Quebec law

Quebec law is unique in Canada because Quebec is the only province in Canada to have a civil law system.

The Quebec legal system came into effect with the creation of New France in 1663. Under the rule of Louis XIV, Quebec adopted the Custom of Paris as legislated in 1664. The administration of justice was based on the inquisitorial method. In 1763, with the Royal Proclamation of 1763, English Law replaced "La Coutume de Paris" in both the civil domaine as well as the criminal domaine. In 1774, the Act of Quebec re-established civil law system for Quebec with respect to private law (droit civil) and property.

The Act of Quebec of 1774 is carried into article 92(13) of the Canadian Constitution (1867) granting exclusive rights to the Provinces over "property and civil rights". While the other provinces apply the Common Law System, Quebec continues to apply the Civil Law System for "property and civil rights". That is to say that Quebec is subject to Common Law, equally as all other provinces and territories, to all other matters which are under provincial or federal jurisdiction.

There may be some overlapping and contradictions between the two Law Systems. For example, the Canadian Constitution provides with article 91(26) that Marriage and Divorce be subject to Federal Jurisdiction. The celebration of Marriage follows the procedure outlined in the Quebec Civil Code. However, Divorce is subject to Federal Law and Regulations and concepts such as "in loco parentis" which is a common law concept, have no equivalent in the Civil Law System which only acknowledges the biological or legally adoptive relationship with offspring.

Lawyers in Quebec must have a civil law degree and complete a "stage" (apprenticeship) and a bar admission course before they can practise. Criminal law is, however, based on the common law system. See Law of Canada.

Civil Code

By 1866 Quebec adopted the Civil Code of Lower Canada, for "property and civil rights", based on and inspired by the Napoleonic Code of 1804. The Quebec Civil Code of Lower Canada consisted of four books:
#Persons;
#Property and its Different Modifications;
#Acquisition and Exercise of Rights of Property;
#Commercial Law.

Quebec's current civil code, the Civil Code of Quebec, came into force in 1994. It consists of ten books:
# Persons
# The Family
# Successions
# Property
# Obligations
# Hypothecs
# Evidence
# Prescription (Expirations/Deadlines)
# Publication of Rights
# Private International Law

ee also

* Louisiana Law

*Legal systems of the world

The complete Civil Code of Quebec online [http://www.lexum.umontreal.ca/ccq/]


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