Joseph Taylor Robinson
name = Joseph Taylor Robinson
imagesize = 150px
order3 = 4th
United States Senate Majority Leader
March 4, 1933
July 14, 1937
James Eli Watson
Alben W. Barkley
jr/sr2 = United States Senator
March 4, 1913
July 14, 1937
William M. Kavanaugh
John E. Miller
order = 23rd
Governor of Arkansas
January 16, 1913
March 8, 1913
George Washington Donaghey
William Kavanaugh Oldhamt| birth_date = August 26, 1872
death_date = death date and age|1937|7|14|1872|8|26
party = Democratic
Joseph Taylor Robinson (
August 26, 1872- July 14, 1937) was an American politician from Arkansas, of the Democratic Party. He was a state representative, a U.S. Representative, Governor of Arkansas, U.S. Senator, and Senate Majority Leader, and he was a candidate for Vice President in the 1928 U.S. presidential election.
Lonoke, Arkansas, Robinson attended the University of Arkansasand studied law at the University of Virginia.
In 1894 Robinson was elected to the Arkansas Legislature and served one term. Robinson was elected to the
United States House of Representativesin 1902 from the Sixth District of Arkansas, and was re-elected to four subsequent terms, serving until 1913.
In 1912 he was elected Governor of Arkansas. He resigned his Congressional seat on
14 January1913 and took office as governor on 15 January. In the meantime, however, Senator Jefferson Davis died on 3 January. Davis had been re-elected to a new term beginning 3 March1913. That term was now open. On 27 January, only 12 days after Robinson took office as governor, the legislature elected him to the U.S. Senate for that term.
Robinson was the last Senator elected by a state legislature rather than by direct popular vote. The
Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, requiring direct election, was ratified and took effect on 8 April1913. Other Senators elected to terms starting in 1913 were elected earlier (Arkansas had to have a second election after Davis' death). Senator James H. Bradyof Idahowas elected to fill a vacancy on 24 January; he was next to last.
Robinson resigned as governor on
10 March. Though he served as governor for only 55 days, his administration focused on providing funds to complete the new state capitol building, creating a labor statistics board, adopting an official state flag, and working to create a highway commission.
From the outset, Robinson impressed other senators with carefully crafted speeches. He mastered the Senate's complex rules and practices, possessed tenacious loyalty to friends and party, a passion for detail and a killer's instinct in debate. Wedded to his job, he arrived early each day, stayed late, and studied legislation at home. [Bacon, 64.]
He staunchly supported the policies of
Woodrow Wilsoneven as other Democrats faltered. He championed the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act and worked to enact bills to regulate railroads and other key industries. He led the Senate to arm merchant ships and voted to declare war on Germany. [Bacon, 69.]
Robinson was re-elected to the Senate in 1918, 1924, 1930, and 1936. He was elected
Senate Minority Leaderfor the 68th Congress (1923-1925), and remained leader of Senate Democrats till his death, becoming Senate Majority Leaderin 1933 when the Democrats became the majority. He was the first Democrat to serve as formally designated Majority Leader. Some senators resented his autocratic style. In debate he could be terrifying. He would grow red in the face, pound his desk, gesture wildly, and stomp his feet. [Bacon, 64.]
Richard L. Riedel, a Senate press gallery attendant in the 1920s and 1930s recalled, "When [Robinson] would go into one of his rages, it took little imagination to see fire and smoke rolling out of his mouth like some fierce dragon. Even when he kidded me, he spoke in loud gasps while puffing his cigar. Robinson could make senators and everyone in his presence quake by the burning fire of his eyes, the baring of his teeth as he ground out the words, and the clenching of his mighty fists as he beat on the desk before him." [Riedel, 142.]
The press referred to him as "scrappy Joe," and he nearly came to blows with
Robert La Follette, Porter McCumber, Thomas Heflin, and Huey Long. His response to a guard who questioned his credentials at the 1920 Democratic National Convention was apunch in the face. Despite this temper, he maintained strong friendships across party lines. [Bacon, 65, 68.]
Robinson was a leading spokesman for President
Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deallegislation and his court-packing planin 1937. Robinson's death effectively killed off the Roosevelt proposal to restructure the United States Supreme Court.
Robinson was the Democratic candidate for Vice President in 1928, as the running mate of
Alfred E. Smith("see: U.S. presidential election, 1928)".
Senator Robinson died in
Washington, D.C.. He is buried at the Roselawn Cemetery in Little Rock, Arkansas. His home in Little Rock, the Joseph Taylor Robinson House, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1994.
Robinson is the namesake of Camp Joseph T. Robinson, Arkansas's primary National Guard base; Robinson Center in downtown Little Rock; and elementary, middle and high schools on the northwestern edge of Little Rock. Robinson's face appears on the front of the United States half dollar produced for the 1936 Arkansas Centennial; he was one of only four men to appear on a U.S. coin while living.
Donald C. Bacon, "Joseph Taylor Robinson: The Good Soldier," in "First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century," Richard A. Baker & Roger H. Davidson, eds., Washington: Congressional Quarterly, 1991: 63-97.
Richard L. Riedel, "Halls of the Mighty: My 47 Years at the Senate," Washington and New York: Robert B. Luce, 1969.
* Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: [http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=121 Joseph Taylor Robinson]
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Joseph Taylor Robinson — Joseph Robinson Joseph Taylor Robinson (* 16. August 1872 in Lonoke, Lonoke County, Arkansas; † 14. Juli 1937 in Washington D.C.) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker und 1913 Gouverneur von Arkansas sowie anschließend US … Deutsch Wikipedia
Joseph Taylor Robinson — Ernest McFarland Joseph Taylor Robinson né en le 26 août 1872 et décédé le 14 juillet 1937, fut de 1913 à 1937 le sénateur démocrate de l Arkansas. Il fut également Leader des démocrates au Sénat de 1923 à 1937 … Wikipédia en Français
Joseph Taylor Robinson House — Infobox nrhp | name =Robinson, Joseph Taylor, House nrhp type = nhl caption = location= 2122 Broadway, Little Rock, Arkansas lat degrees = 34 lat minutes = 43 lat seconds = 39.5 lat direction = N long degrees = 92 long minutes = 16 long seconds … Wikipedia
Joseph T. Robinson — Joseph Taylor Robinson Ernest McFarland Joseph Taylor Robinson né en le 26 aout 1872 et décédé le 14 juillet 1937, fut de 1913 à 1937 le sénateur démocrate de l Arkansas. Il fut également Leader des démocrates au Sénat de … Wikipédia en Français
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