlis by the name of Udom Boonyaprasop.The Japanese lost the War and the British returned as colonialists again and decided to replace Raja Syed Hamzah with Syed Putra Jamalullail who reigned over the smallest State in Malaya and later Malaysia both in terms of size, revenue and population.

ee also

*2005 Malaysian haze
*Breakdown of State Seats Representatives elected 2008"


External links

* [ Official Perlis State Government web site]
* [ Web site of His Majesty, the Raja of Perlis]
* [ Perlis caves and tin mines]
* [ Perlis page on the official portal of the ministry of tourism malaysia]

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