The term sin-eater refers to a person who, through ritual means, would take on by means of food and drink the
sins of a deceased person, thus absolving his or her soul and allowing that person to rest in peace. In the study of folkloresin-eating is considered a form of religious magic.
This practice was said to have been practiced in parts of
Englandand Scotland, and allegedly survived until modern times in Wales. Traditionally, it is performed by a beggar and certain villages maintained their own sin-eaters. They would be brought to the dying person's bedside, where a relative would place a crust of bread on the breast of the dying and pass a bowl of ale to him over the corpse. After praying or reciting the ritual, he would then drink and remove the bread from the breast and eat it, the act of which would remove the sin from the dying person and take it into himself.Fact|date=February 2007
Although the figure of the sin-eater has had various references in modern culture, the questions of how common the practice was, what regions of the world in which it was most common, and what the interactions between sin-eaters, common people, and religious authorities were, remain largely unstudied and in the realm of folklore.
Tlazolteotl, the Aztec goddess of earth, motherhood and fertility, had a redemptive role in the religious practices of the Meso-Americancivilization. At the end of an individual's life, he was allowed to confess his misdeeds to this deity, and according to legend she would cleanse his soul by "eating its filth". [ [http://www.pantheon.org/articles/t/tlazolteotl.html "Encyclopedia Mythica": "Tlazolteotla", by Micha F. Lindemans] ]
A local legend in
Shropshire, England, concerns the grave of Richard Munslow, said to be the last sin-eater of the area:
"By eating bread and drinking ale, and by making a short speech at the graveside, the sin-eater took upon themselves the sins of the deceased". The speech was written as: "I give easement and rest now to thee, dear man. Come not down the lanes or in our meadows. And for thy peace I pawn my own soul. Amen". [ [http://www.shropshiregallery.co.uk/towns/ratlinghope/ratlinghope.html The Sin Eaters' Grave at Ratlinghope] ]
The 1926 book "Funeral Customs" by
Bertram S. Pucklementions the sin-eater:
"Professor Evans of the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen, actually saw a sin-eater about the year 1825, who was then living near Llanwenog,Howlett mentions sin-eating as an old custom in
Cardiganshire. Abhorred by the superstitious villagers as a thing unclean, the sin-eater cut himself off from all social intercourse with his fellow creatures by reason of the life he had chosen; he lived as a rule in a remote place by himself, and those who chanced to meet him avoided him as they would a leper. This unfortunate was held to be the associate of evil spirits, and given to witchcraft, incantations and unholy practices; only when a death took place did they seek him out, and when his purpose was accomplished they burned the wooden bowl and platter from which he had eaten the food handed across, or placed on the corpse for his consumption". [http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/fcod/fcod07.htm SacredTexts.com: Food] ] Hereford, and thus describes the practice: 'The corpse being taken out of the house, and laid on a bier, a loaf of bread was given to the sin-eater over the corpse, also a maga-bowl of maple, full of beer. These consumed, a fee of sixpence was given him for the consideration of his taking upon himself the sins of the deceased, who, thus freed, would not walk after death.'"
A cached page of a LoveToKnow Project, a reference project based on the 1911 "
Encyclopaedia Britannica", states:
"A symbolic survival of it ("sin eating") was witnessed as recently as 1893 at Market Drayton,
Shropshire. After a preliminary service had been held over the coffin in the house, a woman poured out a glass of wine for each bearer and handed it to him across the coffin with a 'funeral biscuit.' In Upper Bavariasin-eating still survives: a corpse cake is placed on the breast of the dead and then eaten by the nearest relative, while in the Balkan peninsulaa small bread image of the deceased is made and eaten by the survivors of the family. The Dutch doed-koecks or ' dead-cakes', marked with the initials of the deceased, introduced into America in the 17th century, were long given to the attendants at funerals in old New York. The 'burial-cakes' which are still made in parts of rural England, for example Lincolnshireand Cumberland, are almost certainly a relic of sin-eating". [ [http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Main_Page 1911 "Encyclopaedia Britannica"] ]
In the media
*"The Sin-Eater and Other Tales" (1895) by Fiona Mac Leod (pseudonym of William Sharp).
*The 1926 book "Funeral Customs" by
Bertram S. Puckleis one of the earliest known print references to the "sin-eater": "it was the province of the human scapegoat to take upon himself the moral trespasses of his client--and whatever the consequences might be in the after life — in return for a miserable fee and a scanty meal".
*"The Sin Eater" is the title of Alice Thomas Ellis' first novel, published in 1977.
*"The Sin Eater" is also the title of a short story by
*A sin-eater is a suspect and part of a ritualistic game featured in
Alex Kava's "A Necessary Evil."
The Last Sin Eater" is the title of a novel by Francine Rivers, published in 1998.
*One of the characters in
Patrick O'Brian's Aubrey-Maturin series, Cheslin, (waister-starboard watch), was discovered by the crew to have been a sin-eater. He was expelled by his mess, not allowed to eat or sleep near them. Dr. Maturin treated him in sick-bay with the intention of making him his loblolly boy. The character appears in "Master & Commander," the first book in the series:
*In the "
Outlanders" series by Mark Ellis (writing as James Axler), "Sin-Eater" is the name of the signature weapon used by the fearsome Magistrate Divisions.
*"Sin Eater: A Ministry of Suffering", by Isaac DeLuca, purports to be a modern manual teaching people how to become sin-eaters.
The Iron Dragon's Daughter", a 1993 novel by Michael Swanwick, includes a boy who acts as a sin-eater for the faerieequivalent of a homecoming queen.
*"The Sin-Eater of the Kaw" is a short story by
Bradley Denton, published in the June 1989 issue of "The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction". A homeless person in the 20th century is depicted as a sin eater.
* "Sineater" was the title of a Bram Stoker award-winning novel by author Elizabeth Massie, about a sineater's family in a rural Southern town.
* The novel "A Breath of Snow and Ashes" by
Diana Gabaldondescribes a sin-eater within a Scottish settler community in 18th Century North Carolina.
* 'The Sin Eater' is a short story in "Sugar Among the Freaks", a collection of short stories set in Mississippi by Lewis Nordan.
* Mary Webb's novel "Precious Bane" set in rural 19th century Shropshire contains a scene in which Gideon Sarn becomes the Sin eater for his father.
*"The Ballad Of The Sin Eater" is a song by
Ted Leo and the Pharmacists. "The Sin Eaters" was also the name of an early musical project featuring Ted Leoand his brother, Danny Leo.
*"Sin Eater" is a song originally under the
God's Robotsside project of Nathan Bennett of PXLand Ryan Speck of SSMODKdd
Film and television
*An episode of
Rod Serling's television show Night Galleryentitled "Sins of the Father" concerns a dying sin-eater and his wife tricking their son into eating his father's sins.
*The 2003 film "The Order" (titled "The Sin Eater" in some areas) starring
Heath Ledgerand Shannyn Sossamonuses the concept of sin-eating as the one of its central plot devices.
*The 2004 near-future
science fictionfilm "The Final Cut" draws parallels between sin-eaters and the film's "cutter" (played by Robin Williams), who edits crimes and other "sins" out of the footage from implanted cameras in the bodies of the recently deceased to create a happy feature-length film for the funeral. The effect on the "cutter", however, is depression from the mental burden of "swallowing" the footage of so many sins.
* The 2007 film "The Last Sin Eater " [ [http://www.foxfaithmovies.com/thelastsineater/ "The Sin Eater" (2007)] (official site)] , based on the novel by
*The 1979 made-for-TV movie [http://imdb.com/title/tt0079339/ "The Incredible Journey of Doctor Meg Laurel"] starring
Lindsay Wagnerincluded a Sin Eater in the plot.
*In the 1970's "
Ryan's Daughter" depicted a classic sin eating scene with Sir John Mills as the Sin Eater.
*"Sin-Eater" has been used as the name of several
Marvel Comicsvillains, one of whom was prominently featured in the Spider-Manstoryline " The Death of Jean DeWolff".
*An unrelated Marvel Comics "Sin-Eater" was a
preacherwho captured the souls of his parishioners and held them in a Soul Crystal. He was revealed to be a henchman of Centurious, a soulless man with a grudge against the Johnny BlazeGhost Rider.
Carla Speed McNeil's comic book"Finder", an aboriginal science fictionseries that incorporates many diverse cultural practices, a major character is a reluctant Sin Eater of the Ascian people. "Sin Eater" is the title of the first story arc, spanning two volumes.
DC Comicsseries "The Doom Patrol", "The Sin-Eater" is the name of one of Crazy Jane's personalities.
*A Sin-Eater is a summon in the
MMORPG video game" Lineage II"
*The tattooed priestess in the
video game"" undergoes somewhat of a sin-eating process as the pain of others would be transferred to the priestess in the form of snake and holly tattoos.
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/etc/fcod/index.htm Online Book: "Funeral Customs" by Bertram S. Puckle at Sacred-Texts.com]
* [http://www.symbiote.fr/spectacular108.php Sin-eater in Spectacular Spider-Man #108]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Sin eater — Sin Sin, n. [OE. sinne, AS. synn, syn; akin to D. zonde, OS. sundia, OHG. sunta, G. s[ u]nde, Icel., Dan. & Sw. synd, L. sons, sontis, guilty, perhaps originally from the p. pr. of the verb signifying, to be, and meaning, the one who it is. Cf.… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Sin Eater — Filmdaten Deutscher Titel Sin Eater – Die Seele des Bösen Originaltitel The Order … Deutsch Wikipedia
sin-eater — ˈ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷ ̷ ̷ noun : a person formerly hired to assume the sins of a dead person by eating food placed near the corpse * * * sinˈ eater noun (historical) A person who by eating bread and salt at a funeral was supposed to take upon himself the… … Useful english dictionary
sin-eater — noun A person (usually a man) who is supposed to take sins of a deceased person upon himself by means of eating a piece of bread, laid for him on the breast of the dead one. See Also: sin eating … Wiktionary
sin eater — noun A person (usually a man) who is supposed to take sins of a deceased person upon himself by means of eating a piece of bread, laid for him on the breast of the dead one. See Also: sin eating … Wiktionary
Sin Eater — A person who takes upon himself the sins of a dead person by eating food placed upon the breast of the corpse. This allows the dead persons soul to go to heaven … The writer's dictionary of science fiction, fantasy, horror and mythology
Sin-Eater (comics) — Sin Eater Publication information Publisher Marvel Comics Fir … Wikipedia
Sin Eater - Die Seele des Bösen — Filmdaten Deutscher Titel: Sin Eater – Die Seele des Bösen Originaltitel: The Order Produktionsland: USA Erscheinungsjahr: 2003 Länge: 102 Minuten Originalsprache: Englisch … Deutsch Wikipedia
Sin Eater – Die Seele des Bösen — Filmdaten Deutscher Titel: Sin Eater – Die Seele des Bösen Originaltitel: The Order Produktionsland: USA Erscheinungsjahr: 2003 Länge: 102 Minuten Originalsprache: Englisch … Deutsch Wikipedia
The Last Sin Eater (film) — Infobox Film name = The Last Sin Eater image size = 175 caption = US Poster for The Last Sin Eater director = Michael Landon Jr. producer = Brian Bird Michael Landon Jr. writer = Novel: Francine Rivers Screenplay: Brian Bird Michael Landon Jr.… … Wikipedia