An expressway is a
divided highwayfor high-speed traffic with at least partial control of access. However, as explained below, the degree of access allowed varies between countries and even between regions within the same country. In some jurisdictions, expressways are divided arterial roads with limits on the frequency of driveways and intersecting cross-streets. In other jurisdictions, access to expressways is limited only to grade-separated interchanges, making them the full equivalent of freeways.
The term "expressway" is currently used in
Australia, Canada, China, India, Iran, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Qatar, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and the United States(where the term originated).Fact|date=February 2007
In the United States, an "expressway" is defined by the federal government’s
Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devicesas a divided highway with partial control of access. [Section 1A.13, Paragraph 27, " Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices", 2003 ed., rev. 1. [http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/HTM/2003r1/part1/part1a.htm] ] In contrast, a " freeway" is defined as a divided highway with full control of access. [Section 1A.13, Paragraph 29, " Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices", 2003 ed., rev. 1. [http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/HTM/2003r1/part1/part1a.htm] See also 23 CFR 750.153(k).] The difference between "partial" and "full" access control is that expressways may have a limited number of driveways and at-grade intersections (thus making them a form of high-speed arterial road), while access to freeways is allowed only at grade-separated interchanges. Expressways under this definition do not conform to interstate highwaystandards (which ban practically all driveways and at-grade intersections) and are therefore usually numbered as state highways or U.S. highways.
This distinction was first developed in 1949 by the Special Committee on Nomenclature of what is now the
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials(AASHTO). [American Association of State Highway Officials, "AASHO Highway Definitions" (Washington D.C., American Association of State Highway Officials, 1962), 1-3.] In turn, the definitions were incorporated into AASHTO's official standards book, the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, which would become the national standards book of the U.S. Department of Transportationunder a 1966 federal statute. The same distinction has also been codified into the statutory law of seven states: California, [Cal. Sts. & High. Code § 257.] Mississippi, [Miss. Code Ann., § 65-5-3, subds. (b) and (c).] Missouri, [Mo. Rev. Stat., § 304.010.] Nebraska, [Neb. Rev. Stat., §§ 60-618.01 and 60-621.] North Dakota, [N.D. Cent. Code, § 24-01-01.1 (2006).] Ohio, [ [http://codes.ohio.gov/orc/4511 Ohio Rev. Code Ann., § 4511.01, subds. (YY) and (ZZ).] ] and Wisconsin. [Wis. Stat., §§ 59.84(1)(b) and 346.57(1)(am).] However, each state codified the federal distinction slightly differently. California expressways do not necessarily have to be divided, though they must have at least partial access control. For both terms to apply, in Wisconsin, a divided highway must be at least four lanes wide; in Missouri, both terms apply only to divided highways at least 10 miles long that are not part of the Interstate Highway System. In North Dakota and Mississippi, an expressway may have "full or partial" access control and "generally" has grade separations at intersections; a freeway is then defined as an expressway with full access control. Ohio's statute is similar, but instead of the vague word "generally," it imposes a requirement that 50% of an expressway's intersections must be grade-separated for the term to apply.
However, many states around the
Great Lakesregion and along the Eastern Seaboard have refused to conform their terminology to the federal definition. The following states officially prefer the term "expressway" instead of "freeway" to describe what are technically freeways in federal parlance: Connecticut, [Conn. Gen. Stat. § 13a-20(a).] Florida, [Fla. Stat. § 348.0002(8).] Illinois, [625 Ill. Comp. Stat. 5/1-119.3.] Indiana,Fact|date=February 2007 Maryland, [Md. Transp. Code Ann. § 8-620(c).] Massachusetts,Fact|date=February 2007 New Jersey,Fact|date=February 2007 New York,Fact|date=February 2007 Pennsylvania,Fact|date=February 2007 South Carolina,Fact|date=February 2007 Virginia,Fact|date=February 2007 and West Virginia. [W. Va. Code § 17-4-2(a).] In those states, the term "freeway" is not in common usageFact|date=September 2008 and it is common to find Interstate highways which bear the name “expressway.” Minnesotaofficially uses "freeway" and "expressway" interchangeably (with both defined as what federal officials call freeways). [Minn. Stat. § 160.02, subd. 19.]
Most expressways under the federal definition have
speed limits of 45-55 mph (70-90 km/h) in urban areas and 55-70 mph (90-110 km/h) in rural areas. Urban expressways are usually free of private driveways, but occasional exceptions include direct driveways to gas stations and shopping centers at major intersections (which would never be allowed on a true freeway).
The vast majority of expressways are built by
state governments, or by private companies which then operate them as toll roads pursuant to a license from the state government.
A famous example of a
local governmentgetting into the expressway business is Santa Clara County in California, which deliberately built its own expressway system in the 1960s to supplement the freeway system then planned by Caltrans. Although the county planned to upgrade the expressways into full-fledged freeways, such a project became politically infeasible after the rise of the tax revoltmovement in the mid-1970s.
In some parts of Canada, "expressway" is synonymous with
freewayand is used to mean limited-access divided-highways with no at-grade intersections, with both terms used interchangeably. Examples include the Gardiner Expresswaythrough downtown Toronto. Where the expressway turns into a 6-lane arterial road( Lake Shore Boulevard) east of the Don River, there is a sign warning of the end of the expressway. The Macdonald-Cartier Freewayis an example of a route that uses the freeway term.
Veterans Memorial Parkwayin London, Ontario, has intersections instead of interchanges, thus the Parkway is not considered a freeway. The Parkway was designed to be a limited access highway for the city but the lack of funding for the highwayforced it to be built with at-grade intersections. Other examples include the Hanlon Parkwayin Guelph and Regional Road 420 in Niagara Falls.
In other locations, such as
Albertaand most of Western Canada, an expressway is a high-speed arterial road along the lines of the California definition, while a freeway has no at-grade intersections.
In Quebec, the term "freeway" is never used, with the terms "expressway" (in English) and "autoroute" (in English and French) being preferred. English terms are rare, and only found on bilingual signage of expressways (abbreviated "expy") found in
Montrealaround bridges and on the Bonaventure Expressway; these signs are controlled by the federal government.
"Expressway" is used in the United Kingdom to describe the road network in
Runcorn. The network is a controlled-access dual carriageway, similar in construction to a motorway, but designed to carry traffic around the town quickly and efficiently. Its design and construction were the result of experimental transportation ideas being tested during the New Townmovement in the 1960s and 1970s.
The A38(M) in Birmingham is also known as the Aston Expressway.
A814in Glasgow is known as the Clydeside Expressway.
A road sign used in several European countries, showing the front of a car, indicates that a road allows only motorised vehicles able to achieve a high speed.
An "expressway" in
Croatia( _hr. brza cesta, literally "express way") is a road similar to a freeway, although it lacks the hard shoulder. Expressways are usually marked with letters B or D. They have much lower speed limits than motorways, usually convert|110|km/h|abbr=on. All expressways must have at least two lanes in each direction and all interchanges and exits must be grade separated.Croatian: Zakon o sigurnosti u prometu, čl. 2., t. 4.] The longest such road in Croatia is B9, connecting Umagand Pula. All expressways are toll-free except for B8 and B9, parts of the Istrian Ynetwork.
Some expressways are tailored for local traffic, such as the B28 (Vrbovec Expressway) and some are built as bypasses or beltways, such as the D31 (East Velika Gorica Bypass).
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Expressway R6 — Infobox European road marker name = Rychlostní silnice R6 eroad= length km=57 plalength=167 km starting terminus= in Prague junction= ending terminus= countries=Czech republic regions=Praha, Central Bohemian Region, Ústí nad Labem Region, Karlovy … Wikipedia
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Expressway R1 — Infobox European road marker name=Prague Ring eroad= length km=16 plalength=78 km/90.8 km beltway city=Prague junction= (planned) (planned) (planned) (planned) countries=Czech Republic regions=Praha, Central Bohemian Region… … Wikipedia
expressway — UK [ɪkˈspresˌweɪ] / US noun [countable] Word forms expressway : singular expressway plural expressways American a motorway … English dictionary