Proto-Indo-Iranian language

Proto-Indo-Iranian, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are usually connected with the early Andronovo archaeological horizon.

Proto-Indo-Iranian was a Satem language, likely removed less than a millennium from the late Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn removed less than a millennium from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. It is the ancestor of the Indo-Aryan languages, the Iranian languages, the Dardic languages and the Nuristani languages. The main phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels "*e, *o, *a" into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian "*a" (but see Brugmann's law). Grassmann's law, Bartholomae's law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian.

Among the sound changes from Proto-Indo-Iranian to Indo-Aryan is the loss of the voiced sibilant "*z", among those to Iranian is the de-aspiration of the PIE voiced aspirates.

chleicher's fable

Carlos Quiles Casas of the Dnghu Group gives a Proto-Indo-Iranian version of Schleicher's fable [] : _in. Ávis áçvās-ka. Ávis, kahja vr̥nā na āst, áçvans spaçát, áinam garúm vágham vághantam, áinam-ka mágham bháram, áinam-ka ghámanam āçu bhárantam. Ávis nu áçvabhjas ávaukat: “Ghr̥d ághnutai mai, áçvans aĵantam vram vídanti”. Áçvās tu ávaukant: “Srudhí ávi! ghr̥d ághnutai asmái vídantbhjas: nar, pátis, ávjam-r̥ vr̥nām svábhi gharmám vástram kr̥náuti”. Ávjam-ka vr̥nā na ásti. Tat sásruvas ávis áĵram ábhugat.


*Asko Parpola, 'The formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European', in Blench and Spriggs (eds), "Archaeology and Language III", London and New York (1999).
*Alexander Lubotsky, " [ The Indo-Iranian substratum] " in "Early Contacts between Uralic and Indo-European", ed. Carpelan et al., Helsinki (2001).

ee also

*Iran and India

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