Tokelau


Tokelau
Tokelau
Flag Symbol
Motto: "Tokelau mo te Atua"  (Tokelauan)
"Tokelau for the Almighty"
Anthem: God Save The Queen
Capital Nukunonu (main settlement, although each atoll has its own administrative centre.)
Largest city Nukunonu (Officially)
Official language(s) Tokelauan,[1] English
Demonym Tokelauan
Government Constitutional monarchy
 -  Head of State Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Administrator Jonathan Kings (February 2011-)
 -  Head of Government Foua Toloa (February 2011-)
New Zealand territory
 -  Tokelau Act 1948 
Area
 -  Total 10 km2 (233rd)
5 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  July 2011 estimate 1,384 (233rd)
 -  2006 census 1,4661 
 -  Density 115/km2 (86th)
298/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 1993 estimate
 -  Total $1.5 million (227th)
 -  Per capita $1,035 (not ranked)
Currency New Zealand dollar (NZD)
Time zone (UTC-10)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code TK
Internet TLD .tk
Calling code 690
Some data from the World Factbook (2004).
1. Tabular Report, Tuhiga Igoa o te 2006 - 2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings. The Census population figure of 1,466 includes 392 usual residents of Tokelau who were absent on census night.

Tokelau (play /ˈtkəl/) is a territory of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean that consists of three tropical coral atolls with a combined land area of 10 km2 and a population of approximately 1,400. The atolls lie north of the Samoan Islands, east of Tuvalu, south of the Phoenix Islands, southwest of the more distant Line Islands (both island groups belonging to Kiribati) and northwest of the Cook Islands.

The United Nations General Assembly designated Tokelau a Non-Self-Governing Territory.[2] Until 1976 the official name was Tokelau Islands. Tokelau is sometimes referred to by the older, colonial name of The Union Islands.

Contents

Etymology and consequences of name usage

The name Tokelau is a Polynesian word meaning "North Wind". The islands were named the Union Islands and Union Group by European explorers at an unknown time. Tokelau Islands was adopted as the name in 1946, and was contracted to Tokelau on 9 December 1976.

The change from Tokelau Islands to Tokelau marked a slight shift in emphasis, with consequences in regional diplomacy, in that the term Tokelau Islands clearly and substantially referred to a geographical expression, that is, a range of islands, whatever else it may connote. It is not necessarily controversial to refer by name to a range of islands, even though they may come under two or more political jurisdictions. Tokelau, on the other hand, can be taken to refer more immediately to some concept of nationhood, arguably infusing increased meaning to the draft 2006 independence constitution of Tokelau (which somewhat controversially claims Tokelauan inhabited Olohega (or Swains Island), currently part of American Samoa, as part of its national territory).[citation needed]

Geography

Map of all Tokelau Islands. Swains Island is shown to the south.

Tokelau includes three atolls in the South Pacific Ocean between longitudes 171° and 173° W and between latitudes and 10° S, about midway between Hawaii and New Zealand. They lie about 500 km (311 mi) north of Samoa. The atolls are Atafu, Nukunonu, both in a group of islands once called the Duke of Clarence Group, and Fakaofo, once Bowditch Island. Their combined land area is 10.8 km². There are no ports or harbours. Tokelau lies in the Pacific typhoon belt. A fourth island that is culturally, historically, and geographically, but not politically, part of the Tokelau chain is Swains Island (Olohega), under United States control since about 1900 and administered as part of American Samoa since 1925.

Swains Island was claimed by the United States pursuant to the Guano Islands Act, as were the other three islands of Tokelau, which claims were ceded to Tokelau by treaty in 1979. In the draft constitution of Tokelau subject to the Tokelauan self-determination referendum in 2006, Olohega is claimed as part of Tokelau, a claim surrendered in the same 1979 treaty which established a boundary between American Samoa and Tokelau.

Tokelau's claim to Swains is generally comparable to the Marshall Islands' claim to US-administered Wake Island, but the re-emergence of this somewhat dormant issue has been an unintended result of the United Nations' recent efforts to promote decolonization in Tokelau. Tokelauans have proved somewhat reluctant to push their national identity in the political realm: recent decolonization moves have mainly been driven from outside for ideological reasons. But at the same time, Tokelauans are reluctant to disown their common cultural identity with Swains Islanders who speak their language.

Tokelau is in a different time zone from most of New Zealand, being 10 hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) rather than 12 hours in front, meaning a 22 hour time difference for much of the year (New Zealand has daylight saving time (DST) for part of the year while Tokelau never participates). Tokelau is in the same time zone as the Cook Islands and Hawaii rather than neighbouring Samoa and American Samoa.[3][4] However, Tokelau will shift to UTC+14:00 at the end of 29 December 2011 in response to Samoa's decision to do the same. This would bring Tokelau closer to New Zealand time.[5]

Geographic locations of Tokelau's atolls
Atoll Coordinates
Atafu 8°33′6″S 172°30′3″W / 8.55167°S 172.50083°W / -8.55167; -172.50083 (Atafu)
Nukunonu 9°10′6″S 171°48′35″W / 9.16833°S 171.80972°W / -9.16833; -171.80972 (Nukunonu)
Fakaofo 9°21′55″S 171°12′54″W / 9.36528°S 171.215°W / -9.36528; -171.215 (Fakaofo)

History

Archaeological evidence indicates that the atolls of Tokelau — Atafu, Nukunonu, and Fakaofo — were settled about 1,000 years ago and may have been a "nexus" into Eastern Polynesia.[6] Inhabitants followed Polynesian mythology with the local god Tui Tokelau; and developed forms of music (see Music of Tokelau) and art. The three atolls functioned largely independently while maintaining social and linguistic cohesion. Tokelauan society was governed by chiefly clans, and there were occasional inter-atoll skirmishes and wars as well as inter-marriage. Fakaofo, the "chiefly island",[7] held some dominance over Atafu and Nukunonu after the dispersal of Atafu. Life on the atolls was subsistence-based, with reliance on fish and coconut.[8]

Western discovery and contact

Commodore John Byron discovered Atafu on 24 June 1765 and named it "Duke of York's Island". Parties onshore reported that there were no signs of current or previous inhabitants.[9][10] Captain Edward Edwards, in knowledge of Byron's discovery, visited Atafu on 6 June 1791[citation needed] in search of the Bounty mutineers. There were no permanent inhabitants, but houses contained canoes and fishing gear, suggesting the island was used as a temporary residence by fishing parties.[10] On 12 June 1791, Edwards sailed southward and discovered Nukunonu, naming it "Duke of Clarence's Island".[11] A landing party could not make contact with the people but saw "morais", burying places, and canoes with "stages in their middle" sailing across the lagoons.[10]

On 29 October 1825 August R. Strong of the U.S.N Dolphin wrote of his crew's arrival at the atoll Nukunonu, "Upon examination, we found they had removed all the women and children from the settlement, which was quite small, and put them in canoes lying off a rock in the lagoon. They would frequently come near the shore, but when we approached they would pull off with great noise and precipitation." (The Journal of the South Pacific, 110 (3), pp. 296).

Fakaofo islanders, drawn in 1841 by the United States Exploring Expedition.

On 14 February 1835 Captain Smith of the United States whaler General Jackson records discovering Fakaofo, calling it "D'Wolf's Island".[12][13] On 25 January 1841, the United States Exploring Expedition visited Atafu and discovered a small population living on the island. The residents appeared to be temporary, evidenced by the lack of a chief and the possession of double canoes (used for inter-island travel). They desired to barter, and possessed blue beads and a plane-iron, indicating previous interaction with foreigners. The expedition reached Nukunonu on 28 January 1841 but did not record any information about inhabitants. On 29 January 1841, the expedition discovered Fakaofo and named it "Bowditch".[14] The islanders were found to be similar in appearance and nature to those in Atafu.[15]

Missionaries preached Christianity in Tokelau from 1845 to the 1860s. French Catholic missionaries on Wallis Island (also known as 'Uvea) and missionaries of the Protestant London Missionary Society in Samoa used native teachers to convert the Tokelauans. Atafu was converted to Protestantism by the London Missionary Society, Nukunonu was converted to Catholicism and Fakaofo was converted to both denominations.[16]

Peruvian slave traders arrived in 1863 and took nearly all (253) of the able-bodied men to work as labourers. The men died of dysentery and smallpox, and very few returned to Tokelau. With this loss, the system of governance became based on the "Taupulega", or "Councils of Elders", where individual families on each atoll were represented.[8][13] During this time, Polynesian immigrants and American, Scottish, French, Portuguese and German beachcombers settled, marrying local women and repopulating the atolls.[13]

Government

In 1877 the islands were included under the protection of the United Kingdom by an Order in Council which claimed jurisdiction over all unclaimed Pacific Islands. Commander C. F. Oldham on HMS Egeria landed at each of the three atolls in June 1889[17] and officially raised the Union Flag, declaring the group a British protectorate. The British government annexed Tokelau to the colony of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands and transferred Tokelau to New Zealand administration in 1926, abolishing the islands' chiefdoms. By the Tokelau Act of 1948, sovereignty over Tokelau was transferred to New Zealand. Defence is also the responsibility of New Zealand. However, the Tokelauans are drafting a constitution and developing institutions and patterns of self-government as Tokelau moves towards free association with New Zealand, similarly to Niue and the Cook Islands.[citation needed]

Villages are entitled to enact their own laws regulating their daily lives and New Zealand law only applies where it has been extended by specific enactment. Serious crime is rare and there are no prisons - offenders are publicly rebuked, fined or made to work.[18]

Politics

The head of state is Elizabeth II, the Queen in right of New Zealand, who also reigns over the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented in the territory by acting Administrator John Allen. The current head of government is Kuresa Nasau, who presides over the Council for the Ongoing Governance of Tokelau, which functions as a cabinet. The Council consists of the Faipule (leader) and Pulenuku (village mayor) of each of the three atolls.[19] The monarch is hereditary, the administrator appointed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade in New Zealand, and the office of head of government rotates between the three Faipule for a one-year term.[19]

The Tokelau Amendment Act of 1996 confers legislative power on the General Fono, a unicameral body. The number of seats each atoll receives in the Fono is determined by population — at present, Fakaofo and Atafu both have seven and Nukunonu has six.[19] Faipule and Pukenuku (atoll leaders and village mayors) also sit in the Fono.[19]

On 11 November 2004, Tokelau and New Zealand took steps to formulate a treaty that would turn Tokelau from a non-self-governing territory to a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand. Besides the treaty, a UN-sponsored referendum on self-determination took place, with the three islands voting on successive days starting 13 February 2006. (Tokelauans based in Apia, Samoa, voted on 11 February.)[20] Out of 581 votes cast, 349 were for Free Association, being short of the two-thirds majority required for the measure to pass.[21] The referendum was profiled (somewhat light-heartedly) in the 1 May 2006 issue of The New Yorker magazine.[22] A repeat referendum took place on 20–24 October 2007, again narrowly failing to approve self-government. This time the vote was short by just 16 votes or 3%.[23]

In May 2008, the United Nations' Secretary General Ban Ki-moon urged colonial powers "to complete the decolonization process in every one of the remaining 16 Non-Self-Governing Territories", including Tokelau.[24] This led the New Zealand Herald to comment that the United Nations was "apparently frustrated by two failed attempts to get Tokelau to vote for independence".[25] In April 2008, speaking as leader of the National Party, future New Zealand Prime Minister John Key stated that New Zealand had "imposed two referenda on the people of the Tokelau Islands", and questioned "the accepted wisdom that small states should undergo a de-colonisation process".[26]

Economy

Nukunonu Lagoon in Tokelau.

According to the US Central Intelligence Agency's list of countries by GDP (PPP) Tokelau has the smallest economy of any country in the world. Tokelau has an annual purchasing power of about US$1,000 (€674) per capita. The government is almost entirely dependent on subsidies from New Zealand. It has annual revenues of less than US$500,000 (€336,995) against expenditures of some US$2.8 million (€1.9 million). The deficit is made up by aid from New Zealand.

Tokelau annually exports around US$100,000 (€67,000) of stamps, copra and woven and carved handicrafts and imports over US$300,000 (€202,000) of foodstuffs, building materials, and fuel to, and from, New Zealand. New Zealand also pays directly for the cost of medical and education services. Local industries include small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work, plaited craft goods, stamps, coins, and fishing. Agriculture and livestock produces coconuts, copra, breadfruit, papayas, bananas, figs, pigs, poultry and few goats. Many Tokelauans live in New Zealand and support their families in Tokelau through remittances.

It is expected that by mid 2012 Tokelau's electricity supply will be 93% generated by photovoltaics, with the remainder generated from coconut oil.[27]

Internet domain names

Tokelau has increased its GDP by more than 10% through registrations of domain names under its top-level domain, .tk.[28] Registrations can be either free, in which case the user owns only usage rights and not the domain itself, or paid, which grants full rights. Free domains are pointed to Tokelau name servers and the only services available are HTTP traffic being redirected via HTML frames to a specified address, and the redirection of up to 250 email addresses to an external address (not at a .tk domain). As of January 2009, free domains have no requirements for third party advertisements but have a minimum traffic limit of 25 unique visitors in any 90 day period. If this limit is not reached, the domain is suspended and the owner has either 10 days to convert the domain to a paid domain or have the domain deregistered.[citation needed]

In September 2003 Fakaofo became the first part of Tokelau with a high-speed Internet connection. Foundation Tokelau financed the project. Tokelau gives most domain names under its authority away to anyone for free to gain publicity for the territory. This has allowed the nation to gain enhanced telecommunications technologies, such as more computers and Internet access for Tokelauan residents.[citation needed]

Demographics

The atoll of Fakaofo, southernmost of the Tokelau Islands.

Tokelau has an estimated population of 1,384 (as of July 2011), according to the CIA World Factbook, which also estimated that the population was declining slowly (by 0.011% per year). In contrast, provisional Census results show a 5% increase in the census night population between 2006 and 2011.[29]

The nationals of Tokelau are called Tokelauans, and the major ethnic group is Polynesian. The country has no minorities. The major religion is the Congregational Christian Church and the main language is Tokelauan, but English is also spoken.

Tokelau has fewer than 1,500 Polynesian inhabitants in three villages who speak Tokelauan and English. Their isolation and lack of resources greatly limits economic development and confines agriculture to the subsistence level. The very limited natural resources and overcrowding are contributing to emigration to New Zealand and Samoa, resulting in a population decline of about 0.9% per year.[citation needed] Depletion of tuna has made fishing for food more difficult.

On the island of Atafu almost all inhabitants are members of the Congregational Christian Church of Samoa. On Nukunonu almost all are Roman Catholic. On Fakaofo both denominations are present with the Congregational Christian Church predominant. The total proportions are: Congregational Christian Church 62%, Roman Catholic 34%, other 5%.[30]

While slightly more females than males live on Atafu and Fakaofo, males make up 57% of Nukunonu residents.[31] Only 9% of Tokelauans aged 40 or more have never been married.[32] One quarter of the population were born overseas; almost all the rest live on the same atoll they were born on.[33] Most households own 5 or more pigs.[34]

Despite its low income, Tokelau has a life expectancy of 69 years, comparable with parts of Europe.[35]

Sport

Due to its small size, Tokelau is unaffiliated to most international sports organisations, and rarely takes part in international events. The only significant international competition the country takes part in is the Pacific Games. Tokelau won its first ever gold medals at the 2007 Pacific Games in Apia, winning a total of five medals (three gold, a silver and a bronze), all in lawn bowls, and finishing twelfth (out of twenty-two) on the overall medal table. This included two gold medals for Violina Linda Pedro (in the women's pairs and the women's singles), making her Tokelau's most successful individual athlete to date.[36]

In October 2010, table tennis became "the first sport in Tokelau to be granted membership at a Continental or World level", when the Tokelau Table Tennis Association was formally established and became the 23rd member of the Oceania Table Tennis Federation.[37]

Tokelau was due to take part, for the first time, in the 2010 Commonwealth Games, in Delhi,[38] but, for unknown reasons, ultimately did not do so.[39]

Tokelau does have a National Sports Federation, and the most important sports event within the country is arguably the Tokelau Games, which are held yearly. When they are held, "all of Tokelau virtually stands still", as "[i]n excess of 50% of the population take part and all work and school stops at the time". The 2010 Games included competitions in rugby sevens, netball and kilikiti, alongside "a cultural evening [...] where each atoll showcases their traditional songs and dances".[37]

Healthcare and education

Each atoll has a school and hospital. The health services have a Director of Health based in Apia and a Chief Clinical Advisor who moves from atoll to atoll as required to assist the doctors attached to each hospital. In 2007 there was not always a doctor on each island and locums were appointed to fill the gaps. Upcoming Tokelaun medical graduates should alleviate this shortage in the coming years.

Many Tokelauan youth travel to New Zealand to further their education and the ship is full around Christmas time with students returning home and then heading off for another year of study.

Communications

A barge leaves the landing ramp in Nukunono to collect cargo and passengers from the MV Tokelau

Tokelau has a radio telephone service between the islands and to Samoa. In 1997, a government-regulated telephone service (TeleTok) with three satellite earth stations was established. Each atoll has a radio-broadcast station that broadcasts shipping and weather reports and every household has a radio or access to one.

Tokelau is served by the MV Tokelau, owned by the country, with the trip from Apia in Samoa taking a little over a day. Ships load and unload cargo by motoring up to the down-wind (leeward) side of the islet where the people live and maintaining station, by intermittent use of engines, close to the reef edge so that a landing barge can be motored out to transfer cargo to or from the shore. On returning to shore, the barge negotiates a narrow channel through the reef to the beach. Usually this landing is subject to ocean swell and beaching requires considerable skill and, often, coral abrasions to bodies.

When bad weather prevents the barge making the trip, the ship stands off to wait suitable weather or goes off to one of the other atolls to attempt to load or unload its passengers or cargo, or both.

There is no airport in Tokelau, so boats is the only way of travel and transport.

Cyclone Percy

Cyclone Percy struck and severely damaged Tokelau in late February and early March 2005. Forecasters underestimated the cyclone's strength and the length of time it would be in vicinity to Tokelau. It coincided with a spring tide which put most of the area of the two villages on Fakaofo and Nukunonu under a metre of seawater. The cyclone also caused major erosion on several islets of all three atolls, damaging roads and bridges and disrupting electric power and telecommunications systems. The cyclone did significant and widespread damage to food crops including bananas, coconuts and pandanus. It did not seriously injure anyone but villagers lost significant amounts of property. The geographic future of Tokelau depends on the height of the ocean. No significant land is more than two metres above high water of ordinary tides. This means Tokelau is particularly vulnerable to any possible sea level rises.

Books and publications

  • Tokelau: a historical ethnography by Judith Huntsman & Antony Hooper (1996, Auckland University Press) ISBN 1869401530
  • The Future of Tokelau: decolonising agendas by Judith Huntsman with Kelihiano Kalolo (2007, Auckland University Press) ISBN 9781869403980
  • Tokelau: People, atolls, and history by Peter McQuarrie (2007, Peter McQuarrie Press) ISBN 9781877449413
  • Where on Earth is Tokelau? by Dr Maxwell H. Heller (2005) ISBN 0901100587

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.tokelau-info.tk/
  2. ^ "Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government". http://www.tokelau.org.nz/. Retrieved 2007-11-04. "The basis of Tokelau's legislative, administrative and judicial systems is the Tokelau Islands Act 1948 and its amendments. (See the link "LAW") In November 1974 the administration of Tokelau was transferred from the Mäori and Island Affairs Department to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From then until September 1980, when the Tokelau administration regulations were amended, the New Zealand Secretary of Foreign Affairs was the administrator of Tokelau. New regulations then came into force whereby the Minister of Foreign Affairs was empowered to appoint a suitable person to be the Administrator of Tokelau. The New Zealand flag is used and the anthem is God Save the Queen." 
  3. ^ "Current local time in Fakaofo, Tokelau". http://www.worldtimezone.com/time/wtzresult.php?CiID=42135. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  4. ^ "World Time Zones map". Victoria University of Wellington website. http://www.vuw.ac.nz/~caplabtb/m302w07/time_zones.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  5. ^ "Tokelau to join Samoa and leap forward over dateline". BBC News. 6 October 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-15197275. Retrieved 1 November 2011. 
  6. ^ "Archeology of Atafu, Tokelau: Some Initial Results 2008". http://researchcommons.waikato.ac.nz//handle/10289/2891. Retrieved 2010-11-12. 
  7. ^ "Fakaofo". http://www.fakaofo.tk/page001.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  8. ^ a b "Tokelau". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Countries/Pacific/Tokelau.php. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  9. ^ John Byron, John Samuel Wallis, Philip Carteret, James Cook, Joseph Banks (1773). An Account of the Voyages Undertaken by the Order of His Present Majesty for making discoveries in the southern hemisphere and successfully performed by Commodore Byron, Captain Carteret, Captain Wallis and Captain Cook in the Dolphin, the Swallow, and the Endeavour. pp. 132, 133. http://books.google.com/books?id=8lgBAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  10. ^ a b c MacGregor, 30
  11. ^ Sharp, Andrew (1960). The Discovery of the Pacific Islands. pp. 164. http://books.google.com/books?id=HJYhAAAAMAAJ&q=%2212+June%22&pgis=1. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  12. ^ Polynesian Society (N. Z.) (1961). The Journal of the Polynesian Society. pp. 102. http://books.google.com/books?id=oWQLAAAAIAAJ&q=%22Smith+placed+Fakaofo+correctly%22. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  13. ^ a b c "Information Bulletin on Tokelau". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/0-tokelaubooklet.php. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  14. ^ Nathaniel Bowditch (1773–1838) was an American mathematician remembered for his work on ocean navigation.
  15. ^ Charles Wilkes (1849). Voyage Round the World. pp. 538. http://books.google.com/books?id=NyQcAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA538. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  16. ^ People
  17. ^ Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1965). The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. pp. 43. http://books.google.com/books?id=agAaAAAAMAAJ&q=%22June,%201889,%20and%20on%22&dq=oldham+june+1889+egeria&as_brr=0&pgis=1. Retrieved 2007-09-30. 
  18. ^ "Official site for the Tokelau Council of Ongoing Government". http://www.tokelau.org.nz/. Retrieved 2007-11-04. "The legislation and judicial systems are based on the Tokelau Act, 1948, and its amendments. A major law reform project is continuing; its purpose is to ensure that Tokelau has a coherent body of law which responds to current needs and gives due recognition to local custom. Unless it is expressly extended to Tokelau, New Zealand statute law does not apply to the territory. In practice, no New Zealand legislation is extended to Tokelau without Tokelauan consent. The villages have the statutory power to enact their own laws covering village affairs. International covenants on economic, social and cultural rights and civil and political rights, ratified by New Zealand in December 1978, apply in Tokelau. Civil and criminal jurisdiction is exercised by commissioners and the New Zealand high court." 
  19. ^ a b c d "How Tokelau is Governed". Tokelauan Council of Ongoing Governance. http://www.tokelau.org.nz/Tokelau+Government/Government/HOW+TOKELAU+IS+GOVERNED.html. Retrieved 29 June 2010. 
  20. ^ "Fono decisions". Archived from the original on 2007-08-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20070822073325/http://www.tokelau.org.nz/english/gfdecisions/gfnov05.html. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  21. ^ "Tokelau rejects self-rule". Television New Zealand. http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/411366/661377. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  22. ^ Parker, Ian (1 May 2006). "Letter from Polynesia: Birth of a nation?". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/01/060501fa_fact_parker. Retrieved 2007-09-29. 
  23. ^ "Tokelau stays as NZ's last colony". Television New Zealand. http://tvnz.co.nz/view/page/1318360/1415741. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  24. ^ "Colonialism has no place in today's world," says Secretary General in message to Decolonization Seminar in Indonesia", United Nations press release, 14 May 2008
  25. ^ "Tokelau decolonisation high on agenda", New Zealand Herald, 17 May 2008
  26. ^ John Key's speech to the NZ Institute of International Affairs, 8 April 2008
  27. ^ Coconuts and sunshine will power South Pacific islands New Scientist, published 2011-09-13, accessed 2011-09-14
  28. ^ "Net gains for tiny Pacific nation". BBC News. 14 September 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/6991719.stm. Retrieved 2008-05-24. 
  29. ^ "Provisional count: 2011 Tokelau Census". 2011 Tokelau Census. Statistics New Zealand. http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/people_and_communities/pacific_peoples/provisional-count-2011-tokelau-census.aspx. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  30. ^ "2006 Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings" (PDF). 20 December 2006. pp. Table 2.5. http://www.spc.int/prism/country/tk/stats/Reports/2006censusrpts/2006%20Census%20Tabular%20Report%20-%20Final.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-119. 
  31. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.3.1.
  32. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 1.5.
  33. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 3.2.
  34. ^ Tokelau Census of Population and Dwellings, Table 6.13.
  35. ^ Regions and territories: Tokelau, BBC News
  36. ^ Medals at the 2007 Pacific Games, official website
  37. ^ a b "Tokelau, a Speck in the Ocean but an Important New Member for Oceania", International Table Tennis Federation, 7 October 2010
  38. ^ "SPORT: OUR QUEST FOR GOLD", Islands Business
  39. ^ Participants, website of the 2010 Commonwealth Games

External links

Governance

Atolls

Coordinates: 09°10′S 171°50′W / 9.167°S 171.833°W / -9.167; -171.833


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Tokelau — Tokelau …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tokelau — Introduction Tokelau Background: Originally settled by Polynesian emigrants from surrounding island groups, the Tokelau Islands were made a British protectorate in 1889. They were transferred to New Zealand administration in 1925. Geography… …   Universalium

  • Tokelau — es un archipiélago ubicado en Oceanía, sobre el Océano Pacífico Sur y consta de tres atolones llamados Atafu, Nunukonu y Fafaoko y unos 125 islotes. Es un territorio dependiente de Nueva Zelanda, mencionado en la lista de territorios no autónomos …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Tokelau — Tokelau,   amtlich 1916 46 Union Islands [ juːnjən aɪləndz], 1946 76 Tokelau Islands (Tokelauinseln), als Überseeterritorium zu Neuseeland gehörende Inselgruppe im Pazifischen Ozean, 500 km nördlich der Samoainseln, besteht aus den Atollen Atafu… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Tokelau — 8° 33′ 06″ S 172° 30′ 04″ W / 8.55167, 172.501 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Tokelau — Para otros usos de este término, véase Tokelau (desambiguación). Tokelau …   Wikipedia Español

  • Tokelau — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Tokelau <p></p> Background: <p></p> Originally settled by Polynesian emigrants from surrounding island groups, the Tokelau Islands were made a British protectorate in… …   The World Factbook

  • Tokelau — noun Country in Oceania. Official name: Tokelau …   Wiktionary

  • Tokelau — /ˈtɒkəlaʊ/ (say tokuhlow) noun a NZ dependency consisting of the Tokelau Islands, a group of coral islands in the central Pacific, about 480 km north of Samoa. About 11 km2. Languages: English and Tokelauan (the local Polynesian language).… …   Australian English dictionary

  • Tokelau — ISO 639 3 Code : tkl ISO 639 2/B Code : tkl ISO 639 2/T Code : tkl ISO 639 1 Code : Scope : Individual Language Type : Living …   Names of Languages ISO 639-3


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