The Jankó keyboard is a
musical keyboardlayout for a pianodesigned by Paul von Jankóin 1882. [cite book
title=Pianos and Their Makers
edition=(fulltext on Google Books link)
Based on the premise that the hand can barely stretch more than a 9th on the piano, and that all scales are fingered differently, Jankó's new keyboard had two interlocking 'manuals' with three touch-points for each key lever. Instead of the traditional row of white and black keys, the keyboard has an array of keys.
Each vertical column of keys is a semitone away from its neighboring columns, and on each horizontal row of keys the interval from one note to the next is a whole step. This key layout results in all chords and scales having the same "shape" on the keyboard with the same fingerings regardless of key, unlike a traditional keyboard.
For an 88 note (full size) keyboard, there would be 264 keys in total, with each note playable by 3 keys in vertical alignment. In the picture, the white keys have been coloured to show how the keys are interconnected.
At the time of its invention, the Jankó keyboard was hailed as revolutionary. Arthur Rubinstein said of the Jankó piano, "If I were to begin my career anew it would be on this keyboard."
Franz Lisztsaid "This invention will have replaced the present piano keyboard in fifty years' time!"
Despite Liszt's prediction and Rubinstein's endorsement, the Jankó keyboard never caught on, mainly because few were prepared to relearn their repertoire on a new unestablished keyboard with totally new fingering. Also, since cast-iron framed pianos were not very portable, Jankó pianos would not have been available for musicians on the move. It may have rivaled the traditional piano had it been invented at an earlier period when keyboards were more portable due to the lighter wooden frame, and when the traditional keyboard was not quite as favoured as it was after the romantic era.
Many embodiments of this keyboard have appeared since its conception. Jankó himself (in German patent 25852, dated 14 Jan 1884) originally chose a key shape which resembled the slim, black keys on the familiar piano keyboard. A year later (in German patent 32138, dated 1 Jul 1885) the keys became wider and shorter. Other inventors have filed patents for keyboards which are substantially similar to his design, differing most often in key shape or instrument to which those keyboards are affixed. (For example: Edgar [U.S. Patent 119335, 26 Sep 1871] , Cramer [U.S. Patent 152726, 7 Jul 1874] , McChesney [U.S. Patent 161086, 6 Apr 1875] , Stewart [U.S. Patent 497426, 19 Jan 1886] , Adams [U.S. Patent 682014, 3 Sep 1901] , Nordbö [U.S. Patent 1202882, 31 Oct 1916] , Barnett [U.S. Patent 1958227, 8 May 1934] , Reuther [U.S. Patent 2203393, 4 Jun 1940] , Firestone [U.S. Patent 2417639, 11 Jun 1945] , and Reuther [U.S. Patent 2557690, 5 Apr 1950] .)
* [http://www.pianoworld.com/fun/janko.htm Pianoworld article]
* [http://www.thecipher.com/wholetone_keyboard_cipher.html The Cipher for Whole Tone or Janko Chromatic Keyboard]
* [http://improvise.free.fr/janko.htm Intuitive instruments for improvisers Janko Keyboard]
* [http://squeezehead.com/uniform-keyboard/ The Uniform Keyboard]
* [http://www.engadget.com/2005/03/04/music-thing-the-chromatone-312/ The Chromatone 312]
* [http://www.robertinventor.com/software/tunesmithy/mouse_and_pc_keyboard_music.htm Mouse and PC Keyboard Music] (Windows program) - try out Janko layouts with PC keyboard (similar layout of keys) - any tuning for the keys.
* [http://www.myspace.com/sotorriokeyboard Bilinear Chromatic Keyboard Page]
* [http://bluethner.de/en/index.htm Blüthner] - Blüthner is willing to fit their grand pianos with a Janko keyboard.
* [http://www.wicki.org.uk Wicki.org.uk] , free UK site containing Java, Flash, and PC applications to enable users to play their alpha-numeric keyboard to sound 12 equal tempered pitches using Wicki/Janko layout.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
janko keyboard — ˈyäŋ(ˌ)kō noun Usage: usually capitalized J Etymology: after Paul von Jankó died 1919 Hungarian pianist : a pianoforte keyboard invented in 1882 consisting of six rows of keys with three digitals to each note, those of each row being as whole… … Useful english dictionary
Janko-Klaviatur — Die Jankó Klaviatur ist eine alternative Klaviaturform, die 1882 von Paul von Jankó entworfen wurde. Weil eine normalgroße Hand auf dem üblichen Klavier kaum mehr als eine None greifen kann und alle Tonleitern mit einem anderen Fingersatz… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Jankó-Klaviatur — Die Jankó Klaviatur ist eine alternative Klaviaturform in der 6 plus 6 Anordnung, die 1882 von Paul von Jankó entworfen wurde. Weil eine normalgroße Hand auf dem üblichen Klavier kaum mehr als eine None greifen kann und alle Tonleitern mit einem… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Janko — People: *Zvonimir Janko, mathematician *Paul von Janko, inventor of the Janko keyboard *Marc Janko, Austrian football playerIn mathematics: *Janko group *Janko group J1 *Janko group J2 *Janko group J3 *Janko group J4 … Wikipedia
Musical keyboard — This article is about keyboards on musical instruments. For instruments referred to as keyboards , see Keyboard instrument. Layout of a musical keyboard (three octaves shown) … Wikipedia
Paul von Jankó — (June 2, 1856 – March 17, 1919) was a Hungarian pianist and engineer. [cite book title=Pianos and Their Makers last=Dolge|first=Alfred|authorlink=Alfred Dolge volume=1 format=book publisher=Covina/Dover edition=(fulltext on Google Books link)… … Wikipedia
Enharmonic keyboard — An enharmonic keyboard is a musical keyboard based on an enharmonic scale. At the very least such keyboards will have 17 keys per octave, and enharmonically equivalent notes will have different pitches. A typical keyboard will have one key for,… … Wikipedia
Isomorphic keyboard — An isomorphic keyboard is a musical input device consisting of a two dimensional array of note controlling elements (such as buttons or keys) on which any given sequence and/or combination of musical intervals has the “same shape” on the keyboard … Wikipedia
Generalized keyboard — Generalized keyboards are musical keyboards with regular, tile like arrangements usually with rectangular or hexagonal keys, and were developed for performing music in different tunings. They were introduced by Robert Bosanquet in the 1870s, and… … Wikipedia
Piano — Pianoforte redirects here. For earlier versions of the instrument, see Fortepiano. For other uses of Piano, see Piano (disambiguation). Piano Bösendorfer grand piano Keyboard instrument … Wikipedia