Infobox Military Conflict
caption=Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of
date=1217 - 1221
Damiettarelinquished to Crusaders
result= Eight year peace deal between Ayyubids and Europe
Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
casualties2=UnknownThe Fifth Crusade (
1217– 1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalemand the rest of the Holy Landby first conquering the powerful Ayyubidstate in Egypt. Pope Honorius IIIorganized crusading armies led by Leopold VI of Austriaand Andrew II of Hungary, and a foray against Jerusalemultimately left the city in Muslim hands. Later in 1218 a German army led by Oliver of Cologne and a mixed army of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers led by William I, Count of Hollandarrived. In order to attack Damiettain Egypt, they allied with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia, who attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts.
After occupying the port of Damietta, the Crusaders marched south towards
Cairoin July of 1221, but were turned back after their dwindling supplies led to a forced retreat. A nighttime attack by Sultan Al-Kamilresulted in a great number of crusader losses and eventually in the surrender of the army. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight-year peace agreement with Europe.
Call to Crusade
1213, Pope Innocent IIIissued the papal bull"Quia maior", calling all of Christendomto join a new crusade. The kings and emperors of Europe, however, were preoccupied with fighting among themselves. At the same time, Pope Innocent III did not want their help, because a previous crusade led by kings had failed in the past. He ordered processions, prayers, and preaching to help organize the crusade, as these would involve the general population, the lower nobles, and knights.
The message of the crusade was preached in
Franceby Robert of Courçon; however, unlike other Crusades, not many French knights joined, as they were already fighting the Albigensian Crusadeagainst the heretical Catharsect in southern France.
In 1215 Innocent III called the
Fourth Lateran Council, where, along with the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Raoul of Merencourt, he discussed the recovery of the Holy Land, among other church business. Innocent wanted this crusade to be under the full control of the papacy, as the First Crusadewas supposed to have been, in order to avoid the mistakes of the Fourth Crusade, which had been taken over by the Venetians. Innocent planned for the crusadersto meet at Brindisiin 1216, and prohibited trade with the Muslims to ensure that the crusaders would have ships and weapons. Every crusader would receive an indulgence, including those who simply helped pay the expenses of a crusader but did not go on crusade themselves.
Germany and Hungary
Oliver of Colognehad preached the crusade in Germany, and Emperor Frederick II attempted to join in 1215. Frederick was the last monarch Innocent wanted to join, as he had challenged the Papacy(and would do so in the years to come). Innocent, however, died in 1216. He was succeeded by Pope Honorius III, who barred Frederick from participating, but organized crusading armies led by king Andrew II of Hungaryand duke Leopold VI of Austria. Andrew II of Hungaryset up the largest royal army in the history of crusades (20,000 knights and 12,000 castle-garrisons).
They left for Acre in 1217, and joined
John of Brienne, ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Hugh I of Cyprus, and Prince Bohemund IV of Antiochto fight against the Ayyubids in Syria.
In Jerusalem, the walls and fortifications were demolished to prevent the Christians from being able to defend the city if they should reach it and take it. Muslims fled the city, afraid that there would be a repeat of the bloodbath of the
First Crusadein 1099. The Ayyubids, however, were not interested in fighting. Nothing came of this, and Andrew, Bohemund, and Hugh returned home in 1218.
Alliance with the Sultanate of Rum
Later in 1218 Oliver of Cologne arrived with a new German army and the count of Holland William I arrived with a mixed army consisting of Dutch, Flemish and Frisian soldiers. With Leopold and John they discussed attacking
Damiettain Egypt. To accomplish this they allied with Keykavus I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rum in Anatolia, who attacked the Ayyubids in Syria in an attempt to free the Crusaders from fighting on two fronts.
In June of 1218 the crusaders began their siege of Damietta, and despite resistance from the unprepared sultan
Al-Adil, the tower outside the city was taken on August 25. They could not gain Damietta itself, and in the ensuing months diseases killed many of the crusaders, including Robert of Courcon. Al-Adil also died and was succeeded by Al-Kamil. Meanwhile, Honorius III sent Pelagius of Albanoto lead the crusade in 1219 . Al-Kamil tried to negotiate peace with the crusaders. He offered to trade Damiettafor Jerusalem, but Pelagius would not accept these offers. After hearing this Count William I of Holland left the crusade and sailed home. In August or September, Francis of Assisiarrived in the crusader camp and crossed over to preach to Al-Kamil. By November, the crusaders had worn out the sultan's forces, and were finally able to occupy the port.
Immediately the papal and secular powers fought for control of the town, with
John of Brienneclaiming it for himself in 1220 . Pelagius would not accept this and John returned to Acre later that year. Pelagius hoped Frederick II would arrive with a fresh army, but he never did; instead, after a year of inactivity in both Syria and Egypt, John of Brienne returned, and the crusaders marched south towards Cairoin July of 1221 .
By now Al-Kamil was able to ally with the other Ayyubids in Syria, who had defeated Keykavus I. The crusader march to
Cairowas disastrous; the river Nileflooded ahead of them, stopping the crusader advance. A dry canal that was previously crossed by the crusaders flooded, thus blocking the crusader army's retreat. With supplies dwindling, a forced retreat began, culminating in a night time attack by Al-Kamil which resulted in a great number of crusader losses and eventually in the surrender of the army under Pelagius.
The terms of this surrender meant the relinquishing of Damietta to Al-Kamil in exchange for the release of the crusaders. Al-Kamil agreed to an eight year peace agreement with Europe and to return a piece of the true cross (which, as it turned out, Al-Kamil didn't possess).
The failure of the Crusade caused an outpouring of anti-papal sentiment from the
Occitanpoet Guilhem Figueira. The more orthodox Gormonda de Monpeslierresponded to Figueira's "D'un sirventes far" with a song of her own, "Greu m'es a durar". Instead of blaming the Pelagius or the Papacy, she laid the blame on the "foolishness" of the wicked.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Fifth Crusade — noun a Crusade under papal control from 1218 to 1221 that achieved military victories but failed when dissension arose over accepting the terms they had been offered • Instance Hypernyms: ↑Crusade … Useful english dictionary
Crusade of 1101 — Part of the Crusades … Wikipedia
Crusade of 1197 — Part of the Crusades Date 1197 1198 Location the Levant Result Crusader victories followed by hasty … Wikipedia
Crusade of Varna — Date October 1443 November 1444 Location Balkans Result Ottoman victory Belli … Wikipedia
Crusade (TV series) — For the Brian Keith 1955 1956 CBS television series, see Crusader (TV series). Crusade Crusade series launch poster Format Science fiction Created by J. Michael Straczynski … Wikipedia
Crusade song — A Crusade song (Occitan: canson de crozada, Catalan: cançó de croada, German: Kreuzlied) is any vernacular lyric poem about the Crusades. Crusade songs were popular in the High Middle Ages: 106 survive in Occitan, forty in Old French, thirty in… … Wikipedia
Fifth Lateran Council — noun the council in 1512 1517 that published disciplinary decrees and planned (but did not carry out) a crusade against Turkey • Hypernyms: ↑Lateran Council … Useful english dictionary
Children's Crusade — a crusade to recover Jerusalem from the Saracens, undertaken in 1212 by thousands of French and German children who perished, were sold into slavery, or were turned back. * * * (1212) Religious movement in Europe in which thousands, including… … Universalium
Sixth Crusade — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Sixth Crusade partof=the Crusades caption=Frederick II (left) meets al Kamil (right). date=1228 1229 place=Cyprus, Near East territory= Jerusalem, Nazareth, Sidon, Jaffa, and Bethlehem relinquished to Crusaders … Wikipedia
Eighth Crusade — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Eighth Crusade partof=the Crusades caption=Tunis was the center of Crusader attack. date=1270 place=Tunisia territory= Status quo ante bellum result= Decisive Muslim victory. Death of Louis IX. Opening of trade… … Wikipedia