Brain damage, or
acquired brain injury, is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.
Brain damage may occur due to a wide range of conditions,
illnesses, injuries, and as a result of iatrogenesis. Possible causes of widespread ("diffuse") brain damage include prolonged hypoxia (shortage of oxygen), poisoning by teratogens (including alcohol), infection, and neurological illness. Chemotherapycan cause brain damage to the neural stem cellsand oligodendrocytecells that produce myelin. Common causes of focal or localized brain damage are physical trauma ( traumatic brain injury), stroke, aneurysm, surgery, or neurological illness.
igns and symptoms
Brain injury does not necessarily result in long-term impairment or
disability, although the location and extent of damage both have a significant effect on the likely outcome. In serious cases of brain injury, the result can be permanent disability, including neurocognitive deficits, delusions (often specifically monothematic delusions), speech or movement problems, and mental handicap. There may also be personality changes. Severe brain damage may result in persistent vegetative state, coma, or death.
Brain injury whether from stroke, alcohol abuse, traumatic brain injury, or B vitamin deficiency can sometimes result in Korsakoff's Psychosis, where the individual engages in confabulations. Confabulations involve the inability to separate daydream memory from real memory and the filling in of memory lapses with daydreams. Korsakoff's Psychosis can be easily mis-diagnosed as schizophrenia. Lithium treatment is sometimes helpful.
Various professions may be involved in the medical care and rehabilitation of someone who suffers impairment after brain damage.
Neurologists, neurosurgeons, and physiatrists are physicians who specialise in treating brain injury. Neuropsychologists (especially clinical neuropsychologists) are psychologists who specialise in understanding the effects of brain injury and may be involved in assessing the extent of brain damage or creating rehabilitation programmes. Occupational therapists may be involved in running rehabilitation programs to help restore lost function or help re-learn essential skills.
The effects of impairment or
disabilityresulting from brain injury may be treated by a number of methods, including medication, psychotherapy, neuropsychological rehabilitation, snoezelen, surgery, or physical implants such as deep brain stimulation.
It is a common misconception that brain damage sustained during childhood has a better chance of successful recovery than similar injury acquired in adult life. It is contested that in recent studies, severe brain damage inflicted upon children can be alleviated by the interaction of nicotinamide repropagation in nerve cells. In fact, the consequences of childhood injury may simply be more difficult to detect in the short term. This is because different cortical areas mature at different stages, with some major cell populations and their corresponding cognitive faculties remaining unrefined until early adulthood. In the case of a child with frontal brain injury, for example, the impact of the damage may be undetectable until that child fails to develop normal executive functions in his or her late teens and early twenties.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Frontal lobe injury
Primary and secondary brain injury
Traumatic brain injury
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/headandbraininjuries.html Head and Brain Injuries] from MedlinePlus
* [http://drdiane.com/brain/about.htm Dr.Diane.com] Information on brain injury and related rehabilitation services.
* [http://www.braininjury.org.au/ Fact sheets on brain damage, its effects, and strategies for survivors and their families]
* [http://www.sciencedaily.com/news/mind_brain/brain_injury/ Brain Damage Research] from ScienceDaily
* [http://www.neuroskills.com/ TBI Resource Guide] Central source of information, services and products relating to brain injury, brain injury recovery, and post-acute rehabilitation.
* [http://psychology.wikia.com/wiki/Brain_injury:Recovery Recovery from Acquired Brain Injury] from the Psychology Wiki
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Brain damage — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Brain Damage (chanson) est une chanson du groupe rock Pink Floyd Brain Damage Sound System est une formation de dub créée en 1999 Brain Damage (groupe de… … Wikipédia en Français
brain damage — brain .damage n [U] damage to someone s brain caused by an accident or illness ▪ Potts suffered severe brain damage in the crash. >brain damaged adj … Dictionary of contemporary English
brain damage — brain ,damage noun uncount damage to someone s brain as a result of an accident or illness ╾ brain ,damaged adjective … Usage of the words and phrases in modern English
brain damage — index insanity Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
Brain Damage — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Brain Damage (chanson) est une chanson du groupe rock Pink Floyd Brain Damage Sound System est une formation de dub créée en 1999 Brain Damage (groupe de… … Wikipédia en Français
brain damage — noun injury to the brain that impairs its functions (especially permanently); can be caused by trauma to the head, infection, hemorrhage, inadequate oxygen, genetic abnormality, etc. • Hypernyms: ↑injury, ↑hurt, ↑harm, ↑trauma, ↑nervous disorder … Useful english dictionary
brain damage — N UNCOUNT If someone suffers brain damage, their brain is damaged by an illness or injury so that they cannot function normally. He suffered severe brain damage after a motorbike accident … English dictionary
brain damage — noun (U) damage to someone s brain caused by an accident or illness: Potts suffered severe brain damage in the crash. brain damaged adjective … Longman dictionary of contemporary English