List of cities by time of continuous habitation
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
The age claims listed are generally disputed and may indeed be obsolete. Differences in opinion can result from different definitions of "city" as well as "continuously inhabited" and historical evidence is often disputed.
Several cities listed here ( Balkh, Byblos, Damascus, and Jericho) each popularly claim to be "the oldest city in the world". Caveats to the validity of each claim are discussed in the "Notes" column.
Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age) is vaguely possible but highly problematic to prove archaeologically for several Levantine cities (Jericho, Byblos, Damascus, Sidon and Beirut). Cities became more common outside the Fertile Crescent with the Early Iron Age from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.
Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes Damascus Levant Syria Chalcolithic Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, and evidence of settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9000 BC exists. However within the area of Damascus there is no evidence for large-scale settlement until the second millennium BC. Jericho Levant Palestine Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Traces of habitation from 9000 BC. Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city. Byblos Levant Lebanon Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier) Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000), a city since the 3rd millennium BC. Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos). Sidon Levant Lebanon 4000 BC There is evidence that Sidon was inhabited from as long ago as 4000 BC, and perhaps, as early as Neolithic times (6000 - 4000 BC). Medinat Al-Fayoum (as Crocodilopolis or Arsinoe, ancient Egyptian: Shediet) Lower Egypt Faiyum Governorate, Egypt c. 4000 BC Gaziantep Anatolia Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey c. 3650 BC This is disputed, although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact. Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC. Rey Media Iran 3000 BC A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rey (also Ray or Rayy) is mentioned in the Avesta (an important text of prayers in Zoroastrianism, as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the book of Tobit. Beirut Levant Lebanon 3000 BC Jerusalem Levant Israel/Palestine 2800 BC Tyre Levant Lebanon 2750 BC Jenin Levant Palestine c. 2450 BC Jenin's history goes back to 2450 BC, when it was built by the Canaanites. After 1244, Jenin flourished economically because of its location on the trade route, until a major earthquake completely destroyed the city. Arbil Mesopotamia IraqKurdistan Autonomous Region, 2300 BC or earlier Kirkuk (as Arrapha) Mesopotamia Kirkuk Governorate, Iraq 3000-2200 BC Jaffa Levant Israel c. 2000 BC Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC. Aleppo Levant Syria c. 2000 BC Evidence of occupation since about 5000 BC. Hebron Levant Palestine c. 1500 BC "Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously
inhabited for nearly 3500 years."
Gaza City Levant Palestine c. 1000 BC While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years. Hamadan (As Ecbatana) Median Empire Iran c. 800 BC Istanbul/Byzantium Thrace Anatolia Turkey 685 BC Anatolia
667 BC Thrace
Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC Nablus (As Shechem) Levant Palestine c. 100 Nablus is a Canaanite city. It was inhibited since the fourth millennium BC. In 724 BC it has been ruined by Asyria and after revival in the 3rd and 2nd centuries, it has been finally destroyed by the Hasmonean Hyrcanus in 128 BC. 200 years later the new Roman city was founded next to the ruined settlement. Amman
Levant Jordan c. 1878 Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first civilization on record is during the Neolithic period, around 7500 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal. It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters in the Middle Ages, and remained a small village and a pile of ruins for about 500 years, until the Circassians settlement in 1878.
Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes Athens Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Attica, Greece [page needed]4th-5th Millennium BC Earliest human presence 11th-7th millennium BC, recorded history begins in 1400 BC. Argos Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Greece 5000 BC. Urban settlement continuously inhabited for past 7000 years, historical, recorded history since second half of 1st millennium BC. Plovdiv Thrace Plovdiv Province, Bulgaria  - 4000 BC3000 Thracian foundation. Earliest evidence of a settlement dates back to 6000 BC. Chania Crete Crete, Greece c. 1400 BC Minoan foundation as Kydonia Larnaca Alashiya Cyprus c. 1400 BC Mycenaean, then Phoenician colony Thebes Mycenaean Greece Boeotia, Greece c. 1400 BC Mycenaean foundation Trikala Mycenaean Greece Thessaly, Greece before 1200 BC founded as Trikke Chalcis Mycenaean Greece Greece before 1200 BC mentioned by Homer Lisbon Iron Age Iberia Portugal c. 1200 BC A settlement since the Neolithic. Allis Ubbo, arguably a Phoenician name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and Latin (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC). Cádiz Iron Age Iberia Andalusia, Spain 1100 BC founded as Phoenician Gadir, "Europe's oldest city" Patras Mycenaean Greece Greece c. 1100 BC founded by Patreus Mytilene Lesbos North Aegean, Greece 10th century BC Chios Chios North Aegean, Greece c. 1100 BC Pula Istria Croatia dubious ]10th century BC[ The city's earliest recorded[by whom?] permanent habitation dates back to the 10th century BC (Ivelja-Dalmatin 200).[unreliable source?] Zadar Liburnia Croatia dubious ]9th century BC[ based on archaeological evidence, according to Suić (1981)[dubious ]. Naples Magna Graecia Italy 8th century BC founded as Parthenope. Yerevan (as Erebuni) Urartu Armenia c. 800 BC Málaga Iberia Andalusia, Spain 8th century BC founded as Phoenician Malaka. Rome Latium Lazio, Italy 753 BC Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome. Messina (as Zancle) Sicily Sicily, Italy 8th century BC Syracuse Sicily Sicily, Italy 734 BC A colony of the Greek city of Corinth Reggio Calabria (as Rhegion) Magna Graecia Calabria, Italy 720 BC Crotone Calabria Magna Graecia, Italy 710 BC Taranto (as Taras) Magna Graecia ItalyPuglia, 706 BC Corfu, Kerkyra Corfu Ionian Islands, Greece 700 BC Durrës Illyria Albania 627 BC Founded by settlers from Corcyra & Corinth as Epidamnos Marseille (as Massilia) Gaul France 600 BC A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea Varna Thrace Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria 585 BC - 570 BC founded as Odessos by settlers from Miletus Kavala Macedonia Greece 6th century BC founded as Neapolis Edessa, Greece Macedonia Greece before the 6th century BC capital of Macedonia up to 6th century BC Mangalia Dacia Romania 6th century BC founded as Callatis Constanţa Dacia Romania 6th century BC founded as Tomis Mantua Po Valley Lombardy, Italy 6th century BC Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC. Serres Macedonia Greece 5th century BC first mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris Lamia (city) Greece Greece before the 5th century BC first mentioned 424 BC Veria Macedonia Greece 432 BCca. first mentioned by Thucydides in 432 BC Rhodes Rhodes, Aegean Sea Dodecanese, Greece 408 BCca. Sofia Moesia Sofia Valley, Bulgaria 4th century BC Celtic foundation as Serdica. Metz Gaul France 4th century BC founded as the oppidum of Celtic Mediomatrici. However, Human permanent presence has been established in the site since 2500 BC. Stara Zagora Thrace Bulgaria 342 BC It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by Phillip II of Macedon although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well. Thessaloniki Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Greece 315 BC founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme. Berat Macedonia (ancient kingdom) Albania 314 BC Founded by Cassander as Antipatreia Belgrade Illyria Serbia 279 BC Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. Founded as Singidunum. Niš Illyria Serbia 279 BC Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000-2000 BC. Cartagena (as Carthago Nova) Iberia Spain 228 BC Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca Barcelona (as Barcino) Iberia Catalonia, Spain 3rd century BC Carthaginian colony, founded by Hamilcar Barca Stobi/Gradsko Macedonia Republic of Macedonia 217 BC founded as Stobi by Philip V Sremska Mitrovica Illyria Serbia 1st century BC Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation. Smederevo Illyria Serbia 1st century BC Founded as Semendria. Évora Lusitania Portugal 53 BC (Roman conquer) Evidence of Lusitanian settlement prior to Roman occupation. Paris Lutetia France 52 BC Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC. During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine." While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 CE Zürich (Lindenhof) Gaul Switzerland ca. 50 BC lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic. Trier Gallia Belgica Germany 30 BC Oldest city in Germany. Nijmegen Germania Inferior Netherlands 19 BC Oldest city in the Netherlands. Chur Raetia Prima SwitzerlandGrisons, 15 BC habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture). Tongeren Germania Inferior Belgium 10 BC Oldest city in Belgium. Solothurn Gaul Switzerland c. 20 AD Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 – 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower. London (as Londinium) Britannia UK (England) 43 AD Bath (as Aquae Sulis) Britannia UK (England) 43 AD The city was established as a spa town by the Romans in 43 AD Winchester (as Venta Belgarum) Britannia UK (England) c. 70 AD Winchester was built as a Roman town in c. 70 AD. York (as Eboracum) Britannia UK (England) c. 72 AD The city was founded in or around AD 72 when the 9th Roman Legion set up camp there. Skopje Macedonia (Roman province) Republic of Macedonia 81-96 AD Founded in the time of Domitian as Scupi. Novi Sad Illyria Serbia 1st century AD Founded as Cusum. Verdun Lotharingia France 4th century seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier. Kiev Medieval East Slavic civilization Ukraine 482 CE Founded by Slavic tribe leader Kyi. Some sources suggest Kiev was founded in 640 BC. Aberdeen Pictland UK (Scotland) c. 580 A settlement was established by c. 580 when records show the city's first church was built then. However, there is archaeological evidence of settlements in the area dating back to 6000BC. Edinburgh as Din Eidyn Gododdin UK (Scotland) c. 580 Edinburgh is mention as a settlement in the poem Y Gododdin, traditionally dated to the around the late 6th and early 7th century. The Poem uses The Brythonic name Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) for Edinburgh and describes it as the capital of Gododdin. It is not until around 638 that the city starts being referred to as Edin-burh or Edinburgh, after the city was concurred by the Angles of Bernicia Prague Bohemia Czech Republic c. 6th century The first written record dates back to the 10th century. Inverness Pictland UK (Scotland) c. 6th century A settlement was established by the 6th century when St Columba visited the Pictish King Brude at his fortress there. Glasgow Dál Riata or Alt Clut UK (Scotland) c. 6th century A settlement was founded in the 6th century by St Mungo , who is the city's patron Saint. Ioannina Byzantine Empire Greece 527-565 founded by emperor Justinian I Krakow (Wawel Hill) Lesser Poland Poland 7th c. The first written record dates back to the 10th century. Århus Denmark c. 700 oldest city in Scandinavia. Heraklion Crete Greece 824 founded by the Saracens Dublin Ireland Ireland 841 Reykjavík Iceland Iceland c. 871 Tønsberg Norway Norway c. 871 oldest city in Norway. Xanthi Thrace Greece before 879 first medieval reference as Xantheia Skara Sweden 988 Lund Denmark Sweden c. 990
Central and South Asia
Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes Balkh (as Bactra) Bactria Balkh Province, Afghanistan Islamic traditions have Balkh being founded by Noah after the great flood, but it is better recognised as the birthplace of Zoroaster and it was here where Alexander the Great married Roxana. Ghazni Gandhara Ghazni Province, Afghanistan c. 1500 BC The city was founded by Raja Gaj of Yadu Dynasty around 1500 BC, the area was inhabitated by Buddhists and Hindus until the spread of Islam. Delhi Kuru India ca. 3500 BC A city since the "early centuries BC", continuous habitation likely from the 4th millennium BC, as mentioned in the biography of Anangpal Tomar; one of the oldest serving Capital cities, as believed by British historian Michael Wood to be 5000 years old. Traces of habitation from the 11th century BC. See also History of Delhi. Kabul Aryana Kabul Province, Afghanistan c. 3500 BC Many empires have long fought over the city for its strategic location along the trade routes of South and Central Asia. Thanjavur Sangam Period Tamil Nadu, India 3000 BC Some scholars believe that the city has been existing since the Sangam Period Varanasi Iron Age India Uttar Pradesh, India c. 1200-1000 BC Iron Age foundation (Painted Grey Ware culture). Anuradhapura Rajarata North Central Province, Sri Lanka citation needed]10th century BC[ Ujjain (As Avanti) Malwa India c. 800 BC Rose to prominence in ca 700 BC as capital of Avanti during India's second wave of urbanization. Walled in ca 600 BC. Samarqand Sogdiana Uzbekistan 700 BC Ghōr Mandesh Ghōr Province, Afghanistan c. 5000 BC Remains of the oldest settlements discovered by the Lithuanian archaeologists in 2007 and 2008. Bamyan Bactria Bamyan Province, Afghanistan c. 1 AD with the emergence of the Kushan empire, the city was a halfway point between Balkh and the Kushan capital at Kapisa (near modern Bagram), it grew rich from the trade along the Silk Road between Rome and the Han Chinese. Rajagriha (Rajgir) Magadha Bihar, India 600 BC Herat Aria Herat Province, Afghanistan citation needed]ca. 550 BC[ The city is dominated by the remains of a citadel constructed by Alexander the Great. Patna Magadha Bihar, India Fifth century BC As Pataliputra was founded by Ajatashatru. Madurai Pandyan kingdom IndiaTamilnadu, 500 BC There are accounts of Megasthenes (c. 350 – 290 BC) a Greek ethnographer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica, having visited Madurai (then, a bustling city and capital of Pandya Kingdom). Vaisali Magadha Bihar, India 500 BC Kandahar Arachosia Kandahar Province, Afghanistan c. 5000-7000 BC Excavations by archealogists show that the region around Kandahar is one of the oldest human settlements known so far. Peshawar Gandhara Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan c. 400-300 BC Ongoing excavations in the Gor Khuttree region have given proof of the ancient foundations of the city and have established Peshawar as one of the oldest settlements in Central and South Asia. Kathmandu-Patan, Lalitpur Nepal Kathmandu valley, Nepal c. 2nd Century AD The epigraphically attested history of Kathmandu valley begins in the 2nd century. Folklore speaks of a hoarier past.
East and Southeast Asia
Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes Luoyang (as Zhenxun, Xibo) Xia Dynasty Henan, China ca. 2070 BC Xi'an (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Daxing) Zhou Dynasty Shaanxi, China c. 1100 BC Beijing (as Ji, Yanjing, Dadu, Zhongdu, Beiping) Yan Hebei, China citation needed]ca. 1000 BC[ There were cities in the vicinities of Beijing by the 1st millennium BC, and the capital of the State of Yan (473-221 BC), Ji (薊/蓟), was established in present-day Beijing. Chengdu Shu Sichuan, China c. 400 BC The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian. Nanjing (as Yecheng, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling) Wu Jiangsu, China ca. 495 BC Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area. Kaifeng (as Daling, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing) Wei Henan, China ca. 364 BC The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁）as its capital in this area. Guangzhou (as Canton) Qin Dynasty Guangdong, China 214 BC Hangzhou (as Lin'an) Qin Dynasty Zhejiang, China c. 200 BC The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty. Palembang Srivijaya Indonesia c. 600 oldest city in the Malay Archipelago, capital of the Srivijaya empire. Manila Kingdom of Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila Philippines 900 oldest known settlement in the Philippines as documented by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; when the Spanish, led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one datu.
Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes Luxor (as Waset, better known by its Greek name Thebes) Ancient Egypt Egypt ca. 3200 BC First established as capital of Upper Egypt, Thebes later became the religious capital of the nation until its decline in the Roman period. Ife Osun State, Nigeria ca. 350 BC earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC. Yeha D'mt Ethiopia ca.700 BC Oldest site of continuous habitation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Axum Kingdom of Axum Ethiopia ca.400 BC Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum Igodomigodo Kingdom of Benin Nigeria c. 400 BC City of Benin, one of the oldest cities in Nigeria Djenné-Jeno Mali ca.200 BC oldest known city in sub-Saharan Africa Mogadishu Somalia c. 900 settled by Arab traders Alexandria Egypt 332 BC Founded by Alexander the Great Lamu Kenya c.1300 Founded by Swahili settlers some time in the 14th century Ghadames (as Cydamus) Libya 19 BC Roman town founded in 19 BC but "archaeological evidence shows occupation of the area in the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras" Fes (as Fes-al-Bali) Morocco 789 Founded as the new capital of the Idrisid Dynasty Marrakesh (Murakuc) Morocco 1070 Foundeded by the Almoravid Dynasty Old Cairo Egypt ca. 100 Babylon Fortress moved to its current location in the reign of Emperor Trajan, forming the core of Old or Coptic Cairo
New World and Oceania
Name Location Continuously inhabited since Notes Cholula Mexico c. 2nd century BC Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century. Oldest still-inhabitated city in the Americas. Acoma Pueblo and Taos Pueblo, New Mexico USA 1075 (ca.) Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the USA (although not "cities") Oraibi, Arizona USA 1100 (ca.) Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the USA (although not a "city") Mexico City Mexico 1325 Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Named changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, Xochimilco and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas. Santo Domingo Dominican Republic 1496 Oldest European settlement in the New World San Juan Puerto Rico (USA) 1508 Oldest continuously inhabited city in a U.S. territory Nombre de Dios, Colón Panama 1510 Oldest European settlement on the mainlands of the Americas Baracoa Cuba 1511 Oldest European settlement in Cuba Vera Cruz Mexico 1519 Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement continental America. Panama City Panama 1519 Oldest city in the Americas on the Pacific Ocean and oldest European settlement on the Pacific. Santa Marta Colombia 1525 Oldest still-inhabited city founded by Spaniards in Colombia. São Vicente, São Paulo Brazil 1532 First Portuguese settlement in South America St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador Canada 1540s Oldest city in Canada, and oldest English-speaking city in the Americas Santiago del Estero Argentina 1553 Oldest continuously inhabited city in Argentina St. Augustine, Florida USA 1565 Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city within the United States Jamestown, Virginia USA 1607 First permanent English established settlement in the Americas. Quebec City Canada 1608 Second oldest city in Canada and oldest French-speaking city in the Americas. Albany, New York USA 1614 Followed by Jersey City, New Jersey (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and didn't become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.) Plymouth, Massachusetts USA 1620 Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States Saint John Canada 1631 Third oldest city in Canada Trois-Rivières Canada 1634 Fourth oldest city in Canada Montreal Canada 1642 Fifth oldest city in Canada Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan USA 1668 Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest American city west of the Appalachian Mountains. San Diego USA 1769 Birthplace of California and oldest city on the West Coast of the United States Sydney Australia 1788 Oldest city in Australia Hobart Australia 1803 Second oldest city in Australia Kerikeri New Zealand c. 1818 Oldest European settlement in New Zealand
- Cities of the ancient Near East
- Historical cities
- Historical urban community sizes
- List of American cities by year of foundation (includes ancient native sites)
- ^ Burns, Ross (New edition 2007). Damascus: A History. Routledge. p. 2. ISBN 978-0415413176. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xTs77Ft6FXQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Damascus+inhabited+continuously&hl=en&ei=pavuTPSDG8yAhAfTzqCADA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=continuously&f=false.
- ^ Gates, Charles (2003). "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities". Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 0415018951. "Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Israel, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East."
- ^ Martell, Hazel Mary (2001). "The Fertile Crescent". The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome. Kingfisher Publications. p. 18. ISBN 0753453975. "People first settled there from around 9000 B.C., and by 8000 B.C., the community was organized enough to build a stone wall to defend the city."
- ^ Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4.
- ^ Ryan, Donald P. (1999). "Digging up the Bible". The Complete Idiot's Guide to Lost Civilizations. Alpha Books. p. 137. ISBN 002862954X. "The city was walled during much of its history and the evidence indicates that it was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times."
- ^ Kenneth Kitchen, "On the Reliability of the Old Testament" (Eerdmans 2003), pp.187
- ^ a b Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2006). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa. ABC-CLIO. p. 104. ISBN 1576079198. http://books.google.com/books?id=3SapTk5iGDkC&pg=PA104&dq=byblos+continually+inhabited&ei=AoJnSsLIOpDQkwSY5tTtAg. Retrieved 2009-07-22. "Archaeological excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C."
- ^ Ciasca, Antonia (2001). "Phoenicia". In Sabatino Moscati. The Phoenicians. I.B.Tauris. p. 170. ISBN 1850435332.
- ^ Sidon
- ^ Overy et al. (1999:43); Aldred (1998:42,44)
- ^ The world's oldest cities, telegraph.co.uk
- ^ Gaziantep
- ^ Gaziantep
- ^ a b "Rayy", Encyclopedia Britannica
- ^ Under Beirut's Rubble, Remnants of 5,000 Years of Civilization
- ^ See Positions on Jerusalem
- ^ Freedman, David Noel (2000-01-01). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–695. ISBN 0802824005.
- ^ Tyre City, Lebanon
- ^ Jenin Governorate.
- ^ 
- ^ Lexic Orient
- ^ either The destruction of the Kirkuk Castle by the Iraqi regime. or History Channel for the earlier date
- ^ Excavations at Ancient Jaffa (Joppa). Tel Aviv University.
- ^ New World Encyclopedia
- ^ Syria Where Stones Speak The Door Is Widening To Westerners, Who Are Discovering The Nation'S Wealth Of History And Culture
- ^ Museum With No Frontiers (2004). Pilgrimage, sciences and Sufism: Islamic art in the West Bank and Gaza. Museum With No Frontiers. p. 253. ISBN 9953360642, 9789953360645.
- ^ Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E.; Abu-Lughod, Janet L. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 155. ISBN 1576079198, 9781576079195.
- ^ "Life at the Crossroads [New Edition: A History of Gaza"]. Rimal Books. http://www.rimalbooks.com/life-the-crossroads-new-edition-p-559.html. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- ^ International dictionary of historic places By Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, K. A. Berney, Paul E. Schellinger
- ^ Nablus Municipality.
- ^ http://ammancity100.gov.jo/en/content/story-amman/end-ummayad-era-till-1878 Via GAM Official Website
- ^ S. Immerwahr, The Athenian Agora XII: the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, Princeton 1971
- ^ "v4.ethnos.gr - Οι πρώτοι... Αθηναίοι - τεχνες , πολιτισμος". Ethnos.gr. http://www.ethnos.gr/article.asp?catid=11380&subid=2&tag=8796&pubid=2530782. Retrieved 2010-01-25.
- ^ Bolender, Douglas J. (2010-09-17). Eventful Archaeologies: New Approaches to Social Transformation in the Archaeological Record. SUNY Press. pp. 129–. ISBN 9781438434230. http://books.google.com/books?id=TSLeX0GRNqwC&pg=PA121&dq=Argos+%2B7,000&hl=en&ei=6rYjTZPILYq2sAPL1NTEAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Argos%20%2B7%2C000&f=false. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- ^ The World's Oldest Cities, The Daily Telegraph
- ^ Детев, П. Разкопки на Небет тепе в Пловдив, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 27-30
- ^ Ботушарова, Л. Стратиграфски проучвания на Небет тепе, ГПАМ, 5, 1963, pp. 66-70
- ^ Rodwell, Dennis (2007). Conservation and Sustainability in Historic cities. Blackwell Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 1405126566.
- ^ Plovdiv: New ventures for Europe’s oldest inhabited city, The Courier, January/February 2010
- ^ andalucia.com; The Independent
- ^ Ivelja-Dalmatin, Ana (2009). Pula. Tourist Monograph. 2005-2009, page 7
- ^ M. Suić, Prošlost Zadra I, Zadar u starom vijeku, Filozofski fakultet Zadar, 1981
- ^ "Greek Naples". Faculty.ed.umuc.edu. 8 January 2008. http://faculty.ed.umuc.edu/~jmatthew/naples/Greek_Naples.html.
- ^ (Armenian) Baghdasaryan A., Simonyan A, et al. «Երևան» (Yerevan). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. iii. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 548-564.
- ^ The Phoenicians and the West: politics, colonies and trade. María Eugenia Aubet
- ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 330,"Epidamnos was founded in either 627 or 625 (Hieron. Chron"
- ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen,2005,page 936,
- ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, ISBN 0521227178, 1992, page 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long being supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin."
- ^ Women and slaves in Greco-Roman culture: differential equations by Sandra Rae Joshel, Sheila Murnaghan,1998,page 214,"Philip II founded cities at Beroe, Kabyle, and Philippopolis in 342/1, and Aegean-style urban life began to penetrate Thrace."
- ^ Late Roman villas in the Danube-Balkan region by Lynda Mulvin,2002,page 19,"Other roads went through Beroe (founded by Philip II of Macedon)",
- ^ Philip of Macedon by Louïza D. Loukopoulou,1980,page 98, "Upriver in the valley between the Rhodope and Haimos Philip founded Beroe (Stara Zagora) and Philippolis (Plovdiv)."
- ^ The cities in Thrace and Dacia in late antiquity: (studies and materials) by Velizar Iv Velkov,1977,page 128, "Founded by Philipp 11 on the site of an old Thracian settlement, it has existed without interruption from that time."
- ^ Epirus: the geography, the ancient remains, the history and topography of ... by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,"founded Antipatreia in Illyria at c. 314 BC"
- ^ Pars.culture.fr
- ^ Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic Wars, book 7
- ^ Parisinfo.com
- ^ Classical Antiquities, by Johann Joachim Eschenburg, 1860, p 6
- ^ Visit Bath, History and Heritage | http://visitbath.co.uk/site/media/information-sheets/history-and-heritage
- ^ Lambert T., A SHORT HISTORY OF WINCHESTER, HAMPSHIRE, ENGLAND, http://www.localhistories.org/winchester.html
- ^ York Museums Trust, History of York.org.uk , Roman, http://www.historyofyork.org.uk/themes/roman
- ^ City of Aberdeen, http://www.scottishaccommodationindex.com/aberdeenpics.htm
- ^ Hurlstone K., and Jackson, A, (1969), The Gododdin: the oldest Scottish poem , Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. P. 4 - ISBN 978-0852240496 (http://books.google.co.uk/books?ei=CXr7Te7xMMqV8QPPo7yqCQ&ct=result&id=gJdiAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Gododdin%3A+The+Oldest+Scottish+Poem+%281969%29+by+Kenneth+Hurlstone+Jackson%3B&q=Din+Eidyn#search_anchor )
- ^ http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/britannia/saxonadvent/edinburgh.html
- ^ Abraham ben Jacob
- ^ Lambert, T., A BRIEF HISTORY OF INVERNESS, SCOTLAND, http://www.localhistories.org/inverness.html
- ^ Glasgows-timeline |(http://www.seeglasgow.com/seeglasgow/about-glasgow/glasgows-timeline
- ^ Saint Mungo | http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/plaza/aaj50/mungo.htm
- ^ wawel.krakow.pl
- ^ Reykjavik871.is
- ^ Lund.se
- ^ History of Delhi
- ^ The Story of India by Michael Wood for BBC
- ^ Britannica: "by the 2nd millennium BC"
- ^ Indiasite.com
- ^ The estimated year Sravasti was surpassed by Rajagriha is not given in Chandler and Fox’s list (pp. 362-364).
- ^ "Pataliputra". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/446536/Patna#ref268618. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- ^ Megasthenes
- ^ Irows.ucr.edu
- ^ World-archaeology.com
- ^ Gor Khuttree
- ^ "Expert on past dies; 82". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 2008-10-21. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/view/20081021-167699/Expert-on-past-dies-82. Retrieved 2008-11-17.
- ^ http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/egyptkarnak.htm
- ^ http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ife/hd_ife.htm
- ^ David W. Phillipson, Ancient Churches of Ethiopia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), p. 36
- ^ McIntosh, Susan Keech; McIntosh, Roderick J., Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city, Rice University Anthropology, http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500
- ^ I.M. Lewis, Peoples of the Horn of Africa: Somali, Afar, and Saho, Issue 1, (International African Institute: 1955), p.47
- ^ http://www.citymayors.com/culture/historic_africa.html
- ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1055
- ^ http://archnet.org/library/places/one-place.jsp?place_id=1694&order_by=title&showdescription=1
- ^ "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 Mar. 2007
- ^ http://www.moroccanembassylondon.org.uk/en/Beauty%20Spots%20and%20Monuments.html
- ^ http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/babylon.htm
- ^ Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is sometimes cited for this, was abandoned due to Indian raiding from 1680 - 1692, and it's inhabitants did not succeed in living in the area continuously until after 1692.
- Aldred, Cyril (1998). The Egyptians. Thames and Hudson: London.
- Overy et al. (1999). The Times History of The World: New Edition. Times Books/Harper-Collins: London.
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