Broughton, Greater Manchester


Broughton, Greater Manchester

infobox UK place
country = England
map_type= Greater Manchester
latitude= 53.49842
longitude= -2.258561
official_name= Broughton
population=
metropolitan_borough= City of Salford
metropolitan_county= Greater Manchester
region= North West England
constituency_westminster=
post_town= SALFORD
postcode_district = M7
postcode_area= M
dial_code= 0161
os_grid_reference= SD828002
static_

static_image_caption=
london_distance=
Broughton is an inner city area of Salford, in Greater Manchester, England.

It is directly to the north of Manchester city centre and consists of Higher Broughton, Lower Broughton and Broughton Park.

Higher Broughton is about one and a half miles north of Manchester city centre on the A56 Bury New Road.

Lower Broughton is about one mile (1.6 km) northwest of Manchester city centre. It lies on the north bank of the River Irwell which separates it from the Blackfriars area of Salford. Currently it is a deprived inner city neighbourhood with the resultant problems of crime and poverty, although during 2005/6 there has been plenty of government money made available to improve the area. The area is seen to be the next place ripe for commuters to live, due to its proximity to Manchester city centre.

Broughton Park is to the north of Higher Broughton and to the south of Prestwich about three miles (5 km) north of Manchester city centre. It is a very wealthy, leafy neighbourhood with large detached houses. It is home to a large Jewish community. Broughton Park is home to the Machzikei Hadath Jewish community, whose spiritual leader is Rabbi Mendel Schneebalg. Other Jewish communities include the Horodenka Shul with the Horodenker Rebbe, Rabbi Yitschok Arye Weiss at its head.

More recently, significant numbers of people from Africa and Eastern Europe have settled in the area. The shop sign "Polski Sklep" (polish shop) is to be found in several local streets. Great Clowes Street, with many multiple occupancy buildings, is turning into a polish enclave. Community relations seem to be good for the most part.

Much of Broughton can maybe be considered as somewhat deprived inner city with its attendant problems of crime and poverty, particularly in Lower Broughton. Community spirit is quite strong for an inner city area, across the population as a whole, and it remains very much a centre of jewish life, despite any new developments. However, much redevelopment is now taking place in the area, particularly on the border with Lower and Higher Broughton, in a newly designated area called New Broughton. Also in this area, opposite Albert Park, there is an upmarket housing development offering a mixture of town houses and flats. This is being built by Godliman and Watson of nearby Prestwich and is their first venture in the inner city. Some of the flats are available on a shared ownership basis aimed at first time buyers and key workers. Such developments are bringing new people into the area, who would not have considered this district just a few years ago.

Albert Park

Albert Park is a public park off Great Clowes Street on the borders of Higher and Lower Broughton. Albert Park, named in commemoration of the husband of Queen Victoria, today features a Multi Use Games Area, Bowling Green, all weather sports Pitch, children’s play area, Informal five a side pitch as well as paths, shrubs and planting with many established trees. Albert Park was opened in 1877 and was described as “16 acres of terraced walkways making it possible to walk convert|5|mi|km around the park without traversing the same ground twice”. Albert Park originally featured a two acre lake which was filled in the late 1940s.

History

Some neolithic implements and other pre-Roman remains have been found in Broughton. The Roman Road from Manchester to Ribchester passed through the area and Roman coins have also been found. see [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41408'Townships: Broughton', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. pp. 217-222.] Retrieved: 2007-11-12]

The township of Broughton dates back to 1177 when it was known as Burton, bounded mainly by the winding Irwell. To the west of this township, close to a ford across the Irwell, lay the hamlet of Broughton. The Manor of Broughton was formerly an ancient demesne of the honour of Lancaster, being a member of the Royal Manor of Salford. It descended through various families and in 1578 was bought by Henry, Earl of Derby.

In the 17th century Broughton was still regarded as a member or hamlet of Salford and the area around what is now called “The Priory” at the northern end of Lower Broughton Road was a picturesque hamlet with a spring, known as "Broughton Spout". This was home to the amateur astronomer and mathematician William Crabtree. Crabtree’s friend and correspondent Jeremiah Horrocks had correctly predicted the 1639 transit of Venus across the Sun and Crabtree and Horrocks were the first astronomers to observe and record this event on the 24th of November of that year. The two correspondents both recorded the event in their own homes and may never actually have met, but Crabtree's calculations were crucial in allowing Horrocks to estimate the size of Venus and the distance from the Earth to the Sun. The recording of the event is now seen by many as the birth of modern astronomy in Britain. [ [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1046/j.1468-4004.2003.45526.x Chapman, A. Horrocks, Crabtree and the 1639 Transit of Venus] ] [ [http://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~ipswich/Observations/ToV/Horrocks.htm Goward, K. Jeremiah Horrocks And The Transit of Venus]

] In June 2004 a commemorative street nameplate in memory of William Crabtree was unveiled at the junction of Lower Broughton Road and Priory Grove. This site marks the location that is thought most likely to have been the home of Crabtree and his family at the time when he was collaborating with Horrocks. [ [http://www.salford.gov.uk/living/yourcom/salfordlife/aboutsalford/salfordlocalhistory/venustransit.htm Salford.go.uk local history] ] A commemorative plaque was erected in 2005 a few yards away near Ivy Cottage, which is thought to be house from which Crabtree made his observations.

In 1772 the Manor of Broughton became the property of Mary, sister of Edward Cheetham of Nuthurst and Smedley who was married to Samuel Clowes. The manor then descended through the Clowes family to the Captain Henry Arthur Clowes. By 1801 the population of the township of Broughton with Kersal was 866. Much of the land was owned by the Clowes family of Broughton Old Hall and the Byroms of Kersal Cell, and was either farmed, or supported cottage industries such as spinning and weaving. Broughton Park, which stretched from Singleton Road to Broom Lane with Broughton Old Hall at the centre, was the estate of the Clowes Family The highlight of the year was the Kersal Moor Races held during Whit Week when the Kersal area became a giant fairground. Archery was also a popular sport for which the Broughton Archers were renowned countrywide. Broughton and Cheetham Hill in Regency and Victorian times by Monty Dobkin ISBN 1 85216 131 0]

During the nineteenth century the population rose rapidly with the Clowes family controlling the development of the area allowing the wealthy merchants to purchase large plots in Higher Broughton to build their mansions and some grand terraces. By the mid-19th century the majority of residents who lived in the area known as "the Cliff" were members of the professional classes but a number of merchants also resided there. The Cliff was one of the earliest residential suburbs for “commuters” into Manchester and Salford. [ [http://www.salford.gov.uk/living/planning/heritage-and-conservation/conservation/viewconservation/concliffe.htm Conservation area in Salford: The Cliff] Retrieved on 2008-02-29] A number of the houses built for them still stand today and are protected as listed buildings. In 1838 a zoological garden was built between Northumberland Street and Broom Lane. Businessmen from all over Europe and the Mediterranean established branches in Manchester close to the source of supply . In Higher Broughton by mid century there were many prosperous merchants from the Ottoman Empire who had settled around around Northumberland Street and by 1860 they had built a magnificent Greek Orthodox church on Bury new Road. Much of Lower Broughton was undeveloped at this time as it was prone to flooding and one of the few houses, built close to Broughton Bridge was called “Noah’s Ark" as it was built on an artificial mound to raise it above the level of the floods. In 1844 the township of Broughton-cum-Kersal was incorporated into the Salford Borough, despite much opposition from some of the more wealthy residents, who didn't wish to be associated with "the cotton of Manchester or the filth of Salford" even though their wealth had been made in those towns.

During the latter part of the century large numbers of terraced houses were built for the workers until eventually all of Lower Broughton was built upon. During the course of development of these areas the Clowes family kept tight control over the area to ensure that it remained “good class”. The land in Higher Broughton was sold in large plots for "villa" type properties and they restricted the number of public houses that could be built, and then only allowed beer to be sold and not spirits. By 1901 the population had grown to around 49,048.

During the twentieth century many of the large houses were divided up and rented out as flats, causing the area to become run down and neglected. Some of the fine Victorian terraces were demolished and replaced with modern housing. The Cliff was designated as a conservation area by Salford City Council in 1976. The designation now covers an area of 26.03 ha (64.42 acres) and has preserved the character of the area with its cobbled streets and many fine buildings. [ [http://www.salford.gov.uk/living/planning/heritage-and-conservation/conservation/viewconservation/concliffe.htm The Cliff - Salford City Council] ] [ [http://www.salford.gov.uk/living/planning/heritage-and-conservation/conservation/conservation-area-appraisals/the-cliff-conservation-area.htm The Cliff Conservation Area] ]

port

Broughton Rangers, founded in 1877, were a British rugby league team and founder members of the Northern Union in 1895. In 1946, they relocated and renamed themselves Belle Vue Rangers. This folded in 1955. They are now being reformed with the assistance of Salford City Reds.

The cliff in Higher Broughton was the training ground of English football club, Manchester United F.C. until 1999 [ [http://www.manutdzone.com/atoz/c.html Man Utd Zone: "The Cliff" (under "C")] Retrieved 5 August 2007] . The training ground still hosts some Manchester United junior and academy team matches

Regeneration

In the summer months of 2000, new gardens, fences, gates and porches had begun to be fitted to the local authority houses in Lower Broughton covering the whole of the area by 2006. The gardens were introduced to make the area look neater and more consistent. The council and its arms-length management company "New Prospect", had been working closely with tenants to make sure that their houses were up to standard so that they were good quality council houses. Crime levels have now reduced and the unemployment rate has decreased leading to higher demand for housing in Lower Broughton.

In 2005, it was announced that an area of housing near Camp Street in Lower Broughton would be demolished to make way for brand new houses. This is part of a wider regeneration project which will later extend to all council houses in the area. Regeneration has been taken on by Salix Homes and Countryside Properties and is planned to be completed by 2014.

Another regeneration project, in Higher Broughton, is known as [http://www.broughtongreen.co.uk/ Broughton Green] . Brentnall Primary School, on the corner of Broom Lane and Bury New Road, was demolished as part of this scheme. This School was on the site of a large detached house in its own grounds called Bella Vista. At the time, it had commanding views over The Cliff, looking out toward the Crescent. It was built by a Greek merchant to represent his status in the community. Part of the house burned down, leaving the owner in conflict with the authorities over land tax due, but unpaid on the damaged part of the building. The house was taken by the local authority eventually and became Broughton Grammar School for Girls before it was demolished to make way for Brentnall Primary School. The only evidence of the original house were the gates, now, sadly demolished.

Notable residents

Famous people from Broughton include :

* Astronomer, mathematician and merchant William Crabtree (1610-1644) who was one of the two astronomers, who in 1639 were the first to observe, plot and record a transit of the planet Venus across the Sun.
* Jodrell Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy D. M. S. Watson (1886-1973)
* Cricketer William Hickton (1884-1942)
* Singer Elkie Brooks – born Elaine Bookbinder in 1945, from Cavendish Road (now Kersal,Salford).
* Playwright/director Mike Leigh OBE, from Higher Broughton.
* Playwright Shelagh Delaney (best known for A Taste of Honey).
* Folk singer/writer Ewan MacColl (best known for "Dirty Old Town" and "The First Time Ever I Saw Your Face"), attended North Grecian Street Primary School.
* Actress Liz Dawn MBE best known for her role as Vera Duckworth in the long running British soap opera, Coronation Street lived in Broughton Park for many years.
* Mark E Smith, singer with The Fall, originally from The Cliff.
* Bernard Sumner, vocalist, guitarist and keyboardist with Joy Division and New Order, from Lower Broughton.
* Graham Gouldman, songwriter and bass player/singer with 10cc, from Broughton Park.
* In the 1960s and early 70's Sir Jimmy Savile The DJ and television presenter, lived for a number of years at 301 Great Clowes Street and later at 103 Ascot Court in Higher Broughton
* Again, in the 1960's and 1970's, Patricia Phoenix (best known as Pat Phoenix) (November 26, 1923 – September 18, 1986) was a British actress, best known for her Coronation Street character Elsie Tanner, lived at 23 Epsom Mews with Alan Browning.

References

Bibliography

Broughton and Cheetham Hill in Regency and Victorian times by Monty Dobkin Second Edition Published by Neil Richardson 1999 ISBN 1 85216 131 0

External links

* [http://www.salford.gov.uk/living/planning/heritage-and-conservation/conservation/conservation-area-appraisals/the-cliff-conservation-area.htm The Cliff Conservation Area]
* [http://www.albertpark.co.uk The Friends of Albert Park]


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