Bronchus


Bronchus

Infobox Anatomy
Name = Bronchus
Latin =
GraySubject = 237
GrayPage = 1084



Caption = Conducting passages.


Caption2 = Front view of cartilages of larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
Precursor =
System = respiratory
Artery = bronchial artery
Vein = bronchial vein
Nerve = pulmonary branches of vagus nerve
Lymph =
MeshName = Bronchi
MeshNumber = A04.411.125
DorlandsPre = b_23
DorlandsSuf = 12198294
A bronchus (plural bronchi, adjective bronchial) is a caliber of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. [cite book
last = Maton
first = Anthea
authorlink =
coauthors = Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright
title = Human Biology and Health
publisher = Prentice Hall
date = 1993
location = Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA
pages =
url =
doi =
id =
isbn = 0-13-981176-1
] No gas exchange takes place in this part of the lungs.

Anatomy

The trachea (windpipe) divides into two main bronchi (also mainstem bronchi), the left and the right, at the level of the sternal angle. The right main bronchus is wider, shorter, and more vertical than the left main bronchus. The right main bronchus subdivides into three segmental bronchi while the left main bronchus divides into two. The lobar bronchi divide into tertiary bronchi. Each of the segmental bronchi supplies a bronchopulmonary segment. A bronchopulmonary segment is a division of a lung that is separated from the rest of the lung by a connective tissue septum.. This property allows a bronchopulmonary segment to be surgically removed without affecting other segments. There are ten segments per lung, but due to anatomic development, several segmental bronchi in the left lung fuse, giving rise to eight. The segmental bronchi divide into many primary bronchioles which divide into terminal bronchioles, each of which then gives rise to several respiratory bronchioles, which go on to divide into 2 to 11 alveolar ducts. There are 5 or 6 alveolar sacs associated with each alveolar duct. The alveolus is the basic anatomical unit of gas exchange in the lung.

There is hyaline cartilage present in the bronchi, present as irregular rings in the larger bronchi (and not as regular as in the trachea), and as small plates and islands in the smaller bronchi. Smooth muscle is present continuously around the bronchi.

In the mediastinum, at the level of the fifth thoracic vertebra, the trachea divides into the right and left primary bronchi. The bronchi branch into smaller and smaller passageways until they terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli.

The cartilage and mucous membrane of the primary bronchi are similar to that in the trachea. As the branching continues through the bronchial tree, the amount of hyaline cartilage in the walls decreases until it is absent in the smallest bronchioles. As the cartilage decreases, the amount of smooth muscle increases. The mucous membrane also undergoes a transition from ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium to simple cuboidal epithelium to simple squamous epithelium.

The alveolar ducts and alveoli consist primarily of simple squamous epithelium, which permits rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood in the capillaries occurs across the walls of the alveolar ducts and alveoli.

Role in disease

Bronchitis is defined as inflammation of the bronchi. There are two main types: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viral or bacterial infections. Chronic bronchitis is a form of COPD, usually associated with smoking or long-term exposure to irritants. Asthma is hyperreactivity of the bronchi with an inflammatory component, often in response to allergens.

While the left mainstem bronchus departs from the trachea at an angle, the right mainstem bronchus is almost a vertical continuation of the trachea. This anatomy predisposes the right lung to several problems:
*If food, liquids, or foreign bodies are aspirated, they often will lodge in the right mainstem bronchus. Aspiration pneumonia may result.
*If the endotracheal tube used for intubation is inserted too far, it usually lodges in the right mainstem bronchus. This allows ventilation of the right lung, but leaves the left lung useless.
*Patients with inadequate cough reflexes may develop chronic right middle lobe lung infections such as the Lady Windermere Syndrome.


=Additional

References

* Moore, Keith L. and Arthur F. Dalley. "Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 4th ed." (1999). ISBN 0-7817-5936-6


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bronchus — Bron chus, n.; pl. {Bronchi}. [NL., fr. Gr. ? windpipe. Cf. {Bronchia}.] (Anat.) One of the subdivisions of the trachea or windpipe; esp. one of the two primary divisions. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Bronchus — (v. gr.), Luftröhrenaft, deren es zwei (Bronchi) gibt, indem die Luftröhre sich gabelförmig für die rechte u. für die linke Lunge theilt …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Bronchus — (griech.), Kehle, Luftröhre, im engern Sinne die beiden Äste der letztern (s. Luftröhre) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • bronchus — 1706 (pl. bronchi), from Gk. bronkhos the wind pipe …   Etymology dictionary

  • bronchus — ► NOUN (pl. bronchi) ▪ any of the major air passages of the lungs which diverge from the windpipe. ORIGIN Greek bronkhos windpipe …   English terms dictionary

  • bronchus — [bräŋ′kəs] n. pl. bronchi [bräŋ′kī΄] [ModL < Gr bronchos, windpipe] any of the major air passageways of the lungs; esp., either of the two main branches of the trachea, or windpipe: see LUNG …   English World dictionary

  • Bronchus — Bronchialsystem, Bronchien in verschiedenen Farben dargestellt Mit Bronchialsystem werden die Luftwege in der Lunge zusammengefasst, es zählt zum anatomischen Totraum …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Bronchus — Brọn|chus [aus gr. βρογχος = Luftröhre] m; , ...chen (in fachspr. Fügungen: ...chi): (rechter u. linker) Hauptast der Luftröhre. Brọn|chus dẹxter vgl. Bronchus principalis dexter. Brọn|chus lin|gula̱ris infe̱rior bzw. supe̱rior [zu ↑Lingula] …   Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke

  • bronchus — UK [ˈbrɒŋkəs] / US [ˈbrɑŋkəs] noun [countable] Word forms bronchus : singular bronchus plural bronchi medical one of the two main tubes coming from your trachea that carry air into your lungs. It has many smaller tubes called bronchioles… …   English dictionary

  • Bronchus — Bron|chus der; , Plur. ...chen, fachspr. auch ...chi <über lat. bronchus aus gr. brógchos »Kehle; Luftröhre«>: a) [rechter od. linker] Hauptast der Luftröhre (Anat.); b) (in fachspr. Fügungen) svw. ↑Bronchie …   Das große Fremdwörterbuch


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