Hyderabad State


Hyderabad State
State of Hyderabad
حیدر آباد
Province of the Mughal Empire 1724–1798
Princely state of the British Indian Empire 1798–1947
Independent 1947–1948
State of the Indian Union 1948–1956

1724–1948
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Hyderabad
Language(s) Telugu, Urdu, Persian, Marathi, Kannada
Religion Hinduism and Islam
Government Principality (1724–1948)
Democratic State under the Indian Union (1948–1956)
Nizam
 - 1720–48 Qamaruddin Khan (first)
 - 1911–48 Osman Ali Khan (last)
Prime Minister
 - 1724–1730 Iwaz Khan (first)
 - 1947 – 1948

After annexing with Indian Union 1948–1956

Chief ministers of Hyderabad State M. K. Vellodi 1948–1952 Burgula Ramakrishna Rao 1952–1956

Mir Laiq Ali (last)
History
 - Established 1724
 - Telangana Rebellion 1946
 - Annexed by India September 18, 1948
 - Division November 1, 1956
Currency Hyderabadi rupee
Princely states of India

Individual residencies
Agencies
Lists

Hyderābād state About this sound pronunciation (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు,Urdu: حیدر آباد Haydar Ābād, Marathi: हैदराबाद स्टेट) was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled, from 1724 until 1948, by a hereditary Nizam. The capital city was Hyderabad.

The region became part of the Mughal Empire in the 1680s. When the empire began to weaken in the 18th century, a Mughal official, Asif Jah, defeated a rival Mughal governor to seize control of the empire's southern provinces, declaring himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. The Mughal emperor, under renewed attack from the Marathas, was unable to prevent it.

From 1798 Hyderabad was one of the princely states existing alongside British India. It had ceded to the British the control of its external relations but retained control of its internal affairs.

In 1903 the Berar region of the state was separated and merged into the Central Provinces of British India, to form the Central Provinces and Berar.

In 1947, at the time of the partition of India and the formation of the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, the then Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, decided not to join either new nation. However, the following year, the Government of India incorporated Hyderabad into the Indian Union, using military force, in what was known as Operation Polo, led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

The Nizams patronized Islamic art, culture and literature which became central to Hyderabadi Muslim identity and developed railway network in Hyderabad. Islamic Sharia law was the guiding principle of the Nizams' official machinery.

Contents

During the British Raj

The seniormost (21-gun) salute state during the period of British India, Hyderabad was an 82,000 square mile (212,000 km²) region in the Deccan ruled by the Asif Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and was bestowed the title of His Exalted Highness by the British. The Nizam set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty. He set up schools, colleges, madrasas and a university that imparted education in Urdu. Inspired by the elite and prestigious Indian Civil Service he founded the Hyderabad Civil Service. The pace with which he amassed wealth made him to be one of the world's richest men in the 1930s, (Time cover story Feb. 22, 1937). Carrying a gift, called Nazrana, in accordance with one's net worth while meeting Nizam was a de facto necessity.

Industries in Hyderabad under the Nizams

Various major industries emerged in various parts of the State of Hyderabad before its incorporation into the Union of India, especially during the first half of the twentieth century. However, the Nizams focussed industrial development on the region of Sanathnagar, housing a number of industries there with transportation facilities by both Road and Rail.[1]

Industries in pre-Independence Hyderabad
Company Year
Singareni Collieries 1921
Nizam Sugar Factory 1937
Allwyn Metal Works 1942
Praga Tools 1943
Sirsilk 1946
Hyderabad Asbestos 1947
Karkhana Zinda Tilismat 1906
Charminar Cigarette 1925
Vazir Sultan Tobacco Company 1930
Azam Jahi Mills Warangal 1934

After the Indian Empire (1947–48)

When India and Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the British left the local rulers of the princely states the choice of whether to join one of the new dominions or to remain independent. Both the Nizam and many of his Razakars (nobles), being Muslims, wished Hyderabad to join Pakistan; but this was exceptionally problematical, as the state was entirely surrounded by the new Union of India. The Nizam was persuaded not to accede to Pakistan by the last British Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten. Given the Nizam's determination not to join India, this left Hyderabad as an independent country.

However, although Hyderabad had a Muslim ruling class, its Hindus outnumbered its Muslims by about eight to one.[2] The Nizam was also in a weak position, as his army numbered only 24,000 men, of whom only some 6,000 were fully trained and equipped.[3] Refusing to accept the defiant independence of Hyderabad, the Indian Government prepared to carry out a so-called "Hyderabad Police Action" against the Nizam.

On 24 August 1948, Hyderabad formally asked the Secretary General of the new United Nations Organization for its Security Council, under Article 32 of the United Nations Charter, to consider the "grave dispute, which, unless settled in accordance with international law and justice, is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security." In Hyderabad, this appeal was widely considered foolish and sure to provoke India to take military action before the UN could intervene. However, on 4 September Mir Laiq Ali announced to the Hyderabad Assembly that a delegation was about to leave for Lake Success, headed by Moin Nawaz Jung.[4] The Nizam also appealed to the British Labour Government and to the King for assistance, to fulfil their obligations and promises to Hyderabad by "immediate intervention", but without success. Nevertheless, Hyderabad had the vocal support of Winston Churchill and the British Conservatives.[5]

At 4 a.m. on 13 September 1948, India's Hyderabad Campaign, code-named "Operation Polo" by the Indian Army, was commenced, with Indian troops invading Hyderabad from all points of the compass. At 5 p.m. on 17 September the Nizam surrendered. India then incorporated the state of Hyderabad into the Union of India and ended the rule of the Nizams.[6] The annexation of Hyderabad was generally welcomed by many Hindus in the state, but Muslims emphasized the unlawfulness of the invasion.

Districts of Hyderabad State

Hyderabad state in 1909

Administratively, Hyderabad State was made up of sixteen districts, grouped into four divisions:

After integration into the Indian Union

After the incorporation of Hyderabad State into India, M. K. Vellodi was appointed as Chief Minister of the state on 26 January 1950. He was a Senior Civil servant in the Government of India. After the first State Assembly elections in India, 1952, Dr Burgula Ramakrishna Rao became Chief Minister of Hyderabad State.

In 1956 during the Reorganisation of the Indian States based along linguistic lines, the state of Hyderabad was split up between Andhra Pradesh, Bombay state (later divided into states of Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960 with the original portions of Hyderabad becoming part of the state of Maharashtra) and Karnataka. The last Nizam, Mir Osman Ali Khan, died in 1967.

Hyderabad today

The Hyderabadi Muslim cultural influence left over from the former princely state is very strong in Hyderabad and in the diaspora communities of Hyderabadi Muslims. Now Hyderabad is a multicultured city with people from every region of Country(North, South, East and West of India). Hyderabad is known for its famous historical monuments like Charminar, Makka Masjid, Golconda Fort, Falaknuma Palace, Qutub Shahi Tombs, and Birla Mandir. Hyderabad is famous for its Hyderabadi Biryani, a rice and spice based food item. Presently, Hyderabad is condsidered second IT Sector in South India with having hundreds of IT Companies in its IT Zones HighTech City, Gachibowli and IT PARK.

Urdu (in particular, the unique Dakhani dialect), Telugu, Hindi, and English are the most widely spoken languages in Hyderabad and Andhra Pradesh today.

The political party All India Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, founded by Bahadur Yar Jung, enjoys prominent support amongst Muslims. Also, there is a strong following of other parties, like Congress, TDP (Telugu desam party) with both Hindu and Muslim support, and the TRS party, formed with the intention of separation of the Telangana region (the part of the Nizams' state which was merged with Andhra Pradesh) as a State, Telangana Rashtra Samiti (TRS), Praja Rajyam Party (PRP), a party formed by the Telugu film star Chiranjeeevi, in 2011 PRP merged with INC, Lok Satta, BJP which gained only two seats out of 294 at the 2009 Elections for Andhra Pradesh.

State institutions

Palaces of Hyderabad State era

See also

References

  1. ^ "Kaleidoscopic view of Deccan". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 25 August 2009. http://www.hindu.com/br/2009/08/25/stories/2009082550041600.htm. 
  2. ^ Lucien D. Benichou, From autocracy to integration: political developments in Hyderabad State, 1938-1948 (2000), p. 19
  3. ^ Benichou (2000), p. 229
  4. ^ Benichou (2000), p. 230
  5. ^ Benichou (2000), p. 231
  6. ^ Benichou (2000), p. 232

External links

Coordinates: 17°00′N 78°50′E / 17°N 78.833°E / 17; 78.833


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