Trial court


Trial court

A trial court or court of first instance is a court in which trials take place. Such courts are said to have original jurisdiction.

In the United States

A trial court of general jurisdiction is authorized to hear any type of civil or criminal case that is not committed exclusively to another court. In the United States, the United States district courts are the trial courts of general jurisdiction of the federal judiciary; each U.S. state has a state court systems establishing trial courts of general jurisdiction, such as the Florida Circuit Courts in Florida, the Superior Courts of California in California, and the New York Supreme Court in New York.

Not all cases are heard in trial courts of general jurisdiction. A trial court of limited jurisdiction is authorized to hear only specified types of cases. Trial courts of limited jurisdiction may be limited in subject-matter jurisdiction (such as juvenile, probate, and family courts in many U.S. states, or the United States Tax Court in the federal judiciary) or by other means, such as small claims courts in many states for civil cases with a low amount in controversy. Other trials do not take place in courts at all, but in quasi-judicial bodies or in administrative agencies with adjudicatory power created by statute to make binding determinations with simplified procedural practices, such as arbitration.

Because different U.S. states apply different names to their courts, it is often not evident whether a court has general or limited jurisdiction. For instance, the Maine District Court is a court of limited jurisdiction, but the Nevada District Courts are courts of general jurisdiction.

In the trial court, evidence and testimony are admitted under the rules of evidence established by applicable procedural law and determinations called findings of fact are made based on the evidence. The court, presided over by one or more judges, makes findings of law based upon the applicable law. In most common law jurisdictions, the trial court often sits with a jury and one judge; in such jury trials, the jury acting as trier of fact. In some cases, the judge or judges act as triers of both fact and law, by either statute, custom, or agreement of the parties; this is referred to as a bench trials.

Appeals from the decisions of trial courts are usually made by higher courts with the power of appellate review (appellate courts). Most trial courts are courts of record, where the record of the presentation of evidence is created and must be maintained or transmitted to the appellate court. The record of the trial court is certified by the clerk of the trial court and transmitted to the appellate body. Most appellate courts do not have the authority to hear testimony or take evidence, but instead rule solely on matters of law.

See also


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • trial court — n: the court before which issues of fact and law are tried and first determined as distinguished from an appellate court Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster. 1996. trial court …   Law dictionary

  • trial court — noun Date: 1889 the court before which issues of fact and law are first determined as distinguished from an appellate court …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • trial court — noun the first court before which the facts of a case are decided (Freq. 1) • Topics: ↑law, ↑jurisprudence • Hypernyms: ↑court, ↑tribunal, ↑judicature …   Useful english dictionary

  • trial court — the court in which a controversy is first adjudicated (distinguished from appellate division). [1885 90] * * * …   Universalium

  • trial court — first court that ruled on a case …   English contemporary dictionary

  • court — / kōrt/ n [Old French, enclosed space, royal entourage, court of justice, from Latin cohort cohors farmyard, armed force, retinue] 1 a: an official assembly for the administration of justice: a unit of the judicial branch of government the… …   Law dictionary

  • trial — tri·al n [Anglo French, from trier to try]: a judicial examination of issues of fact or law disputed by parties for the purpose of determining the rights of the parties compare hearing, inquest at trial: in or during the course of a trial Merriam …   Law dictionary

  • Court system of Pakistan — is made up of many courts differing in levels of legal superiority and separated by jurisdiction. Some of the courts are federal in nature while others are provincial. Contents 1 Structure of courts in Pakistan 2 Supreme Court Of Pakistan …   Wikipedia

  • court of original jurisdiction — A court where a matter is initiated and heard in the first instance; a trial court. Short Dictionary of (mostly American) Legal Terms and Abbreviations …   Law dictionary

  • Trial of Geert Wilders — A trial of Dutch politician Geert Wilders took place in the Netherlands in 2010–2011. Wilders was accused of criminally insulting religious and ethnic groups and inciting hatred and discrimination. He was found not guilty in June 2011.[1] Wilders …   Wikipedia


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