- West Virginia in the American Civil War
American Civil War
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- West Virginia
The U.S. state of West Virginia was formed out of western Virginia and added to the Union as a direct result of the American Civil War (see History of West Virginia). In the summer of 1861, Union troops under General George McClellan drove off Confederate troops under General Robert E. Lee. This essentially freed Unionists in the northwestern counties of Virginia to form their own government as a result of the Wheeling Convention. After Lee's departure, western Virginia continued to be a target of Confederate raids, even after the creation of the new state in 1863. These actions focused both on supplying the Confederate Army with provisions as well as attacking the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad that linked the northeast with the midwest, as exemplified in the Jones-Imboden Raid. Guerrilla warfare also gripped the new state, especially in the Allegheny Mountain counties to the east, where loyalties were much more divided than in the Unionist northwest part of the state.
Despite its central location and disputed territory, West Virginia suffered comparatively little. Early in the war, Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led the Great Train Raid of 1861, which resulted in the capture of several locomotives and rolling stock of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Jackson later led his men in what became known as the Romney Expedition, an unsuccessful attempt to firmly establish Confederate control over western Virginia. In a series of relatively small battles, McClellan's forces gained possession of the greater part of the territory in the summer of 1861. Later that year Robert E. Lee attempted to retake western Virginia but was ultimately defeated by a far smaller Union force at the Battle of Cheat Mountain. A key part of the Union strategy in West Virginia for the rest of the war was to keep the vital Baltimore and Ohio Railroad open as a major supply and troop transportation route.
On June 20, 1861, delegates from the trans-Allegheny counties of Virginia (who had voted overwhelmingly against secession) met at the Second Wheeling Convention and declared that because Richmond had seceded all state offices had been vacated. The Convention stepped into the role of filling these state offices calling itself the Restored State of Virginia .
A continuing and important mission was to protect the vast supply warehouses and munitions factories at Harpers Ferry. However, the town fell to Stonewall Jackson during early days of the Maryland Campaign, and the surrender of its Federal garrison was the largest capture of U.S. Army troops until World War II nearly eighty years later. With Lee's retreat to Virginia following the Battle of Antietam, Union forces again occupied Harpers Ferry. The Maryland Campaign concluded in what became West Virginia with the Battle of Shepherdstown.
In 1863, Brig. Gen. John D. Imboden, with 5,000 Confederates, overran a considerable portion of the state and tore up sections of the B&O Railroad. Bands of guerrillas burned and plundered in some sections, and were not entirely suppressed until after the war was ended.
On June 20, 1863, the newly proclaimed state of West Virginia was admitted to the Union.
A Confederate brigade of cavalry under antebellum U.S. Congressman Albert G. Jenkins saw considerable action during the Gettysburg Campaign, as well as other major campaigns. A number of West Virginia regiments were distinguished for their war records, including the 7th West Virginia Infantry which assaulted the Sunken Road at Antietam and rushed onto Cemetery Hill in the twilight at the Battle of Gettysburg to help push back the famed Louisiana Tigers. The 3rd West Virginia Cavalry also fought well at Gettysburg as a part of John Buford's veteran cavalry division that defended McPherson's Ridge on the first day of the battle.
Slavery was officially abolished February 3, 1865.
All the northern states had free public school systems before the war, but not the border states. West Virginia set up its system in 1863. Over bitter opposition it established an almost-equal education for black children, most of whom were ex-slaves.
On May 28, 1861 one of the first trials of the Civil War for sabotage took place in Parkersburg, Virginia. A group of men were found playing cards under a B&O railroad bridge and arrested by Federal authorities. The trial was conducted by Judge William Lowther Jackson (later, Gen. W.L. Jackson, C.S.A.). The men were acquitted, since no actual crime had taken place, but Parkersburg was split over the verdict, and Judge Jackson left to join Col. Porterfield at Philippi.
With the defeat of Confederate forces at the Battle of Philippi and the Battle of Cheat Mountain only occasionally would they occupy parts of western Virginia. Local supporters of Richmond were left to their own devices. Many guerrilla units originated in the pre-war militia, and these were designated Virginia State Rangers and starting in June, 1862, these were incorporated into Virginia State Line regiments. By March, 1863, however, many were enlisted in the regular Confederate army.
There were others though who operated without sanction of the Richmond government, some fighting on behalf of the Confederacy, while others were nothing more than bandits who preyed on Union and Confederate alike. Early in the war captured guerrillas were sent to Camp Chase or Johnson Island in Ohio, Fort Delaware in Delaware and also the Atheneum in Wheeling. Some were paroled after taking an oath, but many returned to their guerrilla activities. The Union authorities began to organize their own guerrilla bands, the most famous of which was the "Snake Hunters", headed by Capt. Baggs. They patrolled Wirt and Calhoun counties through the winter of 1861-62 and captured scores of Moccasin Rangers, which they sent as prisoners to Wheeling.
The fight against the rebel guerrillas took a new turn under Gen. John C. Fremont and Col. George Crook, who had spent his pre-war career as an "Indian fighter" in the Pacific Northwest. Col. Crook took command of the 36th Ohio Infantry, centered around Summersville, Nicholas County. He trained them in guerrilla tactics and adopted a "no prisoners" policy.
On January 1, 1862, Crook led his men on an expedition north to Sutton, Braxton County, where he believed Confederate forces were located. None were found, but his troops encountered heavy guerrilla resistance and responded by burning houses and towns along the line of march. But by August, 1862, Unionist efforts were severely hampered with the withdrawal of troops to eastern Virginia.
In this vacuum Gen. William W. Loring, C.S.A, recaptured the Kanawha valley, Gen. Albert Gallatin Jenkins, C.S.A., moved his forces through central West Virginia, capturing many supplies and prisoners. Confederate recruitment increased, Gen. Loring opening recruitment offices as far north as Ripley.
In response to rebel raids, Gen. Robert H. Milroy issued a command demanding reparations to be paid in cash and proceeded to assess fines against Tucker county citizens, guilty or not, and threated them with the gallows or house-burning. Jefferson Davis and Confederate authorities lodged formal complaints with Gen. Henry Wager Halleck in Washington, who censured Gen. Milroy. However, Milroy argued in defense of his policy and was allowed to proceed.
By early 1863 Union efforts in West Virginia were going badly. Unionists were losing confidence in the Wheeling government to protect them, and with the approaching dismemberment of Virginia into two states guerrilla activity increased in an effort to prevent organization of county governments. By 1864 some stability had been achieved in some central counties, but guerrilla activity was never effectively countered. Union forces that were needed elsewhere were tied down in what many soldiers considered a backwater of the war. But Federal forces could not afford to ignore any rebel territory, particularly one so close to the Ohio River.
As late as January, 1865, Gov. Arthur I. Boreman complained of large scale guerrilla activity as far north as Harrison and Marion counties. In one last, brazen act of the guerrilla war, McNeill's Rangers of Hardy County kidnapped Generals George Crook and Benjamin F. Kelley from behind Union lines and delivered them as prisoners of war to Richmond. The Confederate surrender at Appomattox finally brought an end to guerrilla war in West Virginia.
On May 30, 1861, Brig. Gen. George B. McClellan in Cincinnati wrote to President Lincoln: "I am confidently assured that very considerable numbers of volunteers can be raised in Western Virginia...". After nearly two months in the field in West Virginia he was less optimistic. He wrote to Gov. Francis Harrison Pierpont of the Restored Government of Virginia in Wheeling that he and his army were anxious to assist the new government, but that eventually they would be needed elsewhere, and that he urged that troops be raised "among the population". "Before I left Grafton I made requisitions for arms clothing etc for 10,000 Virginia troops – I fear that my estimate was much too large." On August 3, 1861, the Wellsburg "Herald" editorialized "A pretty condition Northwestern Virginia is in to establish herself as a separate state...after all the drumming and all the gas about a separate state she has actually organized in the field four not entire regiments of soldiers and one of these hails almost entirely from the Panhandle."
Similar difficulties were experienced by Confederate authorities at the beginning of the war. On May 14, 1861, Col. George A. Porterfield arrived in Grafton to secure volunteers, and reported slow enlistment. Col. Porterfield's difficulty ultimately, however, was lack of support by the Richmond government, which did not send enough guns, tents and other supplies. He eventually turned away hundreds of volunteers due to lack of equipment. Gen. Henry A. Wise also complained of recruitment in the Kanawha valley, though he eventually assembled 2,500 infantry, 700 cavalry, three battalions of artillery for a total of 4,000 men which became known as "Wise's Legion". One regiment from the Wise legion, the 3rd Infantry (later reorganized as the 60th Virginia Infantry) was sent to South Carolina in 1862, and it was from Maj. Thomas Broun of the 3rd Infantry that Gen. Robert E. Lee bought his famous horse Traveller.
In April 1862 the Confederate government instituted a military draft, and nearly a year later the U.S. government did the same. The Confederate draft was not generally effective in West Virginia due to the breakdown of Virginia state government in the western counties and Union occupation of the northern counties, although conscription did occur in the southern counties. In the southern and eastern counties of West Virginia Confederate recruitment continued at least until the beginning of 1865.
The Wheeling government asked for an exemption to the Federal draft, saying that they had exceeded their quota under previous calls. An exemption was granted for 1864, but in 1865 a new demand was made for troops, which Gov. Boreman struggled to fill. In some counties, ex-Confederates suddenly found themselves enrolled in the U.S. Army.
The loyalty of some Federal troops had been questioned early in the war. The rapid conquest of northern West Virginia had caught a number of Southern sympathizers behind Union lines. A series of letters to Gen. Samuels and Gov. Pierpoint in the Dept. of Archives and History in Charleston, most dated 1862, reveal the concern of Union officers. Col. Harris, 10th Company, March 27, 1862, to Gov. Pierpoint: "The election of officers in the Gilmer County Company was a farce. The men elected were rebels and bushwhackers. The election of these men was intended, no doubt, as a burlesque on the reorganization of the militia."
There has never been an official count of Confederate service in West Virginia. Early estimates were very low, in 1901 historians Fast & Maxwell placed the figure at about 7,000. An exception to the low estimates is found in Why The Solid South?, whose authors believed the Confederate numbers exceeded Union numbers. In subsequent histories the estimates rose, Otis K. Rice placed the number at 10,000-12,000. Richard O. Curry in 1964 placed the figure at 15,000. The first detailed study of Confederate soldiery estimates the number at 18,000, which is close to the 18,642 figure stated by the Confederate Dept. of Western Virginia in 1864. In 1989 a study by James Carter Linger estimated the number at nearly 22,000.
The official number of Union soldiers from West Virginia is 31,884 as stated by the Provost Marshal General of the United States. These numbers include, however, re-enlistment figures as well as out-of-state soldiers who enlisted in West Virginia regiments. In 1905 Charles H. Ambler estimated the number of native Union soldiers to be about 20,000.
Richard Current estimated native Union numbers at 29,000. In his calculations, however, he only allowed for a deduction of 2,000 out-of-state soldiers in West Virginia regiments. Ohio contributed nearly 5,000, and with the deduction of Pennsylvania and other state's volunteers that estimate is reduced considerably.
The West Virginia Dept. of Archives and History believes that Confederate and Union numbers were about equal though they give no specific numbers. The George Tyler Moore Center in Shepherdstown estimates the Union numbers to be 22,000-25,000.George Tyler Moore Center
Civil War battles in West Virginia
The Operations in Western Virginia Campaign:
- Battle of Philippi (June 3, 1861), Barbour County – Union victory propels George McClellan into limelight.
- Battle of Hoke's Run (July 2, 1861), Berkeley County – Stonewall Jackson successfully delays a larger Union force.
- Battle of Laurel Hill (July 7–11, 1861), Barbour County – Morris routes Confederate troops in 5 days of skirmishing at Belington
- Battle of Rich Mountain (July 11, 1861), Randolph County – Another McClellan victory propels him to high command.
- Battle of Corrick's Ford (July 13, 1861), Tucker County – Confederate Brig. Gen. Robert S. Garnett is the first general officer killed in the war.
- Battle of Kessler's Cross Lanes (August 26, 1861), Nicholas County – Confederates rout Tyler's Union force; Lee arrives soon after.
- Battle of Carnifex Ferry (September 10, 1861), Nicholas County – Rosecrans drives back the Confederates and wins more territory.
- Battle of Cheat Mountain (September 12–15, 1861), Pocahontas County – Lee is beaten and is recalled to Richmond.
- Battle of Greenbrier River (October 3, 1861), Pocahontas County – Inconclusive fight brings only bloodshed, but no resolution.
- Battle of Camp Allegheny (December 13, 1861), Pocahontas County – Union attack is repulsed and both sides camp for the winter.
- Battle of Hancock (January 5–6, 1862), Morgan County – Stonewall Jackson's operations against the B&O Railroad.
- Battle of the Henry Clark House (May 1, 1862), Mercer County, West Virginia – Stonewall Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign – Cox's actions against Princeton and the Tennessee & Virginia Railroad at Dublin, Virginia.
- Battle of Princeton Courthouse (May 16–18, 1862), Mercer County, West Virginia – Jackson's Shenandoah Valley Campaign – Cox's actions against the Tennessee & Virginia Railroad at Dublin, Virginia.
- Battle of Harpers Ferry (September 12–15, 1862), Jefferson County – Jackson surrounds the town and forces its garrison to surrender.
- Battle of Charleston (September 13, 1862), Kanawha County – Confederates take Charleston, occupying it for six weeks.
- Battle of Shepherdstown (September 19–20, 1862), Jefferson County – A. P. Hill's counterattack secures Lee's retreat from Sharpsburg.
- Battle of Hurricane Creek (1863), Putnam County – Skirmish between Union & Confederate forces.
- Battle of Droop Mountain (November 6, 1863), Pocahontas County – As a result of the Union victory, Confederate resistance in the state essentially collapsed.
- Battle of Moorefield (August 7, 1864), Hardy County – Union cavalry drives off John McCausland's Confederate cavalry.
- Battle of Summit Point (August 21, 1864), Jefferson County – Inconclusive action during Union Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign.
- Battle of Smithfield Crossing (August 25–29, 1864), Jefferson and Berkeley counties – Inconclusive. Two of Jubal Early's infantry divisions force back a Union cavalry division and are stopped by an infantry counterattack.
- George B. McClellan - Led first Union forces into western Virginia and secured early victories and publicity.
- William Starke Rosecrans - Effective subordinate to McClellan, won independent victory at Rich Mountain, but was sent west.
- Robert H. Milroy - Led Union forces in several early battles; failed to achieve a significant victory.
- Fitz John Porter - Early actions in western Virginia helped secure place as key subordinate to McClellan.
- Jesse L. Reno - Major General from Wheeling and former classmate of Stonewall Jackson, died in battle in 1862.
- Eliakim P. Scammon - Operated against guerrillas in the Kanawha Valley
- Robert E. Lee - Tried to unite scattered CSA forces; failed to win major victory and was recalled to Richmond.
- Edward Johnson - Gained nickname "Allegheny" for stubborn defense of Allegheny Mountain.
- Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson - Led early Confederate offensive that accomplished very little strategically. Withdrew under superior enemy forces.
- Albert G. Jenkins - Former Congressman who led a brigade of western Virginia cavalrymen.
- William N. Pendleton - Lee's artillery commander who helped delay the Union pursuit at Shepherdstown after Antietam
- Ambrose P. Hill - Led hard-hitting counterattack at Shepherdstown that drove the Yankees into the Potomac River.
- Belle Boyd - Effective spy who provided intelligence to the Confederate commanders
- John McCausland - Confederate cavalry raider who sacked the B&O Railroad and sparred with Union forces in West Virginia.
- Charles J. Faulkner (1806-1884) - Former Congressman and diplomat detained as a prisoner early in the war in a well-publicized incident.
- Edwin Gray Lee - Confederate General, born in Shepherdstown, WV.
- Romney, West Virginia during the American Civil War
- West Virginia Civil War Union units
- West Virginia Civil War Confederate Units
- White Top
- ^ http://www.wvculture.org/history/statehood/statehood07.html
- ^ F. Talbott, "Some Legislative and Legal Aspects of the Negro Question in West Virginia during the Civil War and Reconstruction," West Virginia History, Jan 1963, Vol. 24 Issue 2, pp 110-133
- ^ Hardway, Ronald V., "On Our Own Soil. William Lowther Jackson and the Civil War in West Virginia's Mountains". Quarrier Press, 2003, pgs. 39-40
- ^ James Carter Linger, "Confederate Military Units from West Virginia", 2002 ed., pg. 20.
- ^ Kenneth W. Noe, "Exterminating Savages" essay in "The Civil War in Appalachia", Univ. of Tennessee Press, 1997, pg. 115
- ^ Noe, pg. 116
- ^ Richard O. Curry and F. Gerald Ham, "The Bushwhacker's War: Insurgency and Counter-Insurgency in West Virginia", Civil War History, December 1964, pgs. 428-29
- ^ Curry & Ham, pgs. 430-33
- ^ Noe, "Exterminating Savages", pg. 120-121
- ^ Curry, Richard O., "A House Divided", Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1964, pgs. 77-78
- ^ Jones, Virgil Carrington "Gray Ghosts and Rebel Raiders", Galahad Books, 1995 ed., pgs. 350-362
- ^ The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, p. 28
- ^ The Civil War Papers of George B. McClellan: Selected Correspondence, pp. 63-4
- ^ McGregor, "The Disruption of Virginia", p. 245, note 2.
- ^ White, Robert, Col. "Confederate Military History, Maryland and West Virginia", part 2, p. 15
- ^ Horn, "The Robert E. Lee Reader", p. 118
- ^ Ayers, Edward L. In the Presence of Mine Enemies, W.W. Norton, 2003, pg. 241
- ^ Nov. 15, 1864, Lt. Col. V.A. Witcher reported to Maj. Gen. J.C. Breckenridge from Logan County Court House that he had 400 new recruits with him, 200 more waiting for him in Wyoming County, as well as 4-5 partially recruited companies. Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, Series 1, Vol. 43, pgs. 651-52.
- ^ Current, Richard N. Lincoln's Loyalists, Oxford Univ. Press, 1994, pgs. 21-22
- ^ Shaffer, John W. Clash of Loyalties, A Border County in the Civil War", West Virginia Univ. Press, 2003, pg. 78
- ^ McGregor, "The Disruption of Virginia", pp. 246-7, note 1. Letter to Governor Pierpoint from Fairmount, March 10, 1862, signed John Coogle, Company I, 18th Regiment. They had elected "a most vile Secessionist as Captain. A majority are rebels and would like nothing better than to hand over the organization to the South."
- ^ Fast, Richard E. & Hu Maxwell The History and Government of West Virginia, Morgantown, 1901, pg. 135
- ^ Herbert, Hilary A. (ed.), Why The Solid South?, Baltimore, 1890, pg. 259
- ^ Rice, Otis K. West Virginia: A History, Lexington, KY, 1985, pg. 125
- ^ Curry, Richard O. A House Divided, Pittsburgh, 1964, pgs. 167-68
- ^ Dickinson, Jack L. Tattered Uniforms and Bright Bayonets: West Virginia's Confederate Soldiers, Huntington, WV, 1995
- ^ Headley, John W. Confederate Operations in Canada and New York, New York, 1906, pg. 471
- ^ Linger, James Carter Confederate Military Units of West Virginia, Tulsa, OK, 2002 revised ed.
- ^ Biennial Report of the Department of Archives and History of the State of West Virginia, Charleston, 1906, pg. 62
- ^ "...it was shown that on April 30. 1865, the State of West Virginia had furnished, of all arms and for different terms of service, 31,884 men, for service in the United States Army. These figures, however, include all re-enlistments of which there were quite a large number. Of these there were two regiments of Veteran Infantry, and one of Cavalry. They were composed of three years men who re-enlisted for the war. In addition to the men composing these regiments, numbers of others re-enlisted, so that it is believed that the actual number of troops from West Virginia in the United States service during the war was about 28,000."Biennial report of the Department of Archives and History of the State of West Virginia, 1911, pg. 206.
- ^ Ambler, Charles H. Disfranchisement in West Virginia, Yale Review, New Haven, 1905, pg. 38.
- ^ Current, Richard Lincoln's Loyalists, Union Soldiers from the Confederacy, New York, 1992, pg. 216
- ^ Reid, Whitelaw Ohio in the War, Vol. II, pg. 3
- ^ see Conclusion: The Civil War in West Virginia
- ^ "Although early estimates noted that Union soldiers from the region outnumbered Confederates by more than three to one, more recent and detailed studies have concluded that there were nearly equal numbers of Union and Confederate soldiers." http://www.wvculture.org/history/civwaran.html
- Ambler, Charles H. Sectionalism in Virginia from 1776 to 1861 (1910)
- Curry, Richard Orr. A House Divided: A Study of Statehood Politics and Copperhead Movement in West Virginia (1964)
- Curry, Richard Orr. "A Reappraisal of Statehood Politics in West Virginia", Journal of Southern History 28 (November 1962): 403-21. in JSTOR
- Curry, Richard Orr. "Crisis Politics in West Virginia, 1861-1870," in Richard O. Curry ed., Radicalism, Racism, and Party Realignment: The Border States During Reconstruction (1969)
- Fredette, Allison. "The View from the Border: West Virginia Republicans and Women's Rights in the Age of Emancipation," West Virginia History, Spring2009, Vol. 3 Issue 1, pp 57-80, 1861-70 era
- Link, William A. "'This Bastard New Virginia': Slavery, West Virginia Exceptionalism, and the Secession Crisis," West Virginia History, Spring 2009, Vol. 3 Issue 1, pp 37-56
- McGregor, James C. The Disruption of Virginia. (1922) full text online
- MacKenzie, Scott A. "The Slaveholders' War: The Secession Crisis in Kanawha County, Western Virginia, 1860-1861," West Virginia History, Spring 2010, Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp 33-57
- Noe, Kenneth W. "Exterminating Savages: The Union Army and Mountain Guerrillas in Southern West Virginia, 1861–1865." In Noe and Shannon H. Wilson, Civil War in Appalachia (1997), pp 104–30.
- Riccards, Michael P. "Lincoln and the Political Question: The Creation of the State of West Virginia" Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 27, 1997 online edition
- Talbott, F. "Some Legislative and Legal Aspects of the Negro Question in West Virginia during the Civil War and Reconstruction," West Virginia History, Jan 1963, Vol. 24 Issue 2, pp 110-133
- Rice, Otis K. West Virginia: A History (1985)
- Stealey, III, John Edmund. "West Virginia's Constitutional Critique of Virginia: The Revolution of 1861-1863," Civil War History, March 2011, Vol. 57 Issue 1, pp 9-47
- Zimring, David R. "'Secession in Favor of the Constitution': How West Virginia Justified Separate Statehood during the Civil War," West Virginia History, Fall 2009, Vol. 3 Issue 2, pp 23–51
- Creation of West Virginia in Encyclopedia Virginia
- National Park Service map of Civil War sites in West Virginia
- George Tyler Moore Center for the Study of the Civil War
- West Virginia in the Civil War web site
- "A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia". West Virginia Division of Culture and History. http://www.wvculture.org/hiStory/statehood/statehoodtoc.html. Retrieved 2010-05-06.
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