- Lee Atwater
Harvey Leroy "Lee" Atwater (
February 27, 1951– March 29, 1991) was an American political consultantand strategist to the Republican party. He was an advisor of U.S. Presidents Ronald Reaganand George H. W. Bush. He was also a political mentor and close friend of Republican strategist Karl Rove. Atwater invented or improved upon many of the techniques of modern electoral politics, including promulgating unflattering rumors and attempting to drive up opponents' "negative" poll numbers with the aggressive use of opposition research. He has been characterized as the "happy hatchet man" and " Darth Vader" of the Republican Party. [Huffington, Ariana. [http://archive.salon.com/politics/feature/2001/05/31/jeffords/index.html The Jeffords Affair] . Salon.com, May 31, 2001] In spite of criticisms of Atwater's tactics as unethical and dirty tricks, he was widely regarded as a near-brilliant political operative who helped candidates to win.
Atwater was also a musician. He briefly played backup guitar for
Percy Sledgeduring the 1960s and frequently played with bluesmen such as B.B. King. Atwater recorded an album with King and others on Curb Recordsin 1990 entitled " Red Hot & Blue". Allmusic: " [http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=10:wpfrxqw5ldse Red Hot & Blue: Lee Atwater & Friends] " Accessed 2008-05-23.] He once sat in with Paul Schaefferand his band on Late Night with David Letterman. His life is the subject of the feature-length documentary film "". [ [http://www.boogiemanfilm.com Boogie Man: The Lee Atwater Story] . Accessed 2008-05-23.]
Atwater was born in
Atlanta, Georgia, grew up in Aiken, South Carolina, and graduated from Newberry College, a small private Lutheraninstitution in Newberry, South Carolina.
Atwater rose during the 1970s and the 1980 election in the
South CarolinaRepublican party, working on the campaigns of Governor Carroll Campbelland segregationist Senator Strom Thurmond.During his years in South Carolina, Atwater became well known for running hard edged campaigns based on emotional "wedge issues".
Atwater's aggressive tactics were first demonstrated during the 1980 congressional campaigns. He was a campaign consultant to Republican incumbent
Floyd Spencein his campaign for Congress against Democratic nominee Tom Turnipseed. Atwater's tactics in that campaign included push polling in the form of fake surveys by "independent pollsters" to "inform" white suburbanites that Turnipseed was allegedly a member of the NAACP. [ [http://www.turnipseed.net/atwaterart.htm What Lee Atwater learned and the lesson for his protégés] , Washington Post, April 16, 1991, Page A19] Atwater also highlighted that Turnipseed had been "hooked up to jumper cables" as a teen undergoing electroshock therapy for depression.
After the 1980 election Atwater went to Washington and became an aide in the
Ronald Reaganadministration, working under political director Ed Rollins. During his years in Washington, Atwater became aligned with Vice President Bush, who chose Atwater to run his 1988 presidential campaign.
Atwater on the Southern Strategy
As a member of the Reagan administration in 1981, Atwater gave an anonymous interview to Political Scientist
Alexander P. Lamis. Part of this interview was printed in Lamis' book "The Two-Party South", then reprinted in "Southern Politics in the 1990s" with Atwater's name revealed. Bob Herbertreported on the interview in the October 6, 2005 edition of the " New York Times". Atwater talked about the GOP's Southern Strategyand Ronald Reagan's version of it:
"Atwater": As to the whole Southern strategy that
Harry Dentand others put together in 1968, opposition to the Voting Rights Actwould have been a central part of keeping the South. Now [the new Southern Strategy of Ronald Reagan] doesn’t have to do that. All you have to do to keep the South is for Reagan to run in place on the issues he’s campaigned on since 1964… and that’s fiscal conservatism, balancing the budget, cut taxes, you know, the whole cluster...
"Questioner": But the fact is, isn’t it, that Reagan does get to the Wallace voter and to the racist side of the Wallace voter by doing away with legal services, by cutting down on food stamps...?
"Atwater": You start out in 1954 by saying, “
Nigger, nigger, nigger.” By 1968 you can't say “nigger”—that hurts you. Backfires. So you say stuff like forced busing, states' rights and all that stuff. You're getting so abstract now [that] you're talking about cutting taxes, and all these things you're talking about are totally economic things and a byproduct of them is [that] blacks get hurt worse than whites.
And subconsciously maybe that is part of it. I'm not saying that. But I'm saying that if it is getting that abstract, and that coded, that we are doing away with the racial problem one way or the other. You follow me—because obviously sitting around saying, “We want to cut this,” is much more abstract than even the busing thing, and a hell of a lot more abstract than “Nigger, nigger.” [Lamis, Alexander P. et. al. (1990) "The Two Party South." Oxford University Press. See also Herbert, Frank (October 6, 2005) [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C04E6DF1E30F935A35753C1A9639C8B63 “Impossible, Ridiculous, Repugnant.”] "New York Times".]
Atwater's most noteworthy campaign was the 1988 presidential election, where he served as campaign manager for Republican nominee
George H.W. Bush. A particularly aggressive media program included a television advertisement produced by Floyd Brownrelated to the case of Willie Horton, a convicted murderer serving a life sentence in a Massachusetts prison who committed a rape while participating in a weekend furlough strongly supported by then-governor Michael Dukakisbut which had been created by the previous governor, a Republican. The Horton campaign undoubtedly helped George H.W. Bushovercome Dukakis's 17-percent lead in early public opinion polls and win both the electoral and popular vote. Although Atwater clearly approved of the use of the Willie Horton issue, the Bush campaign never ran any commercial with Horton's picture, instead running a similar but generic ad. The original commercial was produced by Americans for Bush, an independent group managed by Larry McCarthy, and the Republicans benefited from the coverage it attracted in the national news.
During the election, a number of allegations were made in the media about Dukakis's personal life, including the unsubstantiated claim that Dukakis's wife Kitty had burned an American flag to protest the
Vietnam War, and that Dukakis himself had been treated for a mental illness. While claims persist that Atwater initiated these reports, there has been no proof that he did so.
The 1988 Bush campaign overcame a seventeen point deficit in midsummer polls to win forty states. Atwater's skills in the 1988 election led one biographer to term him "the best campaign manager who ever lived."
During that campaign future president
George W. Bush, son of Vice President George H.W. Bush, took an office across the hall from Atwater's office, where his job was to serve as "the eyes and ears for my dad," monitoring the activities of Atwater and other campaign staff. In her memoir, Barbara Bush said that George W. and Atwater became friends.
After the election, Atwater was named chairman of the
Republican National Committee.
Shortly after Atwater took over the RNC,
Jim Wrightwas forced to resign as Speaker of the United States House of Representativesand was succeeded by Tom Foley. On the day Foley officially became speaker, the RNC began circulating a memo to Republican Congressmen and state party chairmen called "Tom Foley: Out of the Liberal Closet." The memo compared Foley's voting record with that of openly gay Congressman Barney Frank, with a subtle implication that Foley was himself gay. It had been crafted by RNC communications director Mark Goodin and House Minority Whip Newt Gingrich. In fact, Gingrich had been trying to get several reporters to print it.cite news |first=Margaret |last=Carlson |authorlink=Margaret Carlson |coauthors= |title=Getting Nasty |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1101890619-152038,00.html |work=Time |publisher= |date=1989-06-24 |accessdate=2008-05-28 ] The memo was harshly condemned on both sides of the aisle. Republican Senate leader Bob Dole, for instance, said in a speech on the Senate floor, "This is not politics. This is garbage."
Atwater initially defended the memo, calling it "no big deal" and "factually accurate." However, a few days later, he claimed he hadn't approved the memo. Under pressure from President Bush, Atwater fired Goodin, replacing him with B. Jay Cooper.
On March 5, 1990, Lee Atwater collapsed during a fundraising breakfast on behalf of Senator
Phil Gramm. [Oreskes, Michael [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEED91F3DF933A05750C0A967958260 Lee Atwater Dies at 40] New York Times March 31, 1991] Doctors searching for an explanation to what was initially thought to be a mere fainting episode discovered a grade 3 astrocytoma, an usually aggressive form of malignant neoplasm, in his right parietal lobe. [Brady, John [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/bckgrnd/atwater.htm I'm Still Lee Atwater] " Washington Post" December 1, 1996] Atwater underwent interstitial implant radiation, a then-new form of treatment, at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City, and received conventional radiation therapy at George Washington University Hospital in Washington, DC. Sidney Blumenthalhas speculated that, had Atwater lived, he would have run a stronger re-election campaign for Bush than the President's unsuccessful 1992 effort against Bill Clintonand Ross Perot. [ [http://www.newyorker.com/archive/1992/10/19/1992_10_19_040_TNY_CARDS_000361908 Sidney Blumenthal article in New Yorker] ]
Shortly before his death from a
brain tumor, Atwater said he had converted to Catholicism, through the help of Fr. John Hardon, S.J., [Thomas Aquinas College. [http://www.thomasaquinas.edu/news/newsletter/2001/winter/fr_hardon.htm In Memoriam: Fr. John Hardon, S.J.] . Accessed 2008-05-23. "His converts were many, including Lee Atwater, the feisty chairman of the Republican National Committee, to whom Fr. Hardon gave last sacraments when he was on his death bed with brain cancer in 1990."] and, in an act of repentance, Atwater issued a number of public and written letters to individuals to whom he had been opposed during his political career, including Dukakis. In a letter to Tom Turnipseed dated June 28, 1990, he stated, "It is very important to me that I let you know that out of everything that has happened in my career, one of the low points remains the so-called 'jumper cable' episode," adding, "my illness has taught me something about the nature of humanity, love, brotherhood and relationships that I never understood, and probably never would have. So, from that standpoint, there is some truth and good in everything." [Turnipseed, Tom. " [http://www.turnipseed.net/atwaterart.htm What Lee Atwater Learned and the Lesson for His Protégés] ," "Washington Post", April 16, 1991. Accessed 2008-05-23.]
In a February 1991 article for "
Life Magazine", Atwater wrote:
My illness helped me to see that what was missing in society is what was missing in me: a little heart, a lot of brotherhood. The '80s were about acquiring — acquiring wealth, power, prestige. I know. I acquired more wealth, power, and prestige than most. But you can acquire all you want and still feel empty. What power wouldn't I trade for a little more time with my family? What price wouldn't I pay for an evening with friends? It took a deadly illness to put me eye to eye with that truth, but it is a truth that the country, caught up in its ruthless ambitions and moral decay, can learn on my dime. I don't know who will lead us through the '90s, but they must be made to speak to this spiritual vacuum at the heart of American society, this tumor of the soul.
As a teenager in
Columbia, South Carolina, Atwater played guitarin a rock band, The Upsetters Revue. His special love was R&B music. Even at the height of his political power he would often play concerts in clubs and church basements, solo or with B.B. King, in the Washington, D.C. area. He released an album called "Red, Hot And Blue" on Curb Records, featuring Carla Thomas, Isaac Hayes, Sam Moore, Chuck Jackson, and B.B. King, who got co-billing with Atwater. Robert Hilburnwrote about the album in the April 5, 1990 issue of the " Los Angeles Times": "The most entertaining thing about this ensemble salute to spicy Memphis-style '50s and '60s R&B is the way it lets you surprise your friends. Play a selection such as 'Knock on Wood' or 'Bad Boy' for someone without identifying the singer, then watch their eyes bulge when you reveal that it's the controversial national chairman of the Republican Party…Lee Atwater."
List of notable brain tumor patients
Red Hot & Blue (restaurant)
* Brady, John (1997) "Bad Boy: The Life and Politics of Lee Atwater." Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Publishing Company.
*Lee Atwater and T. Brewster, "Lee Atwater's Last Campaign," "Life Magazine", February 1991, p. 67.
*Tom Turnipseed, " [http://www.turnipseed.net/atwaterart.htm What Lee Atwater Learned and the Lesson for His Protégés] ," "Washington Post", April 16, 1991, p. A19.
*John Joseph Brady, "Bad Boy: The Life and Politics of Lee Atwater" (1997), ISBN 0-201-62733-7.
*Alexander P. Lamis (editor), "Southern Politics in the 1990s" (1999), ISBN 0-8071-2374-9.
*Alexander P. Lamis, "The Two-Party South" (1990), ISBN 0-19-506579-4.
* [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/bckgrnd/atwater.htm I'm Still Lee Atwater, "Washington Post"]
* [http://robbaustin.com/index.cfm?action=archive&sub=article&art=24 Atwater's Star Still Shines Brightly, "www.robbaustin.com"]
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