- Wisdom of repugnance
The term "wisdom of repugnance", or the yuck' factor""',Cite news|author=Cohen, Patricia|title=Economists Dissect the ‘Yuck’ Factor|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/31/arts/31gross.html?_r=2&oref=slogin&oref=slogin |work=
The New York Times|year=2008|month=Jan 31] describes the belief that an intuitive (or "deep-seated") negative response to some thing, idea or practice should be interpreted as evidencefor the intrinsically harmful or evilcharacter of that thing. Furthermore, it refers to the notion that wisdommay manifest itself in feelings of disgusttowards anything which lacks "goodness" or wisdom, though the feelings or the reasoning of such 'wisdom' may not be immediately explicable through reason.
Origin and usage
The term was coined in 1997 by
Leon Kass, chairman (2001-2005) of the President's Council on Bioethics, in an article in " The New Republic",Cite news|author=Kass, Leon R.|title=The Wisdom of Repugnance|work= The New Republic|issue=216|year=1997|month=|pages=17–26|publisher= CanWest|location= Washington, DCClarifyme|date=November 2007 ] which was later expanded into a further (2001) article in the same magazine,Cite news|last=Kass|first=Leon R|title=Preventing a Brave New World: Why We Should Ban Human Cloning Now|work=The New Republic|date= May 21, 2001|pages=30–39] and also incorporated into his 2002 book "Life, Liberty, and the Defense of Dignity".Cite book|last=Kass|first=Leon R.|title=Life, Liberty, and the Defense of Dignity|year=2002|publisher=Encounter Books|id=ISBN 1893554554] Kass stated that disgust was not an argument "per se", but went on to say that "in crucial cases...repugnance is the emotional expression of deep wisdom, beyond reason's power fully to articulate it."
The term remains largely confined to discussions of
bioethics, and is somewhat related to the term "yuck factor". However, unlike the latter, it is used almost exclusively by those who accept its underlying premise; i.e., that repugnance does, in fact, indicate wisdom. It is thus often viewed as loaded language, and is primarily used by certain bioconservatives to justify their position.
The "wisdom of repugnance" is often used to justify so-called "knee-jerk" negative reactions to
cloning(particularly of humans), genetic engineering, and other contentious subjects. One who adheres to this thesis may consider it unnecessary ("in crucial cases") to examine an issue logically, or to debate dissenting arguments.
The term has since migrated to other controversies, such as
same-sex marriage, abortion, pornography, alternative sexualities, coprophagia, and cannibalism. In all cases, it expresses the view that one's "gut reaction" is sufficient to discredit a sufficiently objectionable premise.
The wisdom of repugnance has been widely criticized, both as an example of a fallacious
appeal to emotionand for an underlying premise which seems to reject rationalism. Although mainstream science concedes that a sense of disgustmost likely evolved as a useful defense mechanism (e.g. in that it tends to prevent or prohibit potentially harmful behaviour such as incest, cannibalism, and coprophagia), social psychologists question whether the instinct can serve any moral or logical value when removed from the context in which it was originally acquired.
Some critics such as
Martha Nussbaumexplicitly oppose the concept of a disgust-based morality. Nussbaum notes that disgust has been used throughout history as a justification for persecution. For example, at various times racism, antisemitism, sexism, and homophobiahave all been driven by popular revulsion.Cite web|author=Nussbaum, Martha C.|url= http://chronicle.com/free/v50/i48/48b00601.htm |title=Danger to Human Dignity: The Revival of Disgust and Shame in the Law|work= The Chronicle of Higher Education|date= August 6, 2004|accessdate=2007-11-24|location=Washington, DC]
Other critics base their criticism on a broader defense of rationalism.
Stephen Jay Gouldhas remarked that "our prejudices often overwhelm our limited information. They are so venerable, so reflexive, so much a part of our second nature, that we never stop to recognize their status as social decisions with radical alternatives — and we view them instead as given and obvious truths."Cite book|author=Gould, Stephen Jay|year=1997|title=|year=1997|publisher=Harmony|id=ISBN 0517708493]
British bioethicist John Harris has replied to Kass's view by arguing that, "there is no necessary connection between phenomena, attitudes, or actions that make us uneasy, or even those that disgust us, and those phenomena, attitudes, and actions that there are good reasons for judging unethical. Nor does it follow that those things we are confident are unethical must be prohibited by legislation or regulation."Cite book|author=Harris, John|title=Clones, Genes, and Immortality: Ethics and the Genetic Revolution|location=Oxford|publisher=
Oxford University Press|year=1998|page=37|id=ISBN 0192880802]
The word "squick" was created within
BDSMsubculture in reaction to this sort of reasoning, and denotes a "gut reaction" of disgust without the implication of any sort of actual moral judgement.Cite web|url= http://www.doubletongued.org/index.php/dictionary/squick/ |title=Squick|work=Double-Tongued Dictionary|date= June 23, 2005|accessdate=2007-11-24|author=Barrett, Grant (ed.)|location= Brooklyn, NY|publisher=Grant Barrett]
Appeal to emotion
*Cite web|author=Hughes, James|url= http://archives.betterhumans.com/Columns/Column/tabid/79/Column/241/Default.aspx |title=Repugnance Isn't WisdomClarifyme|date=November 2007
*Cite book|last=McGee|first=Glenn|title=The Perfect Baby: A Pragmatic Approach to Genetics|edition=2nd ed.|id=ISBN 0-8476-9759-2|year=2000|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|location=
New York, NY|chapter="Playing God: Fears About Genetic Engineering" [http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/285/5/656 Reviewed] in "The Journal of the American Medical Association" (subscription required; access date November 24, 2007)
*Cite web|last=Parisi|first=Mike|url= http://www.orionsarm.com/books/Wisdom_of_Repugnance.html |title=The Wisdom of Repugnance: A Critique of Leon Kass|date=
March 26, 2004|work= Orion's Arm|pages="Book Reviews" section|accessdate=2007-11-24Rs|date=November 2007
*Cite web|author=Bloom, Paul|url= http://www.guardian.co.uk/life/feature/story/0,13026,1265921,00.html |title=To Urgh Is Human|work=
The Guardian|date= July 22, 2004|pages="Science" section|accessdate=2007-11-24|publisher= Guardian Media Group|location=London and Manchester
*Cite web|last=Horgan|first=John|url= http://www.science-spirit.org/article_detail.php?article_id=439 |title=The Politics of Science|work=Science & Spirit|date=September/October 2004|accessdate=2007-11-24|publisher=
Heldref Publications|location=Washington, DC
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